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Chapter 3:
    The Acquisition Process:
    Employee Selection
    Techniques

An Overview of Recruitment
and Hiring Practices in
Organizations

                     Mr. Gian Carlo M. Ledesma, A.B., M.A.
                                University of Santo Tomas
                                Faculty of Arts and Letters
                             Department of Social Sciences
Setting the Pace...
• Understand the recruitment process from a
  general perspective
• Know how to recruit applicants
• Determine the different employee selection tools
  and techniques employed by different
  organizations
• Write a sample cover letter and resume that can
  be used for job application
Traversing the Roadmap...
• Unit 1: The Acquisition Process
• Unit 2: Tools and Techniques in Employee
  Recruitment and Selection
• Unit 3: The Resume and the Cover Letter
Screening versus Selection
The Employee Screening
and Selection Process: A Typical Day in the
Life of an Applicant
1)   Review of application forms and resumes
2)   Initial interview in the HR Department
3)   Employment Tests
4)   Preliminary Selection in the HR Department
5)   Supervisory/Panel Interviews
The Employee Screening
and Selection Process: A Typical Day in the
Life of an Applicant
6) Simulations/Assessment Centers
7) Medical Tests
8) Background Investigation
9) Hiring Decision
10)Submission of Pre-Employment Requirements

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Lesson 3 the_acquisition_process_employee_selection_techniques

  • 1. Chapter 3: The Acquisition Process: Employee Selection Techniques An Overview of Recruitment and Hiring Practices in Organizations Mr. Gian Carlo M. Ledesma, A.B., M.A. University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Arts and Letters Department of Social Sciences
  • 2. Setting the Pace... • Understand the recruitment process from a general perspective • Know how to recruit applicants • Determine the different employee selection tools and techniques employed by different organizations • Write a sample cover letter and resume that can be used for job application
  • 3. Traversing the Roadmap... • Unit 1: The Acquisition Process • Unit 2: Tools and Techniques in Employee Recruitment and Selection • Unit 3: The Resume and the Cover Letter
  • 5. The Employee Screening and Selection Process: A Typical Day in the Life of an Applicant 1) Review of application forms and resumes 2) Initial interview in the HR Department 3) Employment Tests 4) Preliminary Selection in the HR Department 5) Supervisory/Panel Interviews
  • 6. The Employee Screening and Selection Process: A Typical Day in the Life of an Applicant 6) Simulations/Assessment Centers 7) Medical Tests 8) Background Investigation 9) Hiring Decision 10)Submission of Pre-Employment Requirements
  • 7. Application Form • Usually the first step in most organizations • Asks for various demographic information about the candidate • Based on resumes, but different from resumes
  • 8. Application Forms • Determines whether candidate meets the minimum qualifications of the job • Serves as basis for employers to identify various job-related attributes of the candidate • Provides information on certain potential problematic areas
  • 9. Application Form • Judging the appropriateness of items in the application form: ▫ Is the question job-related? ▫ Is the question really needed to judge the candidate’s suitability for the job? ▫ Is the question invading the privacy of the person? ▫ Is the response verifiable?
  • 10. Application Form • Content Areas Critical to Evaluation Forms: ▫ Overall Appearance ▫ Blanks and spaces ▫ Gaps in Time ▫ Inconsistencies ▫ Frequency of Job Change ▫ Salary history ▫ Reasons for leaving previous companies
  • 11. Reference Check • Entails the collection of information from the candidate’s previous employers/colleagues • Can be done in various ways • Purpose: for verification purposes
  • 12. The Acquisition Process 1. Planning 2. Recruiting 5. Placement 3. Screening 4. Selection
  • 13. Overview of the Recruitment Process • Identify job opening • Decide how to fill job opening ▫ No new staff (overtime, job elimination, job redesign) ▫ New staff (contingency, core)  Identify target population  Notify target population  Meet with candidates
  • 14. When Identifying Job Openings • Wait for an employee to resign, retire or be terminated? • HR should answer the following questions: ▫ Budgeted positions? ▫ What is the projected turnover in the next few months? ▫ New projects? New work that is incoming?
