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HUMAN ACTS

       ACTS OF MAN

CONSTITUENTS OF HUMAN ACTS

  KINDS OF VOLUNTARINESS

DETERMINANTS OF MORALITY

 IMPEDIMENTS TO MORALITY

    NORMS OF MORALITY
MAN AS THE ACTING PERSON
   CONCEPT AND NATURE OF HUMAN ACTS




               ACTUS HUMANI
ACTS THAT PROCEED FROM REASON AND FREE WILL
        RIGHTLY CALLED PERONAL ACTS
ACT OF MAN

              ACTUS HOMINIS




ACTIONS WHICH ARE PERFORMED WITHOUT THE
INTERVENTION OF THE INTELLECT AND THE FREE
                  WILL

     THEY COMPRISE ALL SPONTANEOUS
    BIOLOGICAL AND SENSUAL PROCESSES
CONSTITUENTS OF HUMAN ACTS




                        KNOWLEDGE
The faculty of thought. The intellect discerns in a given object
  both perfection and imperfection, both good and evil, and
therefore presents it to the will as desirable in one respect and
                    undesirable in another
FREEDOM
         the ability to act without
                  restraint.




      In the context of internal control,
freedom is also known as self-determination,
    individual sovereignty, or autonomy.
when an object is proposed, the will, on account of its
 unlimited scope, may love or hate, embrace or reject it.




   Whenever there is deliberation in the understanding,
there is freedom in the will, and the consequent act is free;
vice versa, whenever an act proceeds from the will without
          deliberation, it is not free, but necessary.
FREE WILL
    EVERY VOLUNTARY ACT OF MAN INCLUDES A
    ECESSSARY ELEMENT: THE QUEST FOR GOOD
AND A FREE ELEMENT: THE CHOICE OF THE CONCRETE
      OBJECT IN WHICH THE GOOD IS SOUGHT




IF A MAN IS NOT FREE TO CHOOSE WHAT HE WOULD
LIKE ACCORDING TO HIS INSIGHT AND WILL BUT HAS
 TO ACT AGAINST HIS WILL, HIS ACTION IS NOT FREE
      AND CONSEQUENTLY NOT A HUMAN ACT
KINDS OF VOLUNTARY ACTS




      PERFECTLY VOLUNTARY ACT

IS AN ACT WHICH IS PERFORMED WITH FULL
ATTENTION AND FULL CONSENT OF THE WILL.
IMPERFECTLY VOLUNTARY

IS AN ACT IF ATTENTION OR CONSENT OF THE WILL
       OR BOTH TOGETHER ARE IMPERFECT
DIRECTLY VOLUNTARY

 IF THE ACT IS INTENDED AS AN END IN ITSELF OR
IF IT IS INTENDED AS A MEANS FOR ANOTHER END
INDIRECLTY VOLUNTARY
IF AN ACT IS NOT INTENDED BUT MERELY PERMITTED
 AS THE INEVITABLE RESULT OF AN OBJECT DIRECTLY
                     WILLED.
PRINCIPLES:
         INDIRECTLY WILLED ACT
       PRINCIPLE OF DOUBLE EFFECT




THE MORAL OBJECT MAY NOT BE EVIL IN ITSELF
THE GOOD AND EVIL EFFECT MUST PROCEED AT
  LEAST EQUALLY DIRECTLY FROM THE ACT
THE INTENTION OF THE AGENT MUST BE GOOD
THE AGENT MAY NOT INTEND OR APPROVE OF THE
                EVIL EFFECT
THERE MUST BE A PROPORTIONATELY GRAVE REASON
      IN ORDER TO PERMIT THE EVIL EFFECT.
BRIEFLY
UNDERTAKING AN ACTION FROM WHICH A GOOD AND EVIL EFFECT
              ARE FORESEEN IS PERMISSIBLE :
              IF THE ACTION IN ITSELF IS NOT EVIL,
              IF THE BAD EFFECT IS NOT INTENDED
 IF THERE IS SUFFICIENTLY GRAVE REASON TO PERMIT THE EVIL.
POSITIVELY VOLUNTARY ACT
THE WILL EFFECTS SOMETHING POSITIVELY
BY EXERCISING ACTIVE INFLUENCE ON THE
       CAUSATION OF AN OBJECT




