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  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION1.1 RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION-AN OVERVIEW RFID is only one of numerous technologies grouped under the term AutomaticIdentification (Auto ID), such as bar code, magnetic inks, optical character recognition,voice recognition, touch memory, smart cards, biometrics etc. Auto ID technologies are anew way of controlling information and material flow, especially suitable for largeproduction networks. In RFID systems, an item is tagged with a tiny silicon chip and an antenna; the chipplus antenna together called a ―tag‖ can then be scanned by mobile or stationary readers,using radio waves (the ―RF‖). The chip can be encoded with a unique identifier, allowingtagged items to be individually identified by a reader (the ―ID‖). Thus, for example, in aclothing store, each particular suit jacket, including its style, colour, and size, can beidentified electronically. In a pharmacy, a druggist can fill a prescription from a bottlebearing an RFID-chipped label confirming the authenticity of its contents. On the highway,cars with RFID tags on their windshields can move swiftly through highway tollbooths,saving time and reducing traffic congestion. At home, pets can be implanted with chips sothat lost animals can be identified and returned to their owners more readily. In each case, areader must scan the tag for the data it contains and then send that information to a database,which interprets the data stored on the tag. The tag, reader, and database are the keycomponents of an RFID system. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the use of a wireless non-contact radiosystem to transfer data from a tag attached to an object, for the purposes of automaticidentification and tracking. Some tags require no battery and are powered by the radiowaves used to read them. Others use a local power source. The tag contains electronicallystored information which can be read from up to several metres (yards) away. Unlike a barcode, the tag does not need to be within line of sight of the reader and may be embedded inthe tracked object. 1
  2. 2. 1.2 PRIMARY COMPONENTS OF RFID DEVICES RFID devices have three primary elements: a chip, an antenna, and a reader. Afourth important part of any RFID system is the database where information about taggedobjects is stored.1.2.1 THE CHIP, usually made of silicon, contains information about the item to which itis attached. Chips used by retailers and manufacturers to identify consumer goods maycontain an Electronic Product Code (―EPC‖). The EPC is the RFID equivalent of thefamiliar Universal Product Code (―UPC‖), or bar code, currently imprinted on manyproducts. Bar codes must be optically scanned, and contain only generic productinformation. By contrast, EPC chips are encrypted with a unique product code thatidentifies the individual product to which it is attached, and can be read using radiofrequency. These codes contain the type of data that product manufacturers and retailerswill use to track the authenticity and location of goods throughout the supply chain. An RFID chip may also contain information other than an EPC, such as biometricdata (a digitized image of a fingerprint or photograph, for example). In addition, some chipsmay not be loaded with information uniquely identifying the tagged object at all; so-called―electronic article surveillance systems‖ (―EAS‖) may utilize 3 radio frequencycommunication to combat shoplifting, but not to uniquely identify individual items. Fig 1.1 – key ring tag 2
  3. 3. 1.2.2 THE ANTENNA attached to the chip is responsible for transmitting informationfrom the chip to the reader, using radio waves. Generally, the bigger the antenna, the longerthe read range. The chip and antenna combination is referred to as a transponder or, morecommonly, as a tag. Antennas are available in a variety of shapes and sizes; they can bebuilt into a door frame to receive tag data from persons or things passing through the door,or mounted on an interstate tollbooth to monitor traffic passing by on a freeway. Theelectromagnetic field produced by an antenna can be constantly present when multiple tagsare expected continually. If constant interrogation is not required, a sensor device canactivate the field. Often the antenna is packaged with the transceiver and decoder to become a readerwhich can be configured either as a handheld or a fixed-mount device. The reader emitsradio waves in ranges of anywhere from one inch to 100 feet or more, depending upon itspower output and the radio frequency used. When an RFID tag passes through theelectromagnetic zone, it detects the readers activation signal. The reader decodes the dataencoded in the tags integrated circuit (silicon chip) and the data is passed to the hostcomputer for processing.1.2.3 THE READER, or scanning device, also has its own antenna, which it uses tocommunicate with the tag. Readers vary in size, weight, and power, and may be mobile orstationary. Although anyone with access to the proper reader can scan an RFID tag, RFIDsystems can employ authentication and encryption to prevent unauthorized reading of data.―Reading‖ tags refers to the communication between the tag and reader via radio wavesoperating at a certain frequency. In contrast to bar codes, one of RFID‘s principaldistinctions is tags and readers can communicate with each other without being in eachother‘s line-of-sight. Therefore, a reader can scan a tag without physically ―seeing‖ it.Further, RFID readers can process multiple items at one time, resulting in a much-increased(again as compared to UPC codes) ―speed of read.‖1.2.4 THE DATABASE, or other back-end logistics system, stores information aboutRFID-tagged objects. Access to both a reader and its corresponding database are necessarybefore information stored on an RFID tag can be obtained and understood. In order to 3
  4. 4. interpret such data, RFID readers must be able to communicate with a database or othercomputer program.1.2.5 CONTROLLER, The controller is the interface between one or more antenna and thedevice requesting information from or writing information to the RF tags. There arecontrollers for interfacing antenna to PCs servers and networks. The selection of controllerand interface device will affect the antenna‘s transmission speed. Some controllers can beprogrammed to perform data translation and interrogation. This transfers some of dataprocessing load from the devices to the controllers.1.2.6 RADIO FREQUENCY, Communication between RFID tags and readers is alsoaffected by the radio frequency used, which determines the speed of communications aswell as the distance from which tags can be read. Higher frequency typically means longerread range. Low-frequency (―LF‖) tags, which operate at less than 135 kilohertz (KHz), arethus appropriate for short-range uses, like animal identification and anti-theft systems, suchas RFID-embedded automobile keys. Systems that operate at 13.56 megahertz (MHz) arecharacterized as high frequency (―HF‖). Both low-frequency and high-frequency tags canbe passive. Scanners can read multiple HF tags at once and at a faster rate than LF tags. Akey use of HF tags is in contactless ―smart cards,‖ such as mass transit cards or building-access badges. The third frequency, Ultra-High Frequency (―UHF‖), is contemplated for widespreaduse by some major retailers, who are working with their suppliers to apply UHF tags tocases and pallets of goods. These tags, which operate at around 900 MHz, can be read atlonger distances, which outside the laboratory environment range between three andpossibly fifteen feet. However, UHF tags are more sensitive to environmental factors likewater, which absorb the tag‘s energy and thus block its ability to communicate with areader. 4
  5. 5. Table 1- different frequency bands Frequency Typical RFID Characteristics Typical band frequencies Applications low 125 – 134 kHz Short to medium read Access control 30 – 300 KHz range Animal Inexpensive identification Low reading speed Inventory control Car immobilizer intermediate 13.56 MHz Short to medium read Access control 3 – 30 MHz range Smarts cards Potentially inexpensive Medium reading speed high 433 MHz / 2.45 Long read range Railroad car 300MHz -3GHz GHz Expensive monitoring Line of sight required Toll collection High reading speed systems Although all RFID systems have these essential components, other variables affectthe use or set of applications for which a particular tag is appropriate. As discussed furtherbelow, key factors include whether the tag used is ―active‖ or ―passive‖; what radiofrequency is used; the size of the antennas attached to the chip and to the reader; what andhow much information can be stored on a tag; and whether the tag is ―read/write‖ or ―read-only.‖ These factors affect the read ranges of the systems as well as the kind of object thatcan usefully be tagged. They also impact the cost, which is an especially importantcommercial consideration when tagging a large volume of items. 5
  6. 6. Fig 1.2 – radio wave frequency spectrum There are three types of RFID tags, differentiated by how they communicate and how that communication is initiated: Passive tags have no onboard power source – meaning no battery – and do not initiate communication. A reader must first query a passive tag, sending electromagnetic waves that form a magnetic field when they ―couple‖ with the antenna on the RFID tag. Consistent with any applicable authorization, authentication, and encryption, the tag will then respond to the reader, sending via radio waves the data stored on it. Currently, depending on the size of the antenna and the frequency, passive tags can be read, at least theoretically, from up to thirty feet away. However, real-world environmental factors, such as wind and interference from substances like water or metal, can reduce the actual read range for passive tags to ten feet or less. Passive tags are already used for a wide array of applications, including building-access cards, mass transit tickets, and, increasingly, tracking consumer products through the supply chain. 6