  • 15. Identify Target Population • What profile are we looking for to meet the qualifications of the job? • Specify the job description • Decide the target population
  • 16. Notify the target population • What methods are you going to employ to notify the public? ▫ Consider the variety of recruitment methods available ▫ Size of applicant pool ▫ Ensure clarity of job qualifications in the notification
  • 17. Meet with Candidates • Recruitment Invitation ▫ Provides the candidates and the employer the opportunity to learn more about each other
  • 18. Recruitment • Attracting people with the right qualifications (as determined by job analysis) to apply for the job ▫ Internal Recruitment ▫ External Recruitment
  • 19. Internal Recruitment • The first decision in recruitment • Looks into getting internal sources to fill positions and encourages promotions from within ▫ Internal Job Posting ▫ Supervisor/Manager Recommendations ▫ Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS) ▫ Career Development Systems
  • 20. Internal Recruitment • Advantages ▫ Employees are well-versed with the organization ▫ Lower recruiting and training costs ▫ Higher employee morale and motivation toward the job ▫ Higher chances of success
  • 21. Internal Recruitment • Disadvantages ▫ Politicking in the organizations ▫ Inbreeding ▫ Rumors and gossips ▫ Morale problem ▫ Ripple effect  Contamination of feelings and sentiments
  • 22. Internal Job Postings • Job vacancy notification is issued and all qualified employees may apply • Posted in various communication avenues within the organization ▫ T.V. Screens ▫ Bulletin boards ▫ Email blast ▫ Banners/Leaflets
  • 23. Manager/Supervisor Recommendations • Nominations come from supervisors and managers ▫ Have high awareness of an employee’s potentials and capabilities ▫ High degree of subjectivity, bias and possible discrimination
  • 24. Human Resources Information System • Computerized information systems • Contains all information about employees ▫ Search is made for job-related skills • Limited to disclosed and factual data
  • 25. Career Development Systems • Development forum ▫ Tracks employees who are tagged as “high potentials” for people manager roles • Functional forum ▫ Tracks employees who are tagged as “high potentials” for technical roles
  • 26. External Recruitment • The second decision • Hiring someone from outside the organization ▫ Employee Referrals ▫ Applicant Initiated Recruitment ▫ Advertisements ▫ Employment Agencies ▫ Executive Search Firms ▫ Job Fairs ▫ On-line recruitment portals
  • 27. External Recruitment • Advantages ▫ Fresh ideas and approaches ▫ Clean slate and fresh experience ▫ KSAOs not currently within the organization become available
  • 28. External Recruitment • Disadvantages ▫ Usually longer and costly ▫ Need to ensure fit between employee and organization ▫ Adjustment period ▫ Need to establish commitment
  • 29. Employee Referrals • Solicitation of applicants from employees within the organization • Incentivizing employees whose referrals become accepted ▫ TIP (Talent Incentive Program) • Employees are in good position to estimate “good” fit between possible candidates and job requirements
  • 30. Applicant-Initiated Recruitment • Walk-in applicants ▫ Unsolicited applications • A common scenario in organizations that have good reputations • Less effort • High motivation among candidates
  • 31. Advertisement • Done in various media ▫ Print ▫ Online • Reaches a broader range of audience • Intends to attract qualified candidates and deter unqualified candidates
  • 32. Employment Agencies • Are tapped for blue-collar, technical and lower- level managerial employees • Do the job of recruiting for certain organizations • Useful when many individuals are expected to apply and applicants are difficult to find
  • 33. Executive Search Firms • Are tapped in recruiting senior mid- and senior level managers • Find people who are employed and are not actively looking for a job • Pirating ▫ Tapping good performing employees from an organization to join another organization usually a competitor
  • 34. Campus Recruitment • Job Fairs • Useful for filling entry-level positions • Intended mostly for fresh graduates
  • 35. Evaluating Recruitment Methods • Choosing the right method • Yield ratios • Recruitment Activities Monitoring (RAM) • Realistic Job Previews (RJP) • Training organizational recruiters
  • 36. Choosing the Right Method • Labor Market ▫ A geographical area within which the forces of supply and demand interact • Consider your recruitment experience • Scan the business marketplace
  • 37. Yield Ratios • Provide information on the effectiveness of various recruitment methods in getting candidates onboard the organization • Give insight as to which recruitment method “work best” for an organization
  • 38. Recruitment Activities Monitoring • Keeps track of the applicants as they move from one step to another in the recruitment process
  • 39. Realistic Job Previews • Informing applicants about all aspects of the job • Provides an applicant an honest assessment of the job
  • 40. Selection Techniques • Employment Interviews • Psychological Testing • Assessment Centers
  • 41. Employment Interviews • Most commonly used method to select employees • Can be: ▫ Structured ▫ Unstructured
  • 42. Structured Interviews • Questions emanate from job analysis (job- related questions) • Standard questions are asked to all candidates • A standard scoring key is followed to assess interview responses
  • 43. Unstructured Interviews • Anything goes type of interview • Interviewers ask any question as necessary • May score responses subjectively or upon discretion of the interviewer
  • 44. Types of interview • One-on-one interview • Serial interview • Return interview • Panel interview • Group interview
  • 45. Variations of interview • Face-to-face interview • Telephone interview • Video conferencing interview • Written interview
  • 46. Types of interview questions • Non-behavioral ▫ Can either be theoretical, leading or a statement of feeling ▫ Yes or no questions (closed-ended) • Behavioral ▫ Focuses on the present and past aspects of a task and elicits behavioral evidences
  • 47. Behavioral vs Non-Behavioral • Do you always meet deadlines at work? • Tell me a situation in the past when you were not able to comply with a particular deadline. What happened? What did you do? What was the result?