 FOR EXAMPLE, INJURING A NEIGHBOR BY
      SETTING HIS HOUSE ON FIRE
NEGATIVELY VOLUNTARY ACT
  THE WILL EFFECTS SOMETHING NEGATIVELY BY
 VOLUNTARY OMISSION OF AN ACT WHICH COULD
 HAVE AVERTED AN EVIL TO ANOTHER PERSON OR
HELPED HIM TO SECURE A GOOD FOR EXAMPLE, NOT
  TO EXTINGUISH A FIRE ALREADY STARTING IN A
              NEIGHBOR’S HOUSE
DETERMINANTS OF MORALITY
                    THE OBJECT
                    FINIS OPERIS




THE OBJECT OF THE HUMAN ACT IS THAT EFFECT WHICH AN
       ACTION PRIMARILY AND DIRECTLY CAUSES

    THE OBJECT CHOSEN IS A GOOD TOWARD WHICH
        THE WILL DELIBERATELY DIRECTS ITSELF
CIRCUMSTANCES
  THE PARTICULARS OF THE HUMAN ACT WHICH ARE
 NOT NECESSARILY CONNECTED WITH THE HUMAN ACT
   BUT WHICH AFFECT THE MORALITY OF THE ACT




           KINDS OF CIRCUMSTANCES
WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, WITH WHAT MEANS, HOW
CIRCUMSTANCES CAN INFLUENCE THE MORALITY OF AN ACT

                  IN THE POSITIVE SENSE:
A CIRCUMSTANCE CAN MAKE BETTER AN ACT GOOD IN ITS OBJECT
A CIRCUMSTANCE CAN MAKE GOOD AN INDIFFERENT ACT IN ITSELF

                 IN THE NEGATIVE SENSE:
 A CIRCUMSTANCE CAN MAKE WORSE AN ACT EVIL IN ITS OBJECT
 A CRCUMSTANCE CAN MAKE EVIL AN ACT INDIFFERENT IN ITSELF
THE END INTENDED BY THE AGENT




                 FINIS OPERANTIS
THE REASON FOR WHICH THE AGENT UNDERTAKES THE ACT
THE END OR EFFECT INTENDED BY THE AGENT IN AN ACTION
       MAY BE THE SAME AS THE OBJECT OF THE ACTION
IN WHICH CASE, FINIS OPERIS AND FINIS OPERANTIS ARE THE SAME

IN PLACE OF END, THE TERM INTENTION IS ALSO OFTEN USED TO
           NAME THE THIRD SOURCE OF MORALITY

         INTENTION RESIDES IN THE ACTING SUBJECT
IMPEDIMENTS TO MORALITY

     IMPAIRMENTS TO HUMAN FREEDOM ARE REALITIES
         WITH WHICH ETHICS AND JURISPRUDENCE
HAVE TO RECKON CONCERNING THE MORALITY OF THE HUMAN
                         ACT
          IMPAIRMENTS OF REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE:
                       IGNORANCE
                         ERROR
                      INATTENTION

             IMPAIRMENTS TO FREE CONSENT:
                        PASSION
               FEAR AND SOCIAL PRESSURES
                       VIOLENCE
                DISPOSITIONS AND HABITS
IGNORANCE
      Ignorance is lack of knowledge
about a thing in a being capable of knowing.




Ignorance is divided as invincible and vincible.
INVINCIBLE IGNORANCE




THAT IGNORANCE WHICH A MAN IS NOT ABLE TO DISPEL
         BY SUCH REASONABLE DILIGENCE

THIS COMPLETELY TAKES AWAY THE VOLUNTARINESS OF
   THE MALICE AND HENCE ITS RESPONSIBILITY TOO.
VINCIBLE IGNORANCE
         IGNORANCE THAT CAN BE DISPELLED




THIS DOES NOT TAKE AWAY CULPABILITY AS IT IS VOLUNTARY IN
 CAUSE OR IS PROVOKED BY CONSCIOUS NEGLIGENCE OR EVEN
                       BAD WILL
VINCIBLE IGNORANCE GENERALLY
 DIMINISHES VOLUNTARINESS AND RESPONSIBILTY,
 SINCE ACTUAL INSIGHT AT THE TIME OF ACTING IS
                    LACKING