  7. 7.  Semi-passive tags, like passive tags, do not initiate communication with readers, but they do have batteries. This onboard power is used to operate the circuitry on the chip, storing information such as ambient temperature. Semi-passive tags can be combined, for example, with sensors to create ―smart dust‖ – tiny wireless sensors that can monitor environmental factors. A grocery chain might use smart dust to track energy use, or a vineyard to measure incremental weather changes that could critically affect grapes. Active tags can initiate communication and typically have onboard power. They can communicate the longest distances – 100 or more feet. A familiar application of active tags is for automatic toll payment systems. 7
  8. 8. Table 2- passive tag V/s active tag PASSIVE RFID ACTIVE RFIDPOWER SOURCE External(reader provided) Internal (battery)TAG READABILITY Only within the area covered Can provide signals over an by the reader, typically up to extended range, typically up 3 meters. to 100 meters.. ENERGIZATION A passive tag is energized An active tag is always only when there is a reader energized. present. MAGNETIC High, since the tag draws Low, since the tag emitsFIELD STRENGTH power from the signals using internal battery electromagnetic field source. provided by the reader. SHELF LIFE Very high, ideally does not Limited to about 5 years, the expire over a life time. life of a battery. DATA STORAGE Limited data storage, Can store larger amounts of typically 128 bytes. data. COST Cheap Expensive SIZE Smaller Slightly bulky(due to battery) 8
  9. 9. The tag type used depends on many factors: • Distance between the tag and reader. • Speed at which tags will pass the reader. • Environmental obstructions between the tag and reader. These factors define the requirements of the RFID system and hence the cost of implementation and on-going support. The data storage component of a tag typically supports one of the following read- write capabilities; read-only, write once, or full read-write. Read-only tags are loaded with data once, typically in the manufacturing process of the RFID. In addition, this type of tag enables multiple read operations. Write-once-read-many (WORM) chips enable the user to customize the chip with information. Data can be loaded with a special write unit in the field that enables an entire box of chips to be coded with the same data. These, however, are a one-time write operation that requires a special RFID writing device. Read-write tags allow repeated write and read operations to the tag. These are the most expensive type of tags, but are also the most versatile. . 9
  10. 10. CHAPTER 2 – HISTORY OF RFID It is generally said that the roots of radio frequency identification technology can betraced back to World War II. The Germans, Japanese, Americans and British were all usingradar—which had been discovered in 1935 by Scottish physicist Sir Robert AlexanderWatson-Watt—to warn of approaching planes while they were still miles away. Theproblem was there was no way to identify which planes belonged to the enemy and whichwere a country‘s own pilots returning from a mission. The Germans discovered that if pilotsrolled their planes as they returned to base, it would change the radio signal reflected back.This crude method alerted the radar crew on the ground that these were German planes andnot allied aircraft (this is, essentially, the first passive RFID system). An early published work exploring RFID is the landmark paper by HarryStockman, ―Communication by Means of Reflected Power‖. Stockman stated then that―Evidently, considerable research and development work has to be done before the remain-ing basic problems in reflected-power communication are solved, and before the field ofuseful applications is explored.‖ Under Watson-Watt, who headed a secret project, the British developed the firstactive identify, friend or foe (IFF) system. They put a transmitter on each British plane.When it received signals from radar stations on the ground, it began broadcasting a signalback that identified the aircraft as friendly. RFID works on this same basic concept. Asignal is sent to a transponder, which wakes up and either reflects back a signal (passivesystem) or broadcasts a signal (active system). The 1960s were the prelude to the RFID explosion of the 1970s. R.F. Harringtonstudied the electromagnetic theory related to RFID in his papers including ―Theory ofLoaded Scatterers‖ in 1964. Inventors were busy with RFID-related inventions such asRobert Richardson‘s ―Remotely activated radio frequency powered devices,‖ and J. H.Vogelman‘s ―Passive data transmission techniques utilizing radar echoes.‖ Commercialactivities were beginning in the 1960s. Sensormatic and Checkpoint were founded in thelate 1960s. These companies, with others such as Knogo, developed electronic articlesurveillance (EAS) equipment to counter the theft of merchandise. These types of systemsare often use 1-b tags; only the presence or absence of a tag could be detected, but the tags 10
  11. 11. could be made inexpensively and provided effective antitheft measures. These types ofsystems used either microwave (generation of harmonics using a semiconductor) orinductive (resonant circuits) technology. EAS is arguably the first and most widespreadcommercial use of RFID. Tags containing multiple bits were generally experimental innature and were built with discrete components. While single-bit EAS tags were small,multi bit tags were the size of a loaf of bread, constrained in size by the dictates of thecircuitry. A decade of further development of RFID theory and applications followed,including the use of RFID by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for tracking the movementof cows. In the 1970‘s the very first commercial applications of the technology weredeployed, and in the 1980‘s commercial exploitation of RFID technology started toincrease, led initially by small companies. In the 1970s developers, inventors, companies, academic institutions, andgovernment laboratories were actively working on RFID, and notable advances were beingrealized at research laboratories and academic institutions such as Los Alamos ScientificLaboratory, North-western University, and the Microwave Institute Foundation in Sweden.An early and important development was the Los Alamos work that was presented byAlfred Koelle, Steven Depp, and Robert Freyman, ―Short-Range Radio- Telemetry forElectronic Identification Using Modulated Backscatter,‖ in 1975. This developmentsignalled the beginning of practical, completely passive tags with an operational range oftens of meters. Large companies were also developing RFID technology, such asRaytheon‘s Raytag in 1973 and Richard Klensch of RCA developing an electronicidentification system in 1975. Research efforts continued as well. R.J. King authored a bookabout microwave homodyne techniques in 1978. This book is an early compendium oftheory and practice used in backscatter RFID systems. Tag technology had improved with reductions in size and improvements infunctionality. The key to these advancements was the use of low-voltage, low power CMOSlogic circuits. Tag memory utilized switches or wire bonds and had improved with use offusible link diode arrays by the end of the decade. The 1980s became the decade for fullimplementation of RFID technology, though interests developed somewhat differently invarious parts of the world. 11
  12. 12. The 1990s were a significant decade for RFID since it saw the wide scaledeployment of electronic toll collection in the United States and the installation of over 3million RFID tags on rail cars in North America. Important deployments included severalinnovations in electronic tolling. The world‘s first open highway electronic tolling systemopened in Oklahoma in 1991, where vehicles could pass toll collection points at highwayspeeds, unimpeded by a toll plaza or barriers and with video cameras for enforcement. Thefirst combined toll collection and traffic management system was installed in the Houstonarea by the Harris County Toll Road Authority in 1992. In the 1990‘s, RFID became much more widely deployed. However, thesedeployments were in vertical application areas, which resulted in a number of differentproprietary systems being developed by the different RFID solutions providers. Each ofthese systems had slightly different characteristics (primarily relating to price andperformance) that made them suitable for different types of application. However, thedifferent systems were incompatible with each other – e.g. tags from one vendor would notwork with readers from another. This significantly limited adoption beyond the nichevertical application areas – the interoperability needed for more widespread adoption couldnot be achieved without a single standard interoperable specification for the operation ofRFID systems. Such standardisation was also needed to drive down costs. The drive towards standardisation started in the late 1990‘s.There were a number ofstandardisation efforts, but the two successful projects were:➜ The ISO 18000 series of standards that essentially specify how an RFID system shouldcommunicate information between readers and tags➜ the Auto-ID Centre specifications on all aspects of operation of an RFID asset trackingsystem, which has subsequently been passed onto EAN.UCC (the custodians of thecommon barcode) for international standardisation The pace of developments in RFID continues to accelerate. The future looks verypromising for this technology. The full potential also requires advancements in other areasas well such as development of applications software; careful development of privacypolicies and consideration of other legal aspects; development of supporting infrastructureto design, install, and maintain RFID systems; and other such activities now that RFID hastruly entered the mainstream. At first glance, the concept of RFID and its application seems 12
