authenticity digital records term essay


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authenticity digital records term essay

  1. 1. Abstract: The prevalence of digital information management in an open network has driven the need to maintain balance between digital records management, authenticity, and policy. Authenticity of digital records is required as every phases of life cycle so it is important to understand this issue. In order to do this, the needs of authenticity in life cycle are being discussed and this discussion is followed by short descriptions of the standard and policies involve with authenticity of digital records. Moreover, the preservation method in ensuring authenticity of digital records was highlighted. And as a step forward in ensuring the authenticity of digital records, it can be achieved by better management and better technology. Keywords: Authenticity, digital records, electronic records, electronic records management Introduction The prevalence of digital information management in an open network has driven a new level of expectation on security and privacy protection. One of the key issues is to maintain the fragile balance between the reliability, accountability, and authenticity. And in a hostile environment, where the growing number of digital records and the implementation brought by the technology, has transformed the working environment moving to the less paper transaction in running daily business. Therefore new issue rise, which is the preservation of digital records to ensure the authenticity and make it reliable as evidence. Where in the midst of this change and uncertainty, organizations must determine what records management model they should implement, taking into account the present law, the authenticity, and the potential direction it might head. Records means materials in written or other form setting out facts or events or otherwise recording information and includes papers, documents, registers, printed materials, books, maps, plans, drawings, photographs, microfilms, cinematograph films, sounds recordings, electronically produced records regardless of physical form or characteristics and any copy1. In archives and records management, authentic records are understood as being what they purport to be reliable records that over time have not been altered, changed or otherwise corrupted.2. Authenticity warrants that 1 National Archives Act 2003(Act 629), Part 1 Section 2. 2 Diamond, Susan Z. Records Management: A Practical Approach. 3rd ed. (Washington: AMACOM, 1995) : 18.
  2. 2. the record is not changed or manipulated after it has been received or sent since it was created and transmitted to many parties over time. And electronic public records are those records that fulfill these criteria and which are created and maintained in electronic format. Authentic records can be defined as one that can be proven; to be what it purports to be, to have been created or sent by the person purported to have created and sent it and to have been created or sent at the time purported3. Records as evidence and as source of information If a record is to function effectively as evidence of an activity, it must first be compliant with any external requirements in the environment where the organization operates. Requirements for records may derive from legislation, regulation, mandatory standards, code of best ethics, or community expectations4. Records as evidence Content Context Structure Figure 1: Criteria of records as evidence As the figure 1 shown in order record can use as evidence, it must posses’ three criteria which are: Content: A record must reflect the facts about the activity. For a reliable record these should be accurate mean that the facts that the record carry should be correct and complete which everything of significant should be recorded. Context: A record must be supported by information about the circumstances in which it was created and used. Records cannot be fully understood without adequate knowledge of the activity that gave rise to them, the wider function of the activity forms part, and the administrative context, including the identities and 3 International Council on Archives (ICA), Committee on Archival Legal Matters, Authenticity of Electronic Records: A Report Prepared for UNESCO (November 2003): 2. 4 32
  3. 3. roles of the various participants in the activity. Contextual information must therefore be captured in the records themselves or in the systems that are used to maintain them. Structure: Records and records systems must reflect the relationship between their constituent parts. Records should have qualities of authenticity, integrity, usability and reliability 5. Fundamentally, the characteristic of authentication comprises three things: i. Reliability: Records created within an organization should be reliable and accurate in their content. It is show that the records are created and captured as part of the legitimate business process, and they are subject to a corporate management process. ii. Integrity: The document is protected from unauthorized alteration. The authenticity and integrity of records need to be guaranteed over time, so that users can