    THREE KINDS OF VINCIBLE IGNORANCE
SUPINE, SIMPLY VINCIBLE, AFFECTED IGNORANCE
PRINCIPLES THAT APPLY TO IGNORANCE AND ITS RESPONSIBILITY:
       INVINCIBLE IGNORANCE PREVENTS THE HUMAN ACT
FROM BEING VOLUNTARY IN REGARD TO THAT WHICH IS NOT KNOWN
                   VINCIBLE IGNORANCE
          DOES NOT TAKE AWAY THE VOLUNTARINESS
                DIMINISHES VOLUNTARINESS,
         AS LONG AS THE IGNORANCE IS NOT AFFECTED
                SIMPLE NEGLIGENCE OR LAZINESS
           DOES NOT USUALLY IMPLY A FULL CONSENT
   TO ALL THE POSSIBLE EVIL CONSEQUENCES WHICH MAY COME
                          THEREFROM
           SUPINE IGNORANCE IN A SERIOUS MATTER
               GENERALLY MAKES THE SIN GRAVE
        AFFECTED IGNORANCE DOES NOT DIMINISH GUILT
    BECAUSE THERE IS FULL CONSENT THERE IS FULL CONSENT
  TO THE SINFUL EFFECTS WHICH RESULT FORM SUCH IGNORANCE
ERROR
        FALSE JUDGMENT OR CONVICTION




       IT ARISES FROM DEFICIENT EDUCATION,
     BAD COMPANY OR MISLEADING INFORMATION
             ONE IS NOT RESPONSIBLE
FOR THE CONSEQUENCES OF ERROR MADE IN GOOD FAITH
INATTENTION
     REFERS TO MOMENTARY DEPRIVATION OF INSIGHT




IF ATTENTION IS COMLETELY LACKING, THERE IS NO HUMAN ACT
           BUT ONE IS RESPONSIBLE TO THE EXTENT
            THAT THE ACT IS VOLUNTARY IN CAUSE
PASSION OR CONCUPISCENCE

A MOVEMENT OF THE SENSITIVE APPETITE WHICH IS MOVED
BY THE GOOD OR EVIL APPREHENDED BY THE IMAGINATION




        MOVEMENT OF THE SENSITIVE APPETITE
     THAT PRECEDES THE FREE DECISION OF THE WILL
DIVISIONS OF PASSIONS
                    CONCUPISCIBLE:
PASSION THROUGH WHICH THE SOUL IS SIMPLY INCLINED TO
SEEK WHAT IS SUITABLE ACCORDING TO THE SENSES, AND TO
              FLY FROM WHAT IS HURTFUL.

                    IRASCIBLE:
WHEREBY AN ANIMAL RESISTS THE ATTACKS OF ANY AGENTS
  THAT HINDER WHAT IS SUITABLE AND INFLICT HARM
          ITS OBJECT IS SOMETHING ARDUOUS,
 BECAUSE ITS TENDENCY IS TO OVERCOME AND RISE ABOVE
                      OBSTACLES.
CONCUPISCIBLE
          SIMPLE INCLINATION WITH RESPECT TO SENSIBLE OBJECT



        ATTRACTION                                REPULSION
      TOWARDS OBJECT                          AWAY FROM OBJECT
       (GOOD OBJECT)                            (EVIL OBJECT)



 LOVE        JOY        DESIRE      HATRED        SADNESS      AVERSION
 GOOD      PRESENT      ABSENT       EVIL         PRESENT       ABSENT
AS SUCH     GOOD         GOOD       AS SUCH         EVIL          EVIL
IRASCIBLE
               INCLINATION IN VIRTUE OF AN ARDUOUS OBJECT



              GOOD                                   EVIL
       DIFFICULT TO ATTAIN                    DIFFICULT TO AVOID



   NO          HOPE       DESPAIR    ANGER       COURAGE        FEAR
PRESENT       ABSENT      ABSENT    PRESENT    THREATENING   THREATENING
  GOOD          BUT    UNATTAINABLE   EVIL         BUT     INCONQUERABLE
DIFFICULT   ATTAINABLE     GOOD                CONQUERABLE       EVIL
TO ATTAIN      GOOD                                EVIL
FEAR:
         IS MENTAL TREPIDATIONDUE TO AN
                 IMPENDING EVIL