  • 48. Behavioral vs Non-Behavioral • Do you participate in company-related activities? • Participation in company-related activities is expected among employees, tell me an instance in the past about your most unforgettable moment in a company-related event. What happened? What significant contributions can you recall? What was the result?
  • 49. Behavioral vs Non-Behavioral • Do you disagree with people in the workplace? • Conflicts are inevitable in the workplace, tell me a situation in the past when you disagreed with a colleague. What events happened that led to the disagreement? What actions did you do? What were the results?
  • 50. Other typologies of questions… • Clarifier ▫ I noticed a three-year gap between your second and third jobs, could you tell me about that? • Disqualifier ▫ Are you available to work on weekend? • Skill-level determiner ▫ A participant keeps on disrupting a training that you are conducting, what approach will you employ to address this behavior?
  • 51. An effective interviewer • Self-awareness • Good listening skills • Good oral communication skills • Knowledge of job dimensions • Sensitive to non-verbal cues • Ability to ask behavioral questions • Ability to take down notes
  • 52. Psychological Testing • A measuring device, a yardstick applied in consistent and systematic fashion to measure a sample behavior
  • 53. Characteristics of Psychological Tests • Standardization ▫ Refers to the consistency or uniformity of the conditions and procedures for administering a test • Objectivity ▫ Pertains to the scoring of psychological tests ▫ Guided by a scoring key or template
  • 54. Norms • The standards against which test raw scores are compared • Assist in the interpretation of test scores (i.e., Low, Average, High)
  • 55. Types of Tests • Mental Ability Tests: Intelligence Tests and Aptitude Tests • Skills/Proficiency Tests • Personality Tests • Projective Techniques • Computer-Based Tools
  • 56. Assessment Centers • Job simulation • A popular method of selection that places applicants in a simulated job situation to allow observation and assessment of behaviors • Also called situational testing ▫ Job samples or work portfolio
  • 57. Applying for a Job • Cover Letters • Resume
  • 58. Cover Letter • Tells an employer about one’s interest to apply for a job • Should never be longer than a page • Contains the following parts: ▫ Date ▫ Addressee ▫ Salutation ▫ Four basic paragraphs ▫ Closing signature
  • 59. Cover Letter July 12, 2012 (Date) Ms. Belen B. Layno (Addressee) Director Human Resources Department 3rd floor Asian Star Building, Filinvest Corporate City, Alabang, Muntinlupa City 1781 Dear Ms. Layno: (Salutation)
  • 60. Cover Letter Enclosed is a copy of my resume. Please consider me for the position of Human Resources Associate that was advertised in the Manila Bulletin dated July 8, 2012. (1) For several reasons, I believe that I am qualified for your position. First, I have two years experience as HR Assistant in an engineering industry. Second, I am a dependable worker as shown by the fact that I only missed two days of work in the past two years. Finally, I am available to work on weekends as necessary. (2)
  • 61. Cover Letter I am personally interested to work for your company because of the positive feedback that I have been reading about your organization and good reputation that your company has established over the past 100 years. (3) I look forward to hearing from you soon. You may contact after 3:00 pm on weekdays or anytime on weekends. (4) Sincerely yours, Gian Carlo M. Ledesma
  • 62. Resume • Summary of an applicant’s professional and educational background ▫ Must be attractive and easy to read ▫ Cannot contain typing, spelling, grammatical and factual mistakes ▫ Should make the applicant look as qualified as possible –without falsifying and lying any details in the resume • Also called curriculum vitae (CV)
  • 63. Basic Information in a Resume • Name • Career Objectives (should be specific to the position being applied for) • Summary of Experience (for individuals w/ a significant amount of experience) • Work experiences (arranged from most recent) • Professional Strengths/Competencies
  • 64. Basic Information in a Resume • Educational Background • Certifications Acquired • Research Publications • Trainings and Seminars Attended (arranged from most recent) • Organizations Joined • Personal Information • Certification of authenticity (must be signed)
  • 65. Classroom Experience • Choose a partner in class. • Exchange job advertisements with your partner. • Put yourself in the shoes of an applicant who will apply for that job. • Prepare the following for that position: ▫ A cover letter ▫ A sample resume