  13. 13. simple and straightforward. But in reality, the contrary is true. RFID is a technology thatspans systems engineering, software development, circuit theory, antenna theory, radiopropagation, microwave techniques, receiver design, integrated circuit design, encryption,materials technology, mechanical design, and network engineering, to mention a few.Increasing numbers of engineers are involved in the development and application of RFID,and this trend will likely continue. At present, the shortage of technical and business peopletrained in RFID is hampering the growth of the industry. Fig 2.1 – history timeline of RFID 13
  14. 14. CHAPTER 3-RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION- HOW IT WORKS RFID relies on radio frequency communication. The RFID reader emits energy, inthe form of a radio wave at a particular frequency, which is used to power and tocommunicate with the RFID tags. As the radio waves propagate through the environment,their energy gradually dissipates – so a tag that is beyond a certain distance from the RFIDreader will not be able to pick up enough signal to operate reliably. In other words, themaximum operating distance between the RFID reader and a tag (also known as the range)is limited. The exact range depends on a great many factors, including the radio frequencybeing used for communication, the power emitted by the RFID reader, sources of radiointerference and objects in the environment that are likely to reflect or absorb radio waves.A typical range for a passive RFID system will be anywhere between a few centimetres anda few metres. If a battery is incorporated into the tag, the range is increased dramatically, tomany tens of metres or more. Since the communication mechanism is based on radio wave propagation, a direct‗line of sight‘ between the reader and the tag is not required. (Contrast this with barcodesystems where the reader must be able to ‗see‘ the barcode label.) This means that taggedobjects may be identified even if the tag or even the entire object is not in direct view of thereader – for example they may be inside packaging or hidden behind other objects. Also,most modern RFID systems can identify multiple tags in very quick succession (from tensto hundreds per second). This means that many tagged objects can be read in effect‗simultaneously‘ as they pass by an RFID reader, something that is not easily achievablewith other technologies such as barcodes. Although the relative orientation of the tag andthe reader does alter the operating range to some extent, it is often possible to set up anRFID system so that this effect is not important – in other words, tagged objects may passby a reader with little constraint on their orientation or alignment, another big advantageover many other identification technologies A variety of radio frequencies and techniques are used in RFID systems. RFID isgenerally characterized by use of simple devices on one end of the link and more complexdevices on the other end of the link. The simple devices (often called tags or transponders) 14
  15. 15. are small and inexpensive, can be deployed economically in very large numbers, areattached to the objects to be managed, and operate automatically. The more complexdevices (often called readers, interrogators, beacons) are more capable and are usuallyconnected to a host computer or network. Radio frequencies from 100 kHz to 10 GHz havebeen used. The RFID tag includes a small RF transmitter and receiver. RFID tags contain atleast two parts: an integrated circuit for storing and processing information, modulating anddemodulating a radio-frequency (RF) signal, collecting DC power from the incident readersignal, and other specialized functions; and an antenna for receiving and transmitting thesignal. The tags are usually built using CMOS circuitry while other technologies can beused such as surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices or tuned resonators. Tags can send datato the reader by changing the loading of the tag antenna in a coded manner or by generating,modulating, and transmitting a radio signal. A variety of modulation and coding techniqueshave been used. 15
  16. 16. Fig 3.1- sequence of communication in RFID system An Electronic Product Code (EPC) is one common type of data stored in a tag (TheElectronic Product Code (EPC) is designed as a universal identifier that provides a uniqueidentity for every physical object anywhere in the world, for all time). When written into thetag by an RFID printer, the tag contains a 96-bit string of data. The first eight bits are aheader which identifies the version of the protocol. The next 28 bits identify theorganization that manages the data for this tag; the organization number is assigned by theEPC Global consortium. The next 24 bits are an object class, identifying the kind ofproduct; the last 36 bits are a unique serial number for a particular tag. These last two fieldsare set by the organization that issued the tag. Rather like a URL, the total electronicproduct code number can be used as a key into a global database to uniquely identify aparticular product. 16
  17. 17. A typical RFID system can use the principle of modulated backscatter. This is thesame technique used in radar technology. The term backscatter refers to the portion of thetransmitted signal that is reflected back 180 degrees opposite the direction of the incidentsignal, as opposed to random scattering that is lost in the space. In this type of RFIDsystem, to transfer data from the tag to the reader, the reader sends an unmodulated signal tothe tag. The tag reads its internal memory of stored data and changes the loading on the tagantenna in a coded manner corresponding to the stored data. The signal reflected from thetag is thus modulated with this coded information. This modulated signal is received by thereader, demodulated using a homodyne receiver, and decoded and output as digitalinformation that contains the data stored in the tag. To send data from the reader to the tag,the reader amplitude modulates its transmitted radio signal. This modulated signal isreceived by the tag and detected with a diode. The data can be used to control operation ofthe tag, or the tag can store the data. A simple diode detector allows the detection circuitryin the tag to be simple and consume little power. Fig 3.2 - Functional blocks for reading data from a backscatter RFID tag.The reader is on the left, and the tag is on the right. 17
  18. 18. Fig 3.3- modulated wave The above diagram provides a simplified modulated carrier signals from the RFIDtag. A 1 is represented with high carrier level, and a 0 is represented by a low carrier level(tag coil shunted). The reader demodulates the signals to recover the data. 18
  19. 19. CHAPTER - 4 APPLICATION OF RFID4.1 RFID AND COMMERCE4.1.1 PAYMENT BY MOBILE PHONES - Since summer 2009, two credit cardcompanies have been working with Dallas, Texas-based Device Fidelity to developspecialized microSD cards. When inserted into a mobile phone, the microSD card can beboth a passive tag and an RFID reader. After inserting the microSD, a users phone can belinked to bank accounts and used in mobile payment. Dairy Queen in conjunction with Vivotech has also begun using RFIDs on mobilephones as part of their new loyalty and rewards program. Patrons can ask to receive anRFID tag to place on their phone. After activation, the phone can receive promotions andcoupons, which can be read by ViVOtechs specialized NFC devices. Similarly, 7-Eleven has been working alongside MasterCard to promote a newtouch-free payment system. Those joining the trial are given a complimentary Nokia 3220cell phone – after activation, it can be used as an RFID-capable MasterCard credit card atany of 7-Elevens worldwide chains. Nokias 2008 device, the 6212, has RFID capabilities also. Credit card informationcan be stored, and bank accounts can be directly accessed using the enabled handset. Thephone, if used as a vector for mobile payment, has added security in that users would berequired to enter a pass code or PIN before payment is authorized.4.1.2 ASSETS MANAGEMENT - RFID combined with mobile computing and Webtechnologies provide a way for organizations to identify and manage their assets. It wasinitially introduced to major retail by Craig Patterson, Knoxville, TN. Mobile computers,with integrated RFID readers, can now deliver a complete set of tools that eliminatepaperwork, give proof of identification and attendance. This approach eliminates manualdata entry. 19