be confident that records are genuine and trustworthy and that no illicit alterations have been made to them. iii. Usability: The document is capable of being retrieved, presented, and interpreted correctly. They must be accessible to authorized users’ understanding of their significant. These characteristics, taken together, lay the foundations for the authenticity of a document in digital format. However, it must be emphasized that the rigor of the process will depend on the nature of the document. For this to be achieved, digital records must be created and maintained systematically through good records keeping system. Where the integrity and usability of digital records will be ensured overtime which mean through out the lifecycle of the records. The needs of authenticity in records life cycle 5 Millar, Laura. Authenticity of electronic records: a report prepared for UNESCO and the International Council on Archives. 3 September 2009 32
  4. 4. The records lifecycle is a concept in common use. It indicates that records are not static, but have a life similar to those biological organisms: they are born, live through youth and old age and then die6. This idea was developed in North America by Schellenberg (1956), who wrote about the ‘life span’ of records, which included their current use and final destiny. As paper records, digital records also need to be maintenance from the first creation until the disposition of the records. It consists of five stages as illustrated in figure 2. Figure 2: The Life Cycle of Objects in a Digital Information System Source: Gilliland-Swetland, Anne. J. “Setting the Stage.” Introduction to Metadata: Pathways to Digital Information. Baca, Murtha, ed. (Los Angeles, CA: Getty Research Institute, 1998): 8. As send in Figure. Records life cycle indicates the life span of a record as expressed in the five phases of creation, organization, searching/retrieval, utilization, maintenance, and final preservation/disposition. First, at the creation stage, records are produced in a wide variety of forms and formats using technologies and equipment. At the organization stage, records are organized in a meaningful and systematic ways by adding cataloging/classifying or descriptive information to records and creating as secondary information. These records are searched or retrieved by users or librarians. At the utilization and distribution phase, records are distributed and transmitted to the person needs for its use. Records are commonly used in decision making, for documentation or reference, in answering inquiries or in satisfying legal requirements. As time passes, the use of records declines like most organizational asset and their 6 Shepherd, Elizabeth. and Geoffrey Yeo, Managing records: a handbook of principles and practice. (London: Facet Publishing, 2003): 34. 32
  5. 5. value also tends to be declined and become useless. At the storage and maintenance phase, when a decision is made to keep the record for use at a later date, it must be housed in some type of storage device, and protected in the maintenance of records. After records are stored, a request is made to retrieve it from storage for use. During this phase, records are frequently referred to and remain active. At the disposition and retention phase, when records decline in value and retrieved records are no longer needed for use, records become inactive, and are then removed from active storage in office space, are destroyed, or transferred to an inactive storage facility for the duration of their retention life. The last phase in the record life cycle is disposition by destruction. When records contain permanent value, the records are preserved at a permanent storage place for a long-term period of time. The record life cycle is important in knowing the meaning and importance of each phase of the entire record life cycle. Records managers should be able to understand what is needed to mange all records. At the five stages of records’ acquisition, collection, indexing, access and utilization, and preservation, when is records needed to ensure they are authentic. As digital records and data become accessible and available at any time and in any place, regardless of their stage of records’ life cycle, it is getting difficult and meaningless to differentiate one stage from another stage. Guaranteeing the authenticity of records is required at every stage. That is, since the authenticity of a document verifies that the document is the same as that which a user expected based on a prior reference and ensures that they are unaltered from the time of creation, access, maintenance, and preservation is required over many stages of records life cycles. Authenticity is to demonstrate the integrity of documents and retaining authenticity is used to verifying authorship of records and for preservation strategies. Preservation of authenticity of digital records 32
