Anatomy of Metaphor

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Anatomy of Metaphor

  1. 1. Anatomy of aMetaphor
  2. 2. What is ametaphor?
  3. 3. Some metaphors in action
  4. 4. The 78 leapt out of theHarvard Station bus tunnel.
  5. 5. How do you thinkthe 78 bus came out?
  6. 6. http://www.flickr.com/photos/gaulke/3788033202/
  7. 7. Hamlet: To be or not to be?Lenka: Be!
  8. 8. “To be, or not to be, that is thequestion: Whether ‘tis nobler in themind to suffer the slings and arrowsof outrageous fortune or take armsagainst a sea of troubles, and byopposing end them?”
  9. 9. “When life tries to knock all the windout of you, you’ve got to roll, roll, rollwith the punches.”
  10. 10. Thinking about one thingin terms of another
  11. 11. destiny as adversaryHamlet: To be or not to be?Lenka: Be! circumstances as opponent
  12. 12. Balaji but seriously, the competition stuff is just...nonsensical at this point. lets have the students build our brand or business plan rather an app.Albert I agree---the brand and business plan are much more valuable at this point! Making an app with a half-baked brand and limited content seems flirting with disaster---or more like coming on really strong to disaster with bad pickup lines, so disaster doesnt even in the end care, and this thing just fizzles.Balaji cant we at least have a one-night stand with disaster?Albert That could be really awesome (therapeutic, among other things), if TEL can do it responsibly and avoid having illegitimate offspring or other long-term problematic consequences...Sandra You 2 are completely ridiculous.
  13. 13. Balaji but seriously, the competition stuff is just...nonsensical at this point. lets have the students build our brand or business plan rather an app.Albert I agree---the brand and business plan are much more valuable at this point! Making an app with a half-baked brand and limited content seems flirting with disaster---or more like disaster as romantic partner? coming on really strong to disaster with bad pickup lines, so disaster doesnt even in the end care, and this thing just fizzles.Balaji cant we at least have a one-night stand with disaster?Albert That could be really awesome (therapeutic, among other things), if TEL can do it responsibly and avoid having illegitimate offspring or other long-term problematic consequences...Sandra You 2 are completely ridiculous.
  14. 14. Personification
  15. 15. Magnetic North: Dear Hip-Hop
  16. 16. Hip-Hop as an old friendChanges in hip-hopas estrangementSong as letter
  17. 17. Thinking about one thingin terms of another
  18. 18. Conceptual Metaphor
  19. 19. Thinking about one conceptwith the structure of another
  20. 20. often unconsciously
  21. 21. Example: She has a warm smile.
  22. 22. Are these wordsgetting through?Do they get themessage across?
  23. 23. Thinking about one conceptwith the structure of another
  24. 24. Target DomainThinking about one conceptwith the structure of another Source Domain
  25. 25. The source domain structuresthe target domain via mappings,correspondence relationships.
  26. 26. mapping mapping mappingSOURCE TARGETDOMAIN DOMAIN
  27. 27. Mac Commercial Mappingspeople → computerscold virus → computer virusbeing sick → computer function compromised
  28. 28. Primary Metaphor
  29. 29. Source Domain: sensorimotor experiencesTarget Domain: subjective experiences
  30. 30. Reasoning about affection in terms warmth(e.g. She has a warm smile)Reasoning about goals as destinations---achieving a goalconceptualized as reaching a destination(e.g. After intense discussion, we arrived at a goodsolution).
  31. 31. Metaphor Shorthand:TARGET DOMAIN IS SOURCE DOMAIN
  32. 32. Reasoning about affection in terms warmth(e.g. She has a warm smile)Reasoning about goals as destinations---achieving a goalconceptualized as reaching a destination(e.g. After intense discussion, we arrived at a goodsolution).
  33. 33. AFFECTION IS WARMTHReasoning about affection in terms warmth(e.g. She has a warm smile) GOALS ARE DESTINATIONSReasoning about goals as destinations---achieving a goalconceptualized as reaching a destination(e.g. After intense discussion, we arrived at a goodsolution).
  34. 34. Prices rose.The car is low on gas.We stocked up on snacksduring the sale at the grocery store.
  35. 35. Prices rose.The car is low on gas.We stocked up on snacksduring the sale at the grocery store.
  36. 36. MOREIS UP
  37. 37. Her anger was building up,and she looked likeshe might blow up at any moment.I was seething with anger.He has an explosive temper.Do you think that dream is anindication of pent-up rage?