  20. 20. Web based management tools allow organizations to monitor their assets and makemanagement decisions from anywhere in the world. Web based applications now mean thatthird parties, such as manufacturers and contractors can be granted access to update assetdata, including for example, inspection history and transfer documentation online ensuringthat the end user always has accurate, real-time data. Organizations are already using RFIDtags combined with a mobile asset management solution to record and monitor the locationof their assets, their current status, and whether they have been maintained. RFID is being adopted for item-level retail uses. Aside from efficiency and productavailability gains, the system offers a superior form of electronic article surveillance (EAS),and a superior self checkout process for consumers. The first commercial, public item-levelRFID retail system installation is believed to be in May 2005 by Freedom Shopping, Inc. inNorth Carolina, USA.2009 witnessed the beginning of wide-scale asset tracking withpassive RFID. Wells Fargo and Bank of America made announcements that they wouldtrack every item in their data centers using passive RFID. Most of the leading banks havesince followed suit. The Financial Services Technology Consortium (FSTC) set a technicalstandard for tagging IT assets and other industries have used that standard as a guideline.For instance the US State Department is now tagging IT assets with passive RFID using theISO/IEC 18000-6 standard.4.1.3 INVENTORY SYSTEMS - An advanced automatic identification technology basedon RFID technology has significant value for inventory systems. The system can provideaccurate knowledge of the current inventory. In an academic study performed at Wal-Mart,RFID reduced Out-of-Stocks by 30 percent for products selling between 0.1 and 15 units aday. Other benefits of using RFID include the reduction of labor costs, the simplification ofbusiness processes, and the reduction of inventory inaccuracies. In 2004, Boeing integrated the use of RFID technology to help reduce maintenanceand inventory costs on the Boeing 787 Dream liner. With the high costs of aircraft parts,RFID technology allowed Boeing to keep track of inventory despite the unique sizes, shapesand environmental concerns. During the first six months after integration, the company wasable to save $29,000 in labour. In 2007, Recall Corporation integrated the use of RFID tohelp organizations track and audit their records, to support compliance with regulationssuch as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and HIPAA. 20
  21. 21. 4.1.4 PRODUCT TRACKING - RFID use in product tracking applications begins withplant-based production processes, and then extends into post-sales configurationmanagement policies for large buyers. In 2005, the Wynn Casino, Las Vegas, began placing individual RFID tags on highvalue chips. These tags allowed casinos the ability to detect counterfeit chips, track bettinghabits of individual players, speed up chip tallies, and determine counting mistakes ofdealers. In 2010, the Bellagio casino was robbed of $1.5 million in chips. The RFID tags ofthese chips were immediately invalidated, thus making the cash value of these chips $0. RFID can also be used for supply chain management in the fashion industry. TheRFID label is attached at the garment at production, can be read/traced throughout the entiresupply chain and is removed at the point of sale (POS).4.1.5 ACCESS CONTROL - High-frequency tags are widely used in identification badges,replacing earlier magnetic stripe cards. These badges need only be held within a certaindistance of the reader to authenticate the holder. The American Express Blue credit cardnow includes a High FID tag. In Feb 2008, Emirates Airline started a trial of RFID baggagetracing at London and Dubai airports4.1.6 PROMOTION TRACKING - To prevent retailers diverting products, manufacturersare exploring the use of RFID tags on promoted merchandise so that they can track exactlywhich product has sold through the supply chain at fully discounted prices.4.1.7 ADVERTISING - When customers enter a dressing room, the mirror reflects theirimage and also images of the apparel item being worn by celebrities on an interactivedisplay. A webcam also projects an image of the consumer wearing the item on the websitefor everyone to see. This creates an interaction between the consumers inside the store andtheir social network outside the store. The technology in this system is an RFID interrogatorantenna in the dressing room and Electronic Product Code RFID tags on the apparel item. 21
  22. 22. 4.2 RFID AND HEALTHCARE RFID has made its way into almost all the day to day operations of a Healthcare facility.4.2.1 PATIENT TRACKING - RFID is being used to track and authenticate patients,from new born babies to seniors suffering from dementia and everything in between. Thetechnologies that are being used for patient tracking include almost all the RFIDtechnologies. LF and HF are used for applications such as bedside care and mother andbaby matching. UHF is being used to monitor patient movement and establish geo-fencingas required. Active technology is a more robust form of movement and motion tracking.4.2.2 MEDICATION AUTHENTICATION AND CONTROL - Bedside care has leapforged the use of bar codes and embraced RFID to ensure the right medication is given tothe right patient. Nursing staff find RFID easier to work with than bar codes and realize theadditional privacy that RFID brings to the process. For example, when the nurse is awayfrom the computer on wheels (COW) administering medication to a patient the computercan be programmed to go into screen save mode thus maintaining patient informationconfidentiality. Bedside care RFID typically employs contact like HF technology. Nurses ormeds administrators can be virtually tethered to the COW using UHF technology.4.2.3 WAIT TIME MONITORING - RFID technology is being deployed to monitorpatient wait times in real time. Reusable active technology let‘s an ER see exactly thenumber of patients in the queue and length of wait time by patient.4.3 RFID AND AUTOMOTIVE  Microwave RFID tags are used in long range access control for vehicles.  Since the 1990s RFID tags have been used in car keys. Without the correct RFID, the car will not start. 22
  23. 23.  In January 2003, Michelin began testing RFID transponders embedded into tires. After an 18 month testing period, the manufacturer will offer RFID-enabled tires to car makers. Their primary purpose is tire tracking in compliance with the United States Transportation, Recall, Enhancement, Accountability and Documentation Act (TREAD Act).  Starting with the 2004 model year, a Smart Key/Smart Start option became available to the Toyota Prius. Since then, Toyota has been introducing the feature on various models globally under both the Toyota and Lexus brands, including the Toyota Avalon (2005 model year), Toyota Camry (2007 model year), and the Lexus GS (2006 model year). The key uses an active RFID circuit allowing the car to detect the key approximately 3 feet from the sensor. The driver can open the doors and start the car with the key in a purse or pocket.4.4 RFID IN INVENTORY SYSTEMS  An advanced automatic identification technology such as the Auto-ID system based on the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has two values for inventory systems. First, the visibility provided by this technology allows an accurate knowledge on the inventory level by eliminating the discrepancy between inventory record and physical inventory. Second, the RFID technology can prevent or reduce the sources of errors. Benefits of using RFID include the reduction of labor costs, the simplification of business processes and the reduction of inventory inaccuracies.4.5 IDENTIFICATION USING RFID 4.5.1 ANIMAL IDENTIFICATION - A microchip implant is an identifying integrated circuit placed under the skin of a dog, cat, horse, parrot or other animals. The chips are about the size of a large grain of rice and are based on a passive RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology. Microchips have been particularly 23
  24. 24. useful in the return of lost pets. They can also assist where the ownership of an animal is in dispute. Animal shelters and animal control centers benefit using microchip identification products by more quickly and efficiently returning pets to their owners. When a pet can be quickly matched to its owner, the shelter avoids the expense of housing, feeding, providing medical care, and out placing or euthanizing the pet. Micro chipping is becoming standard at shelters: many require all out placed animals to receive a microchip, and provide the service as part of the adoption package. Animal-control officers are trained and equipped to scan animals. Fig 4.1 – microchip implant in a sheep In addition to shelters and veterinarians, microchips are used by kennels, breeders,brokers, trainers, registries, rescue groups, humane societies, clinics, farms, stables, animalclubs and associations, researchers, and pet stores. There are also microchip relatedappliances such as pet doors which provide programmable controlled access to specificanimals. Several countries require a microchip when importing an animal to prove that theanimal and the vaccination record match. Microchip tagging may also be required for 24
  25. 25. CITES-regulated international trade in certain rare animals: for example, Asian Arowanaare so tagged, in order to ensure that only captive-bred fish are imported.4.5.2 HUMAN IMPLANTS- Implantable RFID chips designed for animal tagging arenow being used in humans. An early experiment with RFID implants was conducted byBritish professor of cybernetics Kevin Warwick, who implanted a chip in his arm in 1998.Night clubs in Barcelona, Spain and in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, use an implantablechip to identify their VIP customers, who in turn use it to pay for drinks.Prisoners to Be Tracked Using RFID In order to ascertain the position of its staff and prisoners ACTs first prison wouldbe RFID equipped which would enable real time tracking of staff and prisoners. Now at thisprison, inmates would be fitted with an anklet or a bracelet having a unique identifier andthe security guard would be wearing pagers emitting a radio signal. This would enable pinpointing of staff and prisoners through triangulation of signals that would be read bynumerous readers. A combination of active and passive tags would be used. This is not onlygoing to reduce the pressure on prison staff engaged in continuo‘s monitoring or watchingCCTVs but also discipline the prison inmates .Certainly it would not only relieve theheadache of the prison authorities but also caution the prisoners that if they entered into anyillegal activity within the prison premises it could land them into soup. 25