  6. 6. Figure 3: Preserve usable authentic records through time Source: Bikson, Tora. Carrying authentic, understanble and usable digital records through time. 3 Sept 2009 <>. As digital objects are more easily altered and corrupted than, say, paper documents and records, creators and preservers often find it challenging to demonstrate their authenticity. That is why ensuring why ensuring authenticity of records in digital environments needs an integrated approach to identifying requirements of authentic records and managing electronic records from appraisal to preservation. As digital objects that lack authenticity and integrity have limited value as evidence or usefulness as an information resource, the ability to establish authenticity of and trust in a digital object is crucial. Three quite distinct technical and social strategies for asserting authenticity can be identified in proposed solutions: public, secret, and functionally dependent.7 Public methods for asserting the authenticity of sources include: the creation of copyright deposit "collections of record", practiced deposits of original sources combined with record certification services, registration of unique document identifiers, publishing "key" data about documents which, when hashed, or otherwise calculated in a publicly available way, should match that of the document in hand, and defining metadata structures to carry document authentication declarations or proofs. Secret methods involve hiding data in the object to reveal its source. Techniques include: digital watermarking, stegonography and digital signatures. Functionally dependent 7 Ricks, Betty Roper, Ann J. Swafford and Kay F. Gow. Information and Image Management: A Records Systems Approach. (Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing Co, 1992): 173. 32
  7. 7. methods employ specific technologies that are bound together with the information source. Methods employing technical dependencies include: object encapsulation whether physical or logical, cryptography, encryption and embedded active agents. Besides that a simple approach used by many systems is to have software controls that allow end-users to access records but not edit or delete them, while records management staff may destroy records but not edit or delete them. This approach may be combined with the use of an audit trail. Audit trails automatically log the date and the identity of the operators when the record is captured or metadata assigned, and may log similar information whenever records are assessed. Therefore records system should contain complete and accurate representations of all transactions that occur in relation to particular records. These include the processes associated with individual records. And it is must be kept at least as long as the document to which they relate is retained. Standard and policies involve with authenticity of digital records There are numerous published standards for developing and operating records management programmes and systems. In particular, the international standard ISO 15489-1: 2001 Information and documentation – records management, published by the International Standards Organization, and Australian national standards AS 4390-1996 Records management provide benchmarks against which records management programmes and systems can be measured. Two standards that concern of authenticity of digital records most are ISO 15489-1: 2001 Information and document – records management – part 1: general, International Standards Organization and PD 5000: 2002 Legal admissibility: an international code of practice for electronic documents and e-business transactions for evidence, audit, long term duty of care, British Standards Institution. In the world of electronic and hybrid systems it is particularly important for records managers to be aware of technical standards that can be used to manage the dependency of records on computer hardware and software in order to maintain digital records for long-terms access. 32
  8. 8. Besides standards published by national and international standards organizations, there are others promoted by commercial or professional bodies. For an example, the UK Public Record Office has published Standards for the management of government records, which offers guidance on many aspects of records management, with special emphasis on the needs of public sector organizations. All this standards is the result of ongoing efforts, by responsible agencies who seen that a proper standard and guidelines should be in place to ensure that successful electronic records management system. As a results of the development of national and international standards provided information professional a framework for best practices. Conclusion Many efforts are going on to understand better the authenticity of records. It is because assurance of the authenticity of digital records is never ending process which start on creation and must be maintained through the entire life cycle. As the responsibility for records care ultimately lies with each nation and its governments and citizens. International agencies should play a particular role in raising the awareness of governments around the world of the critical importance to society of accountable, transparent record keeping. Further, the problem is not that record keepers do not know what to do. The problem is how to get it done: how to receive the political, governmental, financial, and other support required to undertake the tasks all record keepers know they must tackle. It is that hopes in recent years we can take a step forward to finding a way to ensuring the authenticity of digital records by better management and better technology. Bibliography (MLA Style) Bikson, Tora. Carrying authentic, understanble and usable digital records through time. 3 Sept 2009 <>. 32