   IT IS FEAR OF THE SENSES AND NOT INTELLECTUAL FEAR
               WHICH IS ONE OF THE PASSIONS
INTELLECTUAL FEAR (FOR EXAMPLE THREAT OF TORTURE DOES
              NOT JUSTIFY DENIAL OF FAITH)
 THE EMOTION OF FEAR WHICH COMPLETELY DARKENS THE
 MIND OR PARALYZES THE WILL EXCUSES FROM IMPUTABILITY
VIOLENCE
    COMPULSIVE INFLUENCE BROUGHT TO BEAR UPON ONE
       AGAINST HIS WILL BY SOME EXTRINSIC AGENT.
   VIOLENCE IS CAUSED BY SOME PHYSICAL OR PSYCHIC AGENT




                THERE IS NO IMPUTABILITY,
  EXCEPT INSOFAR AS THE INNER WILL MAY HAVE CONSENTED
        OR EXTERNAL RESISTANCE HAVE FALLEN SHORT
OF THE DEGREE NECESSARY AND POSSIBLE IN THE CIRCUMSTANCE
INTERNAL RESISTANCE IS ALWAYS
               NECESSARY




 WHILE EXTERNAL RESISTANCE MAY NOT ALWAYS BE
 CALLED FOR IT IS REQUIRED ONLY TO THE EXTENT
      THAT IT IS FORESEEN TO BE EFFICACIOUS
IN PREVENTING ACTION OR FORESTALLING SCANDAL
HABITS :
FACILITY AND READINESS OF ACTING IN A CERTAIN
     MANNER ACQUIRED BY REPEATED ACTS
DELIBERATELY ADMITTED HABITS DO NOT LESSEN
VOLUNTARINESS, AND ACTIONS RESULTING THEREFROM
     ARE VOLUNTARY AT LEAST IN THEIR CAUSE
OPPOSED HABITS LESSEN VOLUNTARINESS
    AND SOMETIME PRECLUDE IT COMPLETELY.
THE REASON IS THAT HABIT WEAKENS INTELLECT AND
 WILL IN A CONCRETE SITUATION IN A SIMILAR WAY.