  26. 26. (a) Hand with the planned location (b) Just after the operation to insert of the RFID chip Fig 4.2 – microchip implant in a human4.6 RFID AND RAILWAY INDUSTRY Rail Transportation Systems face a complex set of economic and operational challengessuch as competitive freight pricing, maximizing asset utilization, competition with trucking,controlling capital expenditure levels, industry consolidation and worker safety issues.RFID technology applications help the rail transportation industry to improve revenuegrowth by reducing costs through improved efficiencies in operations, maintenance, assetutilization, and capacity management. The RFID systems technology provides exact location and status of any individualrail car this enables timely, accurate and integral information and decision assistance for the 26
  27. 27. management of train transportation and the customer. RFID provides end-to-end Railroad /Transit application management services A RFID Railway system is available in a number of configurations designed toeconomically meet a full range of service requirements. Reader systems provide automatedtracking of railcars via RFID tags, and make railcar location information available torailroads for asset management and other purposes.  Traffic and Passenger Information: The system provides accurate and reliable information about where a train is located. This real-time information is forwarded to IT systems and can be used to update the passenger information displays at stations and terminals.  Operation and Maintenance: Precise information about the configuration of wagons within a train can be provided automatically by the system. This information can be integrated with other systems such as track inspection systems, so that the recorded information can be automatically matched to the actual wagon, thus eliminating errors.  Location of the Train: The System with the help of the reader determines the location of the train by reading the tag identity as the train passes over the tag at speed. This location data is transferred to the onboard system and can be used to update passenger information automatically  Controlling and Positioning of Trains: Some onboard systems require a precise position of the train, for example to control stopping positions. The reader accurately reports the position when the train passes over an ID-tag.4.7 RFID AND OIL / GAS INDUSTRIES The oil and gas sector is under mounting pressure to improve operational andfinancial results, while continuing to meet the expected demand for energy. Use of RFIDhas a proven track record for many other verticals such as retail and access security. The useof RFID in the Oil and Gas industry is showing some significant positive returns. The use of RFID has crept into almost every sector of the oil and gas industry. RFIDis beginning to be used in exploration and production, throughout the crude supply network, 27
  28. 28. through the refining process, and is widely accepted in the transportation and distributionnetwork and is becoming commonplace in the retail side of the business. RFID is being used to ensure that pipe work joints are properly assembled in thecrude supply chain. Although bar code has been and continues to be used for theserequirements, RFID is proving to be a more reliable way of ensuing the right parts andtorque pressures are being used during the assembly process. RFID tags can withstand harshconditions and remain operable long after bar codes would have been washed or wornaway. Refineries are always looking for ways to ensure that their processes meet safety andaudit requirements. RFID can assist refinery operators to identify key inspection points andprovide the audit trail required to meet audit standards. Adherence to inspection protocols ofcritical components such as valves, flanges and pressure settings can be improved usingRFID technology. RFID is being used throughout the distribution network from managing trucks downto the actual shipments. RFID is being used to track the movement of trucks to ensureoptimum utilization of expensive capital and labour. Key assets are being tagged andtracked throughout the entire oil and gas distribution supply chain. RFID is also well suitedfor tagging parts that have to be maintained to predetermined routines. May fleet operatorsare turning to RFID to make sure such repairs and maintenance are done on schedule butonly when required or specified. RFID tagging is also used to monitor cleaning schedules oftankers. The oil and gas sector has a problem common to almost any other business – assettracking. The special challenge is that some assets are hard to tag and even harder to trackbecause of size and geography. Active RFID technology is being used to monitor andmanage inventories and fixed assets in almost any kind of environment. 28
  29. 29. 4.8 LIBRARIES Libraries have used RFID to replace the barcodes on library items. The tag cancontain identifying information or may just be a key into a database. An RFID system mayreplace or supplement bar codes and may offer another method of inventory managementand self-service checkout by patrons. It can also act as a security device, taking the place ofthe more traditional electromagnetic security strip. Fig 4.3 - RFID tags used in libraries: square book tag, round CD/DVD tag and rectangular VHS tag. It is estimated that over 30 million library items worldwide now contain RFID tags,including some in the Vatican Library in Rome. Since RFID tags can be read through anitem, there is no need to open a book cover or DVD case to scan an item, and a stack ofbooks can be read simultaneously. Book tags can be read while books are in motion on aconveyor belt, which reduces staff time. This can all be done by the borrowers themselves,reducing the need for library staff assistance. With portable readers, inventories could bedone on a whole shelf of materials within seconds. 29
  30. 30. However, as of 2008 this technology remains too costly for many smaller libraries,and the conversion period has been estimated at 11 months for an average-size library. A2004 Dutch estimate was that a library which lends 100,000 books per year should plan on acost of €50,000 (borrow- and return-stations: 12,500 each, detection porches 10,000 each;tags 0.36 each). RFID taking a large burden off staff could also mean that fewer staff willbe needed, resulting in some of them getting fired, but that has so far not happened in NorthAmerica where recent surveys have not returned a single library that cut staff because ofadding RFID. In fact, library budgets are being reduced for personnel and increased forinfrastructure, making it necessary for libraries to add automation to compensate for thereduced staff size. Also, the tasks that RFID takes over are largely not the primary tasks oflibrarians. A finding in the Netherlands is that borrowers are pleased with the fact that staffis now more available for answering questions. A concern surrounding RFID in libraries that has received considerable publicity isthe issue of privacy. Because some RFID tags can be read from up to 100 meters (330 ft),there is some concern over whether sensitive information could be collected from anunwilling source. However, library RFID tags do not contain any patron information, andthe tags used in the majority of libraries use a frequency only readable from approximately10 feet (3.0 m).Further, another non-library agency could potentially record the RFID tagsof every person leaving the library without the library administrators knowledge or consent.One simple option is to let the book transmit a code that has meaning only in conjunctionwith the librarys database. Another step further is to give the book a new code every time itis returned. And if in the future readers become ubiquitous (and possibly networked), thenstolen books could be traced even outside the library. Tag removal could be made difficultif the tags are so small that they fit invisibly inside a (random) page, possibly put there bythe publisher.4.9 MUSEUMS RFID technologies are now also implemented in end-user applications in museums.An example was the custom-designed temporary research application, "export," at theExploratorium, a science museum in San Francisco, California. A visitor entering themuseum received an RF Tag that could be carried as a card. The export system enabled the 30