  9. 9. Curall, James. “Security in digital domain”, in Tough Alistair and Michael Moss. (Eds), Record keeping in a hybrid environment: managing the creation, use, preservation and disposal of unpublished information objects in context, England: Chandos Publishing, 1992. Diamond, Susan Z. Records Management: A Practical Approach. 3rd ed. Washington: AMACOM, 1995. Dimitris, Gritzalis. Cumulative notarization for long-term preservation of digital signatures. 3 Sept 2009 <>. Filip, Boudrez. Digital signatures and electronic records. 8 Sept 2009 <>. Hemalatha, Ramasamy. The development of National Archive of Malaysia 1957 to 2003. 3 Sept 2009 < %20Paper.doc>. International Records Management Trust Consultancy Projects. 3 Sept 2009 <>. InterPARES Project Homepage. 3 Sept 2009 <>. Millar, Laura. Authenticity of electronic records: a report prepared for UNESCO and the International Council on Archives. 3 Sept 2009 <>. Mason, Stephen. Authentic digital records: laying the foundation for evidence. Information Management Journal. 41(5):32-40. Retrieved September 3, 2009, from the ABI/INFORM Global database. Milbourn D. Smith. Information and Records Management: A Decision Maker’s Guide to Systems Planning and Implementation. New York: Quorum Books, 1986. Millman, David. Authentication and authorization. In The encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 1, pp. 229-235). New York: Marcel Dekker, 1999. National Archive of Malaysia Homepage. 3 Sept 2009 <>. Penn, Ira A., Gale B. Pennix and Jim Coulson. Records Management Handbook. 2nd ed. Brookfield: Gower, 1994. Ricks, Betty Roper, Ann J. Swafford and Kay F. Gow. Information and Image Management: A Records Systems Approach. Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing Co, 1992. 32
  10. 10. Ross, Seamus. “Approaching digital preservation holistically”, in Tough Alistair and Michael Moss. (Eds), Record keeping in a hybrid environment: managing the creation, use, preservation and disposal of unpublished information objects in context, England: Chandos Publishing, 1999. Shaiden Shafei. E-Government initiatives in Malaysia and the role of the National Archives of Malaysia in Digital Records Management. 3 Sept 2009 <>. Shepherd, Elizabeth. and Geoffrey Yeo. Managing records: a handbook of principles and practice. London: Facet Publishing, 2003. Spindler, Robert P. “Electronic records preservation”, in Miriam A. Drake (Ed), The encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 2, pp. 1016-1021). New York: Marcel Dekker, 2001. Bibliography (APA Style) Bikson, T. Carrying authentic, understanble and usable digital records through time. Retrieved September 3, 2009, 32
  11. 11. from Curall, J. (1992). “Security in digital domain”, in Tough A., and Moss, M. (Eds), Record keeping in a hybrid environment: managing the creation, use, preservation and disposal of unpublished information objects in context, England: Chandos Publishing. Diamond, S. Z. (1995). Records Management: A Practical Approach. 3rd ed. Washington: AMACOM. Dimitris, G. Cumulative notarization for long-term preservation of digital signatures. Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Filip, B. Digital signatures and electronic records. Retrieved September 8, 2009, from Hemalatha, R. The development of National Archive of Malaysia 1957 to 2003. Retrieved September 3, 2009, from %20530%20Term%20Paper.doc. International Records Management Trust Consultancy Projects. Retrieved September 3, 2009, from InterPARES Project Homepage. Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Millar, L. Authenticity of electronic records: a report prepared for UNESCO and the International Council on Archives. Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Mason, S. Authentic digital records: laying the foundation for evidence. Information Management Journal. 41(5):32-40. Retrieved September 3, 2009, from the ABI/INFORM Global database. Milbourn D. S. (1986). Information and Records Management: A Decision Maker’s Guide to Systems Planning and Implementation. New York: Quorum Books. Millman, D. (1999). Authentication and authorization. In The encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 1, pp. 229-235). New York: Marcel Dekker. National Archive of Malaysia Homepage. Retrieved September 3, 2009, from http:// Penn, I. A., Pennix, G. B. and Coulson, J., (1994) Records Management Handbook. 2nd ed. Brookfield: Gower. 32
