Basic Neuroanatomy

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Slides for discussion of Cognitive Neuroscience, 3rd ed. chapter 3

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Basic Neuroanatomy

  1. 1. Basic Neuroanatomy
  2. 2. Chapter 3
  3. 3. The HumanBrain BookRita Cater
  4. 4. MicroanatomyGross AnatomyNeurological Function
  5. 5. Microanatomyand Histology
  6. 6. Brodmann Areascytoarchitectonic map of the brain
  7. 7. Gross Anatomy
  8. 8. Gyri protruding rounded surfaces
  9. 9. Sulcishallow furrows / folds / grooves
  10. 10. Fissures deep furrows / clefts / grooves
  11. 11. Grey Matter forms a cortical sheath around white matter composed of cell bodies of neurons and glia
  12. 12. White Matter composed mostly of glia and myelinated axons
  13. 13. Fiber Tracts bundles of axons
  14. 14. Commissure a cross-hemispheric white matter tract
  15. 15. Cerebral Cortex outermost sheet of neural tissue of the cerebrum “...the bulging wrinkled surface... commonly known as the grey matter...”
  16. 16. Neocortex outer layer of the cerebral cortex 90% of the cerebral cortex
  17. 17. Cortical Layers spatial levels of neuronal organization
  18. 18. Functional Divisionsof the Cerebral Cortex
  19. 19. Cortical Topography
  20. 20. Limbic System cingulate gyrus hypothalamus anterior thalamic nuclei hippocampus amygdala
  21. 21. Limbic System “...participates in emotional processing, learning, and memory.”
  22. 22. Nuclei “...discrete collections of the cell bodies of neurons... ‘islands’ of gray matter...”
  23. 23. Basal Ganglia(Basal Nuclei) putamen caudate nuclei globus pallidus subthalamic nuclei substantia nigra
  24. 24. Basal Ganglia “...help ensure that physical movements are smooth and coordinated.”
  25. 25. Ventricles produce and contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  26. 26. CSF buoyancy, protection and chemical stability
  27. 27. Diencephalon thalamus hypothalamus
  28. 28. Thalamus “gateway to the cortex”
  29. 29. Hypothalamus controls functions necessary for maintenance of homeostasisinvolved in emotional processesand control of the pituitary gland
  30. 30. The Brainstem midbrain pons medulla
  31. 31. Midbrain visuomotor functions visual reflexes auditory relays motor coordination
  32. 32. Medulla monitoring and controlling of breathing, heartbeat and blood pressure controlling vomiting, sneezing, swallowing and coughing
  33. 33. The Cerebellum integrates information about the body and motor commands, ultimately resulting in coordinated movement
  34. 34. The As IfPrincipleRichard Wiseman

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