  31. 31. visitor to receive information about specific exhibits. Aside from the exhibit information,the visitor could take photographs of themselves at the exhibit. It was also intended to allowthe visitor to take data for later analysis. The collected information could be retrieved athome from a "personalized" website keyed to the RFID tag.4.10 SCHOOLS AND UNIVERSITIES School authorities in the Japanese city of Osaka are now chipping childrensclothing, back packs, and student IDs in a primary school. A school in Don Caster, Englandis piloting a monitoring system designed to keep tabs on pupils by tracking radio chips intheir uniforms.St Charles Sixth Form College in west London, England, started September,2008, is using an RFID card system to check in and out of the main gate, to both trackattendance and prevent unauthorized entrance. Similarly, Whitcliffe Mount School inCleckheaton, England uses RFID to track pupils and staff in and out of the building via aspecially designed card. In the Philippines, some schools already use RFID in IDs forborrowing books and also gates in those particular schools have RFID ID scanners forbuying items at a school shop and canteen, library and also to sign in and sign out forstudent and teachers attendance.4.11 SPORTS RFID for timing races began in the early 1990s with pigeon racing, introduced bythe company Deister Electronics in Germany. RFID can provide race start and end timingsfor individuals in large races where it is impossible to get accurate stopwatch readings forevery entrant. 31
  32. 32. Fig 4.4 - Champion Chip In the race, the racers wear tags that are read by antennae placed alongside the trackor on mats across the track. UHF tags provide accurate readings with specially designedantennas. Rush error, lap count errors and accidents at start time are avoided since anyonecan start and finish any time without being in a batch mode. Passive and active RFIDsystems are used in off-road events such as Orienteering, Enduro and Hare and Houndsracing. Riders have a transponder on their person, normally on their arm. When theycomplete a lap they swipe or touch the receiver which is connected to a computer and logtheir lap time. RFID is being adapted by many recruitment agencies which have a PET (PhysicalEndurance Test) as their qualifying procedure especially in cases where the candidatevolumes may run into millions (Indian Railway Recruitment Cells, Police and Powersector). A number of ski resorts have adopted RFID tags to provide skiers hands-free accessto ski lifts. Skiers do not have to take their passes out of their pockets. Early on skiers wereforced to use systems that required nearly contact - bending over to touch the turn styles.These systems were based on high frequency (HF) at 13.56 megahertz. While effective attracking the skiers they were difficult to use and expensive to deploy. However the bulk ofski areas in Europe, from Verbier to Chamonix use these systems. 32
  33. 33. 4.12 TELEMETRY Active RFID tags also have the potential to function as low-cost remote sensors thatbroadcast telemetry back to a base station. Applications of algometry data could includesensing of road conditions by implanted beacons, weather reports, and noise levelmonitoring. Passive RFID tags can also report sensor data. For example, the WirelessIdentification and Sensing Platform is a passive tag that reports temperature, accelerationand capacitance to commercial Gen2 RFID readers. It is possible that active or battery assisted passive (BAP) RFID tags, used with or inplace of barcodes, could broadcast a signal to an in-store receiver to determine whether theRFID tag (product) is in the store.4.13 E-PASSPORT Fig 4.5 – electronic passport 33
  34. 34. The first RFID passports ("E-passport") were issued by Malaysia in 1998. Inaddition to information also contained on the visual data page of the passport, Malaysian e-passports record the travel history (time, date, and place) of entries and exits from thecountry. Other countries that insert RFID in passports include Norway (2005),Japan (March1, 2006), most EU countries (around 2006) including Spain, Ireland and the UK, Australia,Hong Kong and the United States (2007), Serbia (July 2008), Republic of Korea (August2008), Taiwan (December 2008), Albania (January 2009), The Philippines (August 2009),Republic of Macedonia (2010). Standards for RFID passports are determined by the International Civil AviationOrganization (ICAO), and are contained in ICAO Document 9303, Part 1, Volumes 1 and 2(6th edition, 2006). ICAO refers to the ISO/IEC 14443 RFID chips in e-passports as"contactless integrated circuits". ICAO standards provide for e-passports to be identifiableby a standard e-passport logo on the front cover. Since 2006, RFID tags included in new US passports will store the sameinformation that is printed within the passport and also include a digital picture of theowner. The US State Department initially stated the chips could only be read from adistance of 10 cm (4 in), but after widespread criticism and a clear demonstration thatspecial equipment can read the test passports from 10 meters (33 ft) away, the passportswere designed to incorporate a thin metal lining to make it more difficult for unauthorizedreaders to "skim" information when the passport is closed. The department will alsoimplement Basic Access Control (BAC), which functions as a Personal IdentificationNumber (PIN) in the form of characters printed on the passport data page. Before apassports tag can be read, this PIN must be entered into an RFID reader. The BAC alsoenables the encryption of any communication between the chip and interrogator. 34
  35. 35. 4.14 OTHER  Sensors such as seismic sensors may be read using RFID transceivers, greatly simplifying remote data collection.  Some smart cards embedded with RFID chips are used as electronic cash, e.g. Smart Trip in Washington, DC, USA, Easy Card in Taiwan, Suica in Japan, T-Money in South Korea, Octopus Card in Hong Kong, and the Netherlands and Oyster Card on the London Underground in the United Kingdom to pay fares in mass transit systems and/or retails. The Chicago Transit Authority recently began using RFID technology in their Chicago Card.  In August 2004, the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction (ODRH) approved a $415,000 contract to evaluate the personnel tracking technology of Alanco Technologies. Inmates will wear wristwatch-sized transmitters that can detect attempted removal and alert prison computers. This project is not the first rollout of tracking chips in US prisons. Facilities in Michigan, California and Illinois already employ the technology.  Automatic timing at mass sports events ―Champion Chip ".  Used as storage for a video game system produced by Mattel, "Hyper scan".  RFID in, designed by Vita Craft, is an automatic cooking device that has three different sized pans, a portable induction heater, and recipe cards. Each pan is embedded with a RFID tag that monitors the food 16 times per second while a MI tag in the handle of the pans transmits signals to the induction heater to adjust the temperature. 35
  36. 36. Fig 4.6 – different application areas of RFID 36
  37. 37. CHAPTER - 5 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF RFID5.1 ADVANTAGES a. No line of sight requirement. b. The tag can stand a harsh environment. c. Long read range. Larger area of coverage. Up to several feet. d. Portable database e. Multiple tag read/write. f. Tracking people, items, and equipment in realtime. Non-line of sight identification of tags g. Unattended operations are possible, minimizing human errors and high cost. h. Ability to identify moving elements that have tags embedded. i. Can be used in diverse environments, including live stock, military, and scientific areas. j. RFID can be used in addition to Bar Code. These two technologies can be complementing each other. k. Automatic integration with back end software solutions provide end to end integration of data in real time. l. Labor reduction m. Enhanced visibility and forecasting n. Improved inventory management. o. Simultaneous automatic reading. 37
  38. 38. 5.2 DISADVANTAGES  Bulkier, due to embedding of electronic components in the tag. However, with advanced techniques, it is possible to reduce the size, and weight of the tags to a large extent.  Prone to physical/electrical damage due to environmental conditions. For example, tags that are subjected to space exploration may encounter extreme temperatures. The tags required to be designed for a given application, and may be costly when designed for use under extreme environmental conditions.  Dead areas and orientation problems - RFID works similar to the way a cell phone or wireless network does. Just like these technologies, there may be certain areas that have weaker signals or interference. In addition, poor read rates are sometimes a problem when the tag is rotated into an orientation that does not align well with the reader. These issues can usually be minimized by properly implementing multiple readers and using tags with multiple axis antennas.  Security concerns - Because RFID is not a line of sight technology like bar coding, new security problems could develop. For example, a competitor could set up a high gain directional antenna to scan tags in trucks going to a warehouse. From the data received, this competitor could determine flow rates of various products. Additionally, when RFID is used for high security operations such as payment methods, fraud is always a possibility.  Ghost tags - In rare cases, if multiple tags are read at the same time the reader will sometimes read a tag that does not exist. Therefore, some type of read verification, such as a CRC, should be implemented in either the tag, the reader or the data read from the tag. 38
