Basic Chemistry

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Slides for class covering material from chapter 2 of The Living World, 7th edition.

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Basic Chemistry

  1. 1. Chemistry
  2. 2. Chapter 2
  3. 3. Chapter 3
  4. 4. “The beauty of a living thingis not the atoms that go into itbut the way those atomsare put together...” Cosmos: A Personal Voyage
  5. 5. The HuberExperiments,volume 1http://youtu.be/xf5QQ3UADRQ
  6. 6. Atoms
  7. 7. The smallest constituentof matter that haschemical properties.
  8. 8. CosmosPBS, 1980
  9. 9. ProtonsNeutronsElectrons
  10. 10. Isotopes
  11. 11. Isotopes of an element have the samechemical properties but different nuclearproperties.
  12. 12. The neutron number has drastic effectson nuclear properties, but its effect onchemical properties is negligible inmost elements, and still quite small in the caseof the very lightest elements, where it does matterslightly. http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Isotopes
  13. 13. Uranium-235Uranium-238
  14. 14. Electrons arearranged into shells.
  15. 15. Electrons in theoutermost shell determinethe chemical properties ofthe atom. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Electron_shell
  16. 16. Figure 2-7 Essential Cell Biology (© Garland Science 2010)
  17. 17. Ions
  18. 18. Chemical Substances
  19. 19. “...a form of matter that has constantchemical composition and characteristicproperties.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Chemical_substance
  20. 20. ChemicalBonds
  21. 21. Outer-Shell Electrons
  22. 22. The Octet Rule
  23. 23. Na?Cl?H?O?K?O? Mg?Cl? Mg?Br? C?O? C?S? Ca? Cl?
  24. 24. Covalent bond –H – H H2, hydrogen gas Shared electrons
  25. 25. H2O, water
  26. 26. NaClH2OK2O MgCl2 MgBr2 CO2 / CO CS2 CaCl2
  27. 27. IonicBonds
  28. 28. “...formed through anelectrostatic interaction betweentwo oppositely charged ions.” http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Ionic_bond
  29. 29. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_oxide
  30. 30. CovalentBonds
  31. 31. a pair of shared electrons
  32. 32. Molecules
  33. 33. Groups of atomsheld togetherby covalent bonds.
  34. 34. Covalent bond – H H H H – Hydrogen gas (H2) Shared electrons Single H covalent bond H – – – – – –H C H H C H – – – – – H HMethane gas (CH4) Double covalent bond – – – – – – – – O O O – O – – – 61 Oxygen gas (O2) – – – –
  35. 35. Polar Covalent Bonds
  36. 36. Intermolecular Forces
  37. 37. van der Waals forces
  38. 38. Hydrogen Bonds
  39. 39. A hydrogen bond is the attractiveinteraction of a hydrogen atom with anelectronegative atom, such as nitrogen,oxygen or fluorine, that comes fromanother molecule or chemical group. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Hydrogen_bond
  40. 40. Properties of Water
  41. 41. HydrophilicSubstances
  42. 42. ethanol
  43. 43. Cohesion
  44. 44. Adhesion
  45. 45. HydrophobicSubstances
  46. 46. LifeBBC, 2009
  47. 47. Boiling Point
  48. 48. Single H covalent bond – – O – – – –H C H – – – H H – – H Single covalent bonds
  49. 49. Acids and Bases
  50. 50. H2O OH- + H+Water Hydroxide Hydrogen Ion
  51. 51. pH
  52. 52. pH = -log [H+]
  53. 53. Pure Water[H+] = 0.0000001 M = 10 -7 MpH = 7
  54. 54. M = moles / liter1 mole = 6.022 x 1023 atoms or molecules
  55. 55. Black Coffee[H+] = 0.00001 M = 10 -5 MpH = 5
  56. 56. Pure WaterpH = 7Black CoffeepH = 5
  57. 57. Pure Water[H+] = 0.0000001 M = 10 -7 MpH = 7Black Coffee[H+] = 0.00001 M = 10 -5 MpH = 5
  58. 58. Acids
  59. 59. “Any substance thatdissociates in waterto increasethe concentration of H+...”
  60. 60. Do acids raise or lowerthe pH value of a solution?
  61. 61. Aqueous AcidsandAcidic Solutions
  62. 62. pH < 7
  63. 63. Bases
  64. 64. “A substance thatcombines with H+when dissolved in water...”
  65. 65. Do bases raise or lowerthe pH value of a solution?
  66. 66. Aqueous BasesandBasic Solutions
  67. 67. pH > 7
  68. 68. Buffers
  69. 69. a substance thattakes up or releases H+ intosolution as the[H+] of the solution changes
  70. 70. Homeostasis

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