  38. 38. Her anger was building up,and she looked likeshe might blow up at any moment.I was seething with anger.He has an explosive temper.Do you think that dream is anindication of pent-up rage?
  39. 39. ANGER IS A(COMBUSTABLE)SUBSTANCE
  40. 40. Complex Metaphor
  41. 41. He’s almost reachedfinancial independencebut is nowhere neargetting married.
  42. 42. He’s almost reachedfinancial independencebut is nowhere neargetting married.
  43. 43. An assembly of multiple primary metaphors(possibly in combination with beliefs and values)to form more sophisticated metaphors used to reasonabout more complex subjective experiences.
  44. 44. A PURPOSEFUL LIFE IS A JOURNEYformed by combining GOALS ARE DESTINATIONSwith ACTIONS ARE MOTIONS and the belief thatpeople should have purposes in lifeand thus should act in ways that achieve those goals.
  45. 45. A PURPOSEFUL LIFE IS A JOURNEYMappings:A PERSON IS A TRAVELERLIFEas graduating from DESTINATIONS(such GOALS ARE college)A LIFE PLAN IS AN ITINERARY
  46. 46. Frames
  47. 47. the structure of concepts
  48. 48. Objects and wordsmight be able toexist in isolationbut concepts cannot.
  49. 49. Example: Chalk
  50. 50. FrameA system of concepts in whichunderstanding one conceptrequires understanding the systemof concepts to which it belongs.
  51. 51. Rolesthe people, objects, places, etc.Relationshow those roles are connectedScenarioa simple story describing interactions among roles
  52. 52. Example: Commercial Transaction
  53. 53. Rolesseller, buyer, goods, paymentRelationsa seller has goods, a buyer wants goods and can givethe seller payment for themScenarioa seller in possession of goods agrees to transferpossession of goods to a buyer in exchange for paymentfurnished by the buyer
  54. 54. Background Framespossession, exchange, agreement
  55. 55. Frames and Metaphors
  56. 56. “He really thinks I should do the study abroad programwith him. He made a strong pitch, and it was kind ofconvincing, but in the end, I just couldn’t buy the wholething of spending an entire school year doing thingsunrelated to my major thousands of miles away.”
  57. 57. “He really thinks I should do the study abroad programwith him. He made a strong pitch, and it was kind ofconvincing, but in the end, I just couldn’t buy the wholething of spending an entire school year doing thingsunrelated to my major thousands of miles away.”
  58. 58. ACCEPTING AN IDEA IS BUYING GOODSgoods → ideasseller → person with an ideapotential buyer → person without the ideapitching → attempting to persuadeScenario: a person with ideas tries to persuadeanother to accept his ideas.
  59. 59. Notice what isn’t mapped.
  60. 60. How did you end up spending the timeyou saved?Use your time wisely.Time management is a crucial skill.Do you have any spare time?Don’t let other people waste your time.
  61. 61. How did you end up spending the timeyou saved?Use your time wisely.Time management is a crucial skill.Do you have any spare time?Don’t let other people waste your time.
  62. 62. TIME IS A RESOURCE
  63. 63. The Resource Frame
  64. 64. Rolesresource, user, purposeRelationsthe purpose is something the user wants to achieve andthus has value to the user; the resource can be used toachieve the purpose and may be limited in quantity.Scenariothe user utilizes the resource to achieve the purpose.
  65. 65. TIME IS A RESOURCEresource → timeuser → person using timepurpose → a goal requiring time to achievevalue of resource → value of timeScenario: a person uses time to achieve a goal
  66. 66. But this isn’t the only wayto think about time.
  67. 67. Meet me at the library at 4pm.I’ll have the documents to youwithin the hour.Five years from now, everything will bedifferent.
  68. 68. Meet me at the library at 4pm.I’ll have the documents to youwithin the hour.Five years from now, everything will bedifferent.
  69. 69. TIME IS SPACE
  70. 70. Abstract nounsare understood withconceptual metaphors
  71. 71. Barry Yourgrau: The Sadness of Sex
  72. 72. Bokura Ga Ita
  73. 73. Metaphors Matter
  74. 74. Understanding freedom, rights,government and more relies uponusing conceptual metaphors.
  75. 75. THE NATION IS A FAMILY
  76. 76. Beyond Metaphors: Blends
  77. 77. Suggested Reading
  78. 78. Metaphors We Live ByGeorge Lakoff and Mark JohnsonThe Political MindGeorge Lakoff and Mark JohnsonPhilosophy in the FleshGeorge LakoffMetaphor: A Practical IntroductionZoltan KövecsesThe Stuff of ThoughtSteven Pinker

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