  39. 39.  Proximity issues - Tags cannot be read well when placed on metal or liquid objects or when these objects are between the reader and the tag. Nearly any object that is between the reader and the tag reduces the distance the tag can be read from. High cost - Because this technology is new, the components and tags are expensive compared to barcodes. In addition, software and support personnel that are needed to install and operate the RFID reading systems (in a warehouse for example) may be more costly to employ. Unread tags - When reading multiple tags at the same time, it is possible that some tags will not be read and there is no sure method of determining this when the objects are not in sight. This problem does not occur with barcodes, because when the barcode is scanned, it is instantly verified when read by a beep from the scanner and the data can then be entered manually if it does not scan. Vulnerable to damage - Water, static discharge or high power magnetic surges (such as from a close lightning strike) may damage the tags. Global standardization - The frequencies used for RFID in the USA are currently incompatible with those of Europe or Japan. Furthermore, no emerging standard has yet become as universal as the barcode. To address international trade concerns, it is necessary to use a tag that is operational within all of the international frequency domains. Data flooding - Not every successful reading of a tag (observation) represents data useful for the purposes of the business. A large amount of data may be generated that is not useful for managing inventory or other applications. For example, a customer moving a product from one shelf to another, or a pallet load of articles that 39
  40. 40. passes several readers while being moved in a warehouse, are events that do notproduce data that is meaningful to an inventory control system. Event filtering is required to reduce this data inflow to a meaningfuldepiction of moving goods passing a threshold. Various concepts have beendesigned, mainly offered as middleware performing the filtering from noisy andredundant raw data to significant processed data. 40
  41. 41. Chapter - 6 FUTURE OF RFID Almost everything that you buy from retailers has a UPC bar code printed on it.These bar codes help manufacturers and retailers keep track of inventory. They also givevaluable information about the quantity of products being bought and, to some extent, theconsumers buying them. These codes serve as product fingerprints made of machine-readable parallel bars that store binary code. Created in the early 1970s to speed up the check out process, bar codes have a fewdisadvantages:In order to keep up with inventories, companies must scan each bar code on every box of aparticular product.Going through the checkout line involves the same process of scanning each bar code oneach item.Bar code is a read-only technology, meaning that it cannot send out any information. RFID tags are an improvement over bar codes because the tags have read and writecapabilities. Data stored on RFID tags can be changed, updated and locked. Some storesthat have begun using RFID tags have found that the technology offers a better way to trackmerchandise for stocking and marketing purposes. Through RFID tags, stores can see howquickly the products leave the shelves and which shoppers are buying them. RFID tags wont entirely replace bar codes in the near future -- far too many retailoutlets currently use UPC scanners in billions of transactions every year. But as time goeson well definitely see more products tagged with RFIDs and an increased focus onseamless wireless transactions like that rosy instant checkout picture painted in theintroduction. In fact, the world is already moving toward using RFID technology inpayments through special credit cards and smart phones. In addition to retail merchandise, RFID tags have also been added to transportationdevices like highway toll pass cards and subway passes. Because of their ability to storedata so efficiently, RFID tags can tabulate the cost of tolls and fares and deduct the cost 41
  42. 42. electronically from the amount of money that the user places on the card. Rather thanwaiting to pay a toll at a tollbooth or shelling out coins at a token counter, passengers useRFID chip-embedded passes like debit cards. Radio frequency identification (RFID), the technology of the future, has longestablished itself in our everyday lives. It is already deployed in various areas ranging fromefficient inventory management and road toll collection through to timing the performanceof individual participants in mass sporting events. Given RFID‘s enormous potential it isonly right that it is on everyone‘s lips. RFID chips combine the physical world of a productwith the virtual world of digital data. The technology meets the needs of companiescooperating in a closely knit value chain. RFID will soon be considered an indispensablepart of the chain. Inefficiencies in the value chain and efforts to shore up internal securityare driving demand for RFID. The retail trade is playing a decisive part in the broad-basedroll-out of RFID projects. RFID represents an all-encompassing structural business conceptthat far transcends simply superseding the bar code. Speed of processing, reading errorfrequency, data protection and privacy issues, progress in standardisation, and investmentcosts are still challenges that will ultimately decide the potential of RFID. RFID projectsfocussed on transparency, reliability or speed of processing are particularly successful.RFID systems will rapidly continue to gain significance. This holds especially in areaswhere they can be used to manage processes within the value chain. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology builds a bridge between thephysical world of a product and the virtual world of digital data.1 the technology thus meetsthe demands of companies cooperating in a closely knit value chain and is being deployedpromisingly in all sectors of the economy. Elgar Fleisch in Zurich already has visions ofRFID emerging as ―the internet of things‖. He envisions a future in which objects will growtogether to form a global, omnipresent cognitive and nervous system for the real world.Such grand visions have awakened public interest in RFID. The idea of RFID is, however, not really brand new. Back in the Second World Warthe predecessor of RFID helped the allied forces distinguish between friend and foe whenaircraft and ships approached. RFID is still deployed for military uses today. Beyondmilitary applications RFID is also in broad civilian use. As it is becoming part of everydaylife, the public takes particular notice of the involvement of the retail trade. More and moreproducts are being fitted with RFID tags. 42
  43. 43. 6.1 RFID IN INDIA Department of Information Technology has its focus on the R&D areas of RFID andproviding RFID based techno solutions to the Indian industries. With this objective, theambitious "National RFID Program" project was initiated in April, 2007. The program isbeing implemented jointly by IIT, Kanpur, C-DAC, Noida and SAMEER, Mumbai. Themajor highlights of the project are software/hardware development, middleware integrationand development of end-to-end solutions. Research component is mainly undertaken by IITKanpur, application development including deployment and support is provided by C-DAC,Noida while SAMEER Mumbai is focused primarily on RFID antenna design and other RFrelated issues. C-DAC and IIT, Kanpur will also undertake RFID related manpowerdevelopment programs. Presently, C-DAC, Noida is in the final stages of developing and testing pilot projectof Parcel Tracking System for Department of Posts. The pilot will be implemented at selectSpeed Post Centers in some cities. The software will be later integrated with the existingSpeed-Net software of Department of Posts and the system will be scaled up at other SpeedPost Centers. SAMEER has provided technical support to CDAC in field trials in terms of RFcharacterization/modifications. These include characterization of RFID System, providingtechnical assistance in field trials, designing of Reader Antenna for Gen II Tags, LinearPolarized Planar Antennas and Circular Polarized Antennas and developing RFID SystemUsing Zigbee Modules. SIEMENS is currently developing printable plastic-based RFID chips, calledflexible polymer semiconductors. As an IT service provider, Siemens Information SystemsLimited (SISL) provides support in all stages of RFID deployment, from a single sourcewith certified specialists all over the world.Benefits at a glance Benefit analysis of this innovative technology, particularly for supplier and customer relationships Traceable ROI analysis and maximum transparency of investment costs Quick and comprehensive analysis of all major supply chain processes both internally and with our client‘s business partners 43
  44. 44. A clear idea about the strengths and weaknesses of our clioent‘s logistics processesAn RFID Starter Kit that includes a complete pilot solution at a fixed price to makegetting started easier 44
  45. 45. REFERENCES1. Security and Privacy in RFID Applications by Paweł Rotter 45