  12. 12. Ricks, B. R., Swafford, A. J. and Gow K. F., (1992) Information and Image Management: A Records Systems Approach. Cincinnati: South-Western Publishing Co. Ross, S. (1999), “Approaching digital preservation holistically”, in Tough A., and Moss, M. (Eds), Record keeping in a hybrid environment: managing the creation, use, preservation and disposal of unpublished information objects in context, England: Chandos Publishing. Shaiden Shafei. E-Government initiatives in Malaysia and the role of the National Archives of Malaysia in Digital Records Management. Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Shepherd, E. and Yeo, G. (2003). Managing records: a handbook of principles and practice. London: Facet Publishing. Spindler, R. P. (2001). “Electronic records preservation”, in Miriam A. Drake (Ed), The encyclopedia of library and information science (Vol. 2, pp. 1016-1021). New York: Marcel Dekker. Abstracts 32
  13. 13. Hawkins, Donald T. and Murray, Lynn A. Information Science Abstract. 34 (6). New Jersey: Information Today, Inc., 1999. This abstract is to promote the science, management and technology of information by abstracting and indexing the world’s literature and data on information science. This abstract is constantly under review and improvements are made on a continuing basis. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Owen, D.B. Abstract and Indexes in Science and Technologies: A descriptive guide. (2nd.ed.). N.J: Scarecrow Press, 1985. This abstract and indexes tools in science and technology were develop to provide current awareness and retrospective searching of the literature in science and technology field. It included 223 titles of print abstracts and indexes. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Bibliography Bibliografi Negara Malaysia.Kuala Lumpur: Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia, October – December 1989, 1990. The Malaysia national bibliography lists the library materials published in Malaysia and deposited at the national library of Malaysia in accordance with the provision stipulated under the Deposit of library materials Act 1986. it is published in four quarterly issues. The bibliography covers all materials published in Bahasa Melayu, English, Tamil Chinese and east Malaysia language. The materials included are books, government publication, new serial titles, standards, maps, charts and conference proceedings, popular magazine souvenir programs, pamphlet, commemorative and travel broaches are selectively included. (PTAR 2) Sawoniak, Henryk. International Bibliography of Bibliographies in Library and Information Science and Related Fields: Germany: 1999. This new work is a follow up to the previous work in the same field by the same author which covered the period of 1945-1970. The bibliography lists ten thousand titles organized according to a topic classification scheme. It includes all areas of information science and related field: archiving, history of press, etc. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Wasserman, Paul and Herman, Esther. eds. Library Bibliographies and Indexes. 1st ed. Michigan: Gale Research Company, 1975. 32
  14. 14. This bibliography index is a subject guide resource material available form Libraries, Information Centers, Library Schools and Library Associations in the United States as Canada. It is organized by subject and intended for use by librarians and others as an aid in the acquisition or the location of information on approximately 1,500 subjects covered in the materials indexed here. This book is arranged in three distinct parts: Key to Symbols; Library Bibliographies and Indexes; and List of Institutions and Serial Publications. Pertinent details concerning each part are provided in Organization of the volume (page vii) and How to use this book (page ix). (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Books in print Kim, Nak- Joon. ed. Books From Korea. Seol: Korean Publication Association, 1993. These books in print produce by National Library of Korea consist with all the books publish related to the subject such as social science, cultural, politics and many more. This publication provides bibliography and as well as price of the material. (UM Library) Nicholson, Joyce. ed. Australian Books in Print 1980. Melbourne: D. W. Thorpe, 1980. These books in print produce by National Library of Australia consist with all the books publish related to the subject. The reader can get the bibliography and the price of the material. (UM Library) Index Indeks Persidangan Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia, 1994. The index to Malaysian conference is a guide to the subject content of working paper in Bahasa Malaysia, English, Chinese, Tamil and Arabic language which has been presented at the conference or seminar workshops that held in Malaysia and deposited at the national library of Malaysia under the provision of the deposit of library materials act, 1986. Generally, this index consists of two sections; firstly the subject section and the other one is the author or title section that arranged as in a divided dictionary catalogs. Finally, this index is published annually. (PTAR 2) Malaysian periodicals index. Kuala Lumpur: Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia. (January – December 1986) 1986. 32