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Man as the Acting Person

  • 1. HUMAN ACTS ACTS OF MAN CONSTITUENTS OF HUMAN ACTS KINDS OF VOLUNTARINESS DETERMINANTS OF MORALITY IMPEDIMENTS TO MORALITY NORMS OF MORALITY
  • 2. MAN AS THE ACTING PERSON CONCEPT AND NATURE OF HUMAN ACTS ACTUS HUMANI ACTS THAT PROCEED FROM REASON AND FREE WILL RIGHTLY CALLED PERONAL ACTS
  • 3. ACT OF MAN ACTUS HOMINIS ACTIONS WHICH ARE PERFORMED WITHOUT THE INTERVENTION OF THE INTELLECT AND THE FREE WILL THEY COMPRISE ALL SPONTANEOUS BIOLOGICAL AND SENSUAL PROCESSES
  • 4. CONSTITUENTS OF HUMAN ACTS KNOWLEDGE The faculty of thought. The intellect discerns in a given object both perfection and imperfection, both good and evil, and therefore presents it to the will as desirable in one respect and undesirable in another
  • 5. FREEDOM the ability to act without restraint. In the context of internal control, freedom is also known as self-determination, individual sovereignty, or autonomy.
  • 6. when an object is proposed, the will, on account of its unlimited scope, may love or hate, embrace or reject it. Whenever there is deliberation in the understanding, there is freedom in the will, and the consequent act is free; vice versa, whenever an act proceeds from the will without deliberation, it is not free, but necessary.
  • 7. FREE WILL EVERY VOLUNTARY ACT OF MAN INCLUDES A ECESSSARY ELEMENT: THE QUEST FOR GOOD AND A FREE ELEMENT: THE CHOICE OF THE CONCRETE OBJECT IN WHICH THE GOOD IS SOUGHT IF A MAN IS NOT FREE TO CHOOSE WHAT HE WOULD LIKE ACCORDING TO HIS INSIGHT AND WILL BUT HAS TO ACT AGAINST HIS WILL, HIS ACTION IS NOT FREE AND CONSEQUENTLY NOT A HUMAN ACT
  • 8. KINDS OF VOLUNTARY ACTS PERFECTLY VOLUNTARY ACT IS AN ACT WHICH IS PERFORMED WITH FULL ATTENTION AND FULL CONSENT OF THE WILL.
  • 9. IMPERFECTLY VOLUNTARY IS AN ACT IF ATTENTION OR CONSENT OF THE WILL OR BOTH TOGETHER ARE IMPERFECT
  • 10. DIRECTLY VOLUNTARY IF THE ACT IS INTENDED AS AN END IN ITSELF OR IF IT IS INTENDED AS A MEANS FOR ANOTHER END
  • 11. INDIRECLTY VOLUNTARY IF AN ACT IS NOT INTENDED BUT MERELY PERMITTED AS THE INEVITABLE RESULT OF AN OBJECT DIRECTLY WILLED.
  • 12. PRINCIPLES: INDIRECTLY WILLED ACT PRINCIPLE OF DOUBLE EFFECT THE MORAL OBJECT MAY NOT BE EVIL IN ITSELF
  • 13. THE GOOD AND EVIL EFFECT MUST PROCEED AT LEAST EQUALLY DIRECTLY FROM THE ACT
  • 14. THE INTENTION OF THE AGENT MUST BE GOOD THE AGENT MAY NOT INTEND OR APPROVE OF THE EVIL EFFECT
  • 15. THERE MUST BE A PROPORTIONATELY GRAVE REASON IN ORDER TO PERMIT THE EVIL EFFECT.
  • 16. BRIEFLY UNDERTAKING AN ACTION FROM WHICH A GOOD AND EVIL EFFECT ARE FORESEEN IS PERMISSIBLE : IF THE ACTION IN ITSELF IS NOT EVIL, IF THE BAD EFFECT IS NOT INTENDED IF THERE IS SUFFICIENTLY GRAVE REASON TO PERMIT THE EVIL.
  • 17. POSITIVELY VOLUNTARY ACT THE WILL EFFECTS SOMETHING POSITIVELY BY EXERCISING ACTIVE INFLUENCE ON THE CAUSATION OF AN OBJECT FOR EXAMPLE, INJURING A NEIGHBOR BY SETTING HIS HOUSE ON FIRE