  46. 46. APPENDIX-A BARCODE TECHNOLOGY A barcode is a sequence of dark bars on a light background, or the equivalent of thiswith the respect to the light-reflecting properties on the surface. The coding is contains inthe relative widths or spacing of the dark bars and light spaces. Perhaps the most familiarbarcode is the Universal Product Code (UPC) which appears on nearly all of the groceryitems in supermarket today. A barcode scanner is an optical device that reads the code by scanning a focusedbeam of light, generally a laser beam, across the bar code and detecting the variations inreflected light. The scanner converts these light variations into electrical variations that aresubsequently digitized and fed into the decoding unit, which is programmed to convert therelative widths of the digitized dark/ light spacing into numbers and/or letters. The concept of barcode scanning for automatic identification purposes was firstproposed by N.J. Woodland and B. Silver in a patent application field in 1949. The barcodescanners can be classified into two main categories. They are contact readers and noncontact readers. Contact readers: These devices are normally held in the hands. To read abarcode this type of readers must either touch the code or come close to it. Non-contactreaders: These devices need not be close to the barcode to read the code. These scannersuse either a moving beam or a stationary beam, but mostly they have a moving laser lightbeam. These scanners come in both handheld and fixed mount configurations. In barcode scanning, depth of field is the distance along the laser beam, centeredaround the focal point of the scanner, over which the barcode can be successfully scanned.The depth of field of a barcode scanner is established by the beam diameter at the focalpoint of the scanner, the wavelength of the laser light source, and the size of the minimumbar width in the barcode being read. Holographic scanning disks used in barcode scannersare frequently designed to be illuminated with a collimated beam incident normal to thesurface of the holographic disk. How does the barcode scanner read the image? Well, thereis a linear photodiode within the scanner head. This photodiode can read the reflected lightoff the lines on the barcode. This reflection is a digital image that is then scanned 46
  47. 47. electronically within the devise. When the image is scanned electronically, each bar on thebarcode is converted to the corresponding number or letter. Figure 1- Barcode technology Linear bar codes are used in many applications where the use of a simple numeric oralpha-numeric code can provide the key to a database of "products". The most obviouslimitation is the amount of data that can be stored in a linear bar code, though otherproblems can exist with the substrate that the bar code is printed on providing insufficientcontrast or poor ink receptivity which can cause the quality of the bar code to be less thanideal.A.1 ADVANTAGE OF BARCODE TECHNOLOGY 1) Use of barcodes provides a fast, easy and accurate mechanism to enter data into a computer system for data collection or data lookup. 2) Accelerates workflow efficiency and speed ups throughput process 47
  48. 48. 3) Eliminate data entry errors. 4) Achieve data accuracy in backend host application. 5) The barcode scanner interprets a unique identity of every product. 6) The occurrence of errors is almost zero. 7) The process is time and cost-effective. 8) Access to total production costs is possible. 9) There is a huge saving in the terms of labor effort. 10) Established quality standard. 11) Easy to use. 12) Mature and proven technology. 13) Affordable.A.2 DISADVANTAGE OF BARCODE TECHNOLOGY 1) Optical line-of-sight scanning. 2) Limited visibility. 3) Incapable of item level tracking. 4) Labor intensive. 5) Susceptible to environment damage and prone to human error. 48
  49. 49. A.3 RFID TECHNOLOGY VERSUS BARCODE TECHNOLOGY Table A – RFID V/s bar technology Parameter Bar Code RFIDFrequencies used for tag Optical frequencies Radio frequenciesreadingType of communication Line of sight communication Non-line of sight communicationData Volume Physical limitation exists. It is very Can carry relatively large difficult to read a very long barcode. volume of data.Range of data Very limited range, less than a feet or Can be read up to severalreadability two. feet.Cost Cheap Expensive, but likely to cost less as more industries adopt the technology.Physical Size Large SmallLifespan Unlimited Multi-year lifespanCounterfeiting Bar Codes may easily be duplicated Tags are produced with a and attached to products and are, unique identity code (UIC) or therefore, easily counterfeited serial number from the manufacturer. This is embedded digitally on the microchip and may not be changed, therefore, making them extremely resistant to counterfeiting 49
  50. 50. Dynamic Updates Once a Bar Code is printed it remains Tags may be written to and frozen. The Code and the process of offer on board memory to attaching the BC is not supportive of retain information. This real time updates. It is a labor feature may be used to store intensive process to update any a product calibration history, information on a BC once printed. preventive maintenance, etc. Updates may be made within the blink of an eye and automatically without human intervention.Scanning Bar Code must be presented to the Offers a range from inches to scanner in an orientation and distance hundreds of feet and does not that is very limited. Individual require line of sight. This reading requires that each box on a means that individual Tags pallet be opened and the item pulled placed within a carton, for presentation to the scanner. packed in a box and stored on a pallet may be read. You do not have to open each box and present the individual item.Simultaneous Scanning Standards have algorithms to support Limited to one bar code at a simultaneous reading of Tags at one time. Unable to support time. simultaneous reads.Reusable Yes No 50
  51. 51. APPENDIX-B OTHER SCANNING TECHNOLOGIES Besides barcode and RFID technology, there are few of scanner systems which isused in several field.B.1 EBT SCANNING TECHNOLOGY Electron Beam Tomography (EBT) is the only imaging technology approved by theFDA for the early detection of heart disease. It uses a high-speed electron beam to scan the heart, non-invasively, for the presenceof calcium deposits. Calcium is a marker for plaque formation, also called atherosclerosis.By measuring the amount of calcium present in and around your coronary arteries, it canprovide an accurate picture of how much plaque you have accumulated. Thats important,because the more plaque you have, the more likely you are to have a heart attack. EBT captures images at 1/20th of a second – far faster than imaging technologiessuch as CT or MRI. Speed is critically important, because your heart is in constant motion.EBT is the only non-invasive technology thats fast enough to create a clear picture ofwhats happening inside your arteries. 1. EBT is the only scanning technology approved by the FDA to image calcified plaque. 2. Only EBT has the scientific validation of hundreds of research studies at major institutions across the nation. 3. Ultrafast CT may expose you to up to ten times the amount of radiation youd receive from an EBT scan. 4. EBT is highly targeted on the heart tissue. 51
  52. 52. 5. EBT has proven to be extremely accurate. 6. EBT is repeatableB.2 BIOMETRIC SCANNING SYSTEM The main biometrics systems on the market work by scanning an individualsfingerprints, hands, face, iris, retina, voice pattern, signature, or strokes on a keyboard.According to Hogan, finger scanning accounts for 34 percent of biometric system sales,followed by hand scanning with 26 percent, face scanning with 15 percent, voice scanningand eye scanning with 11 percent each, and signature scanning with 3 percent. Retinalscanning—which reads the blood vessels in the back of the eye and requires the user to bewithin six inches of the scanning device—is the most accurate system but also the leastlikely to enjoy widespread use because of peoples natural protectiveness toward their eyes. When you present your fingerprint or iris, the biometric reader creates a digitisedtemplate which will be used to recognize you in the future. The template is stored, either ina central system, or on your card. Biometric scanning is already used in many workplaces,high-tech laptops, and on passports in some European countries. It is also being proposedfor the new Identity Cards which could soon be compulsory in the UK. Biometric scannersare currently used to register asylum seekers and monitor travelers passing through majorairports. One benefit of biometrics is that it relieves people from the burden of rememberingdozens of different passwords to company computer networks, e-mail systems, Web sites,etc. In addition to creating distinct passwords for each system they use or Web site theyvisit, people are expected to change their passwords frequently. Employees who havetrouble remembering their passwords may be more likely to keep a written list in a deskdrawer or posted on a bulletin board, thus creating a security risk. But biometrics offers aneasy solution to this problem. A related problem with passwords is that they do not provide reliable security. Infact, hackers can download password-cracking software for free on the Internet that will testthe most obvious combinations of characters for each user on a system and often find a way 52
  53. 53. in. Electronic retailers have found that their prospective customers are aware of theunreliable nature of password-based security systems. 53
  54. 54. CONCLUSION This report has described the fundamentals of operation of radio frequencyidentification technology and the application areas in which such systems have traditionallybeen used. As the sophistication of the technology increases, and the component costs drop,there will clearly be an increasing number of application areas in which the technology iscost-effective. Additionally, the standardisation of a number of aspects of RFIDimplementation means that systems deployed in different industries and by different compa-nies will be interoperable, which further increases the cost-effectiveness of RFIDdeployment because the same infrastructure can be shared. RFID technology is already replacing bar codes in niche applications. Pundits havehigh hopes for this technology to be a universal replacement for the barcode. Just likephotocopiers that replaced carbon paper, RFID provides greater options and is rich withvalue add possibilities. Since RFID uses digital electronics the cost is dropping dramaticallywhile benefits improve. As a result, RFID is creating new processes, markets andopportunities 54