  • 18. NEGATIVELY VOLUNTARY ACT THE WILL EFFECTS SOMETHING NEGATIVELY BY VOLUNTARY OMISSION OF AN ACT WHICH COULD HAVE AVERTED AN EVIL TO ANOTHER PERSON OR HELPED HIM TO SECURE A GOOD FOR EXAMPLE, NOT TO EXTINGUISH A FIRE ALREADY STARTING IN A NEIGHBOR’S HOUSE
  • 19. DETERMINANTS OF MORALITY THE OBJECT FINIS OPERIS THE OBJECT OF THE HUMAN ACT IS THAT EFFECT WHICH AN ACTION PRIMARILY AND DIRECTLY CAUSES THE OBJECT CHOSEN IS A GOOD TOWARD WHICH THE WILL DELIBERATELY DIRECTS ITSELF
  • 20. CIRCUMSTANCES THE PARTICULARS OF THE HUMAN ACT WHICH ARE NOT NECESSARILY CONNECTED WITH THE HUMAN ACT BUT WHICH AFFECT THE MORALITY OF THE ACT KINDS OF CIRCUMSTANCES WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, WITH WHAT MEANS, HOW
  • 21. CIRCUMSTANCES CAN INFLUENCE THE MORALITY OF AN ACT IN THE POSITIVE SENSE: A CIRCUMSTANCE CAN MAKE BETTER AN ACT GOOD IN ITS OBJECT A CIRCUMSTANCE CAN MAKE GOOD AN INDIFFERENT ACT IN ITSELF IN THE NEGATIVE SENSE: A CIRCUMSTANCE CAN MAKE WORSE AN ACT EVIL IN ITS OBJECT A CRCUMSTANCE CAN MAKE EVIL AN ACT INDIFFERENT IN ITSELF
  • 22. THE END INTENDED BY THE AGENT FINIS OPERANTIS THE REASON FOR WHICH THE AGENT UNDERTAKES THE ACT
  • 23. THE END OR EFFECT INTENDED BY THE AGENT IN AN ACTION MAY BE THE SAME AS THE OBJECT OF THE ACTION IN WHICH CASE, FINIS OPERIS AND FINIS OPERANTIS ARE THE SAME IN PLACE OF END, THE TERM INTENTION IS ALSO OFTEN USED TO NAME THE THIRD SOURCE OF MORALITY INTENTION RESIDES IN THE ACTING SUBJECT
  • 24. IMPEDIMENTS TO MORALITY IMPAIRMENTS TO HUMAN FREEDOM ARE REALITIES WITH WHICH ETHICS AND JURISPRUDENCE HAVE TO RECKON CONCERNING THE MORALITY OF THE HUMAN ACT IMPAIRMENTS OF REQUIRED KNOWLEDGE: IGNORANCE ERROR INATTENTION IMPAIRMENTS TO FREE CONSENT: PASSION FEAR AND SOCIAL PRESSURES VIOLENCE DISPOSITIONS AND HABITS
  • 25. IGNORANCE Ignorance is lack of knowledge about a thing in a being capable of knowing. Ignorance is divided as invincible and vincible.
  • 26. INVINCIBLE IGNORANCE THAT IGNORANCE WHICH A MAN IS NOT ABLE TO DISPEL BY SUCH REASONABLE DILIGENCE THIS COMPLETELY TAKES AWAY THE VOLUNTARINESS OF THE MALICE AND HENCE ITS RESPONSIBILITY TOO.
  • 27. VINCIBLE IGNORANCE IGNORANCE THAT CAN BE DISPELLED THIS DOES NOT TAKE AWAY CULPABILITY AS IT IS VOLUNTARY IN CAUSE OR IS PROVOKED BY CONSCIOUS NEGLIGENCE OR EVEN BAD WILL
  • 28. VINCIBLE IGNORANCE GENERALLY DIMINISHES VOLUNTARINESS AND RESPONSIBILTY, SINCE ACTUAL INSIGHT AT THE TIME OF ACTING IS LACKING THREE KINDS OF VINCIBLE IGNORANCE SUPINE, SIMPLY VINCIBLE, AFFECTED IGNORANCE
  • 29. PRINCIPLES THAT APPLY TO IGNORANCE AND ITS RESPONSIBILITY: INVINCIBLE IGNORANCE PREVENTS THE HUMAN ACT FROM BEING VOLUNTARY IN REGARD TO THAT WHICH IS NOT KNOWN VINCIBLE IGNORANCE DOES NOT TAKE AWAY THE VOLUNTARINESS DIMINISHES VOLUNTARINESS, AS LONG AS THE IGNORANCE IS NOT AFFECTED SIMPLE NEGLIGENCE OR LAZINESS DOES NOT USUALLY IMPLY A FULL CONSENT TO ALL THE POSSIBLE EVIL CONSEQUENCES WHICH MAY COME THEREFROM SUPINE IGNORANCE IN A SERIOUS MATTER GENERALLY MAKES THE SIN GRAVE AFFECTED IGNORANCE DOES NOT DIMINISH GUILT BECAUSE THERE IS FULL CONSENT THERE IS FULL CONSENT TO THE SINFUL EFFECTS WHICH RESULT FORM SUCH IGNORANCE
  • 30. ERROR FALSE JUDGMENT OR CONVICTION IT ARISES FROM DEFICIENT EDUCATION, BAD COMPANY OR MISLEADING INFORMATION ONE IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CONSEQUENCES OF ERROR MADE IN GOOD FAITH
  • 31. INATTENTION REFERS TO MOMENTARY DEPRIVATION OF INSIGHT IF ATTENTION IS COMLETELY LACKING, THERE IS NO HUMAN ACT BUT ONE IS RESPONSIBLE TO THE EXTENT THAT THE ACT IS VOLUNTARY IN CAUSE
  • 32. PASSION OR CONCUPISCENCE A MOVEMENT OF THE SENSITIVE APPETITE WHICH IS MOVED BY THE GOOD OR EVIL APPREHENDED BY THE IMAGINATION MOVEMENT OF THE SENSITIVE APPETITE THAT PRECEDES THE FREE DECISION OF THE WILL
  • 33. DIVISIONS OF PASSIONS CONCUPISCIBLE: PASSION THROUGH WHICH THE SOUL IS SIMPLY INCLINED TO SEEK WHAT IS SUITABLE ACCORDING TO THE SENSES, AND TO FLY FROM WHAT IS HURTFUL. IRASCIBLE: WHEREBY AN ANIMAL RESISTS THE ATTACKS OF ANY AGENTS THAT HINDER WHAT IS SUITABLE AND INFLICT HARM ITS OBJECT IS SOMETHING ARDUOUS, BECAUSE ITS TENDENCY IS TO OVERCOME AND RISE ABOVE OBSTACLES.
  • 34. CONCUPISCIBLE SIMPLE INCLINATION WITH RESPECT TO SENSIBLE OBJECT ATTRACTION REPULSION TOWARDS OBJECT AWAY FROM OBJECT (GOOD OBJECT) (EVIL OBJECT) LOVE JOY DESIRE HATRED SADNESS AVERSION GOOD PRESENT ABSENT EVIL PRESENT ABSENT AS SUCH GOOD GOOD AS SUCH EVIL EVIL
  • 35. IRASCIBLE INCLINATION IN VIRTUE OF AN ARDUOUS OBJECT GOOD EVIL DIFFICULT TO ATTAIN DIFFICULT TO AVOID NO HOPE DESPAIR ANGER COURAGE FEAR PRESENT ABSENT ABSENT PRESENT THREATENING THREATENING GOOD BUT UNATTAINABLE EVIL BUT INCONQUERABLE DIFFICULT ATTAINABLE GOOD CONQUERABLE EVIL TO ATTAIN GOOD EVIL
  • 36. FEAR: IS MENTAL TREPIDATIONDUE TO AN IMPENDING EVIL IT IS FEAR OF THE SENSES AND NOT INTELLECTUAL FEAR WHICH IS ONE OF THE PASSIONS INTELLECTUAL FEAR (FOR EXAMPLE THREAT OF TORTURE DOES NOT JUSTIFY DENIAL OF FAITH) THE EMOTION OF FEAR WHICH COMPLETELY DARKENS THE MIND OR PARALYZES THE WILL EXCUSES FROM IMPUTABILITY
  • 37. VIOLENCE COMPULSIVE INFLUENCE BROUGHT TO BEAR UPON ONE AGAINST HIS WILL BY SOME EXTRINSIC AGENT. VIOLENCE IS CAUSED BY SOME PHYSICAL OR PSYCHIC AGENT THERE IS NO IMPUTABILITY, EXCEPT INSOFAR AS THE INNER WILL MAY HAVE CONSENTED OR EXTERNAL RESISTANCE HAVE FALLEN SHORT OF THE DEGREE NECESSARY AND POSSIBLE IN THE CIRCUMSTANCE
  • 38. INTERNAL RESISTANCE IS ALWAYS NECESSARY WHILE EXTERNAL RESISTANCE MAY NOT ALWAYS BE CALLED FOR IT IS REQUIRED ONLY TO THE EXTENT THAT IT IS FORESEEN TO BE EFFICACIOUS IN PREVENTING ACTION OR FORESTALLING SCANDAL
  • 39. HABITS : FACILITY AND READINESS OF ACTING IN A CERTAIN MANNER ACQUIRED BY REPEATED ACTS
  • 40. DELIBERATELY ADMITTED HABITS DO NOT LESSEN VOLUNTARINESS, AND ACTIONS RESULTING THEREFROM ARE VOLUNTARY AT LEAST IN THEIR CAUSE
  • 41. OPPOSED HABITS LESSEN VOLUNTARINESS AND SOMETIME PRECLUDE IT COMPLETELY. THE REASON IS THAT HABIT WEAKENS INTELLECT AND WILL IN A CONCRETE SITUATION IN A SIMILAR WAY.