  15. 15. The Malaysian periodicals index is a guide to the subject contents of articles published in Bahasa Malaysia, English, Chinese and Tamil in the selected Malaysian periodicals deposited at the national library of Malaysia under the provision of the preservation of books act 1966 subsequently the deposit of library materials act 1986. In general, all articles which exceed 750 words which are academics or intellectual or educational value are indexed. Shorter articles considered to be of interest, short stories and poems are also indexed. This index consists of two sections; subject section and authors or titles section. Each section consists of two subsections for roman and non-roman script (Jawi, Chinese and Tamil). The subject section consists of articles, arranged alphabetically under subject headings. (PTAR, Puncak Perdana) World guide to special libraries. London: K. G. Saur Muchen, 1995. This index consist of list of Library Association, list of subjects, and special libraries arranged by subject A-Z which divided to Vol 1 and Vol 2. It contains library index. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Guide to Literature Beacham’s Guide to Literature for Young Adults. US: Library of Congress, 2001. This guide to literature described about readers who want to know more about their favourite books and authors; students who are researching for term papers and book reports; teachers preparing classes, librarians building collections and selecting books for their patrons and others. It contains of 613 pages. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Almanac 32
  16. 16. Corpus Almanac & Canadian Sourcebook. 23rd annual edition. Ontario: John Deyell Company. Vol. 1, 1998. This almanac comes as courtesy of the CIDA Industrial co-operation Program. The objective of the Industrial co-operation Division of CIDA is to stimulate increased participation by the Canadian private sector in the industrialization of developing countries. This almanac contains 16 items and consists of 429 pages. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Dictionaries Dictionary of Information and Library Management. 2nd ed. London: A & C Black, 2006. This dictionary provides a basic vocabulary of terms used in the information and records management industries. The targeted audience for this dictionary are student of librarianship, information science as well as for those who working in library, archiving, knowledge management and research jobs. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Keenan, Stella and Colin Johnston. Concise Dictionary of Library and Information Science. 2nd ed. Melbourne: Bowker Saur, 2000. This dictionary provides comprehensive introduction to the vocabulary of library and information science. All the terms are arranged in one alphabetical sequence and there are six themes present in this edition which is information sources, information handling, computers and telecommunications, management and research methodology. This dictionary provides full definitions under all synonymous term and there are no cross-references. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Rietz, Joan M. Dictionary for library and information science. Wesport: Libraries Unlimited, 2004. This dictionary provides collection of word and term related to the information sciences, library and knowledge management. It is the most comprehensive and reliable English-language resource for terminology used in all types of libraries. With more than 4,000 terms and cross-references (last updated January, 2003), the dictionary's content has been carefully selected and includes terms from publishing, printing, literature, and computer science where, in the author's judgment, they are relevant to both library professionals and laypersons. (UM Library) Mortimer, Mary. Library Speak: a glossary of terms in librarianship and information management. Australia: DocMatrix, 2000. 32
  17. 17. This dictionary provides collection of word and term related to the information sciences, library and knowledge management. It provides simple definitions for all the terms required for each group of library workers to understand the others. It is designed as an accessible and convenient quick reference for students; new library staff. Library Speak is an up-to-date glossary of 2500 librarianship and information management terms used especially in North America. It defines and explains essential terminology of library collections, equipment, automated systems, the Internet, and national and international organizations and programs. (UM Library) Morse, David. Cyber Dictionary: Your Guide to the Wired World. Santa Monica: Knowledge Exchange, 1999. The dictionary provides clear, concise, and easy reference to more than 900 key cyberspace words, phrases and names. This dictionary is an invaluable reference for students and professionals involve in computer and information technology field. (KM, Center, BNM) Directories Directory of participants of IFLA 99. Bangkok: The National Organizing Committee, Thailand IFLA 1999, 31 July 1999. This directory of participants contain all participants who have registered before July 31, 1999 for the 65th Council and General Conference of the International Federation for Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) held in Bangkok, Thailand from 20-28 August 1999.There are 1,666 registered participants from 115 countries. Updates of the list will be published during the week of the conference. The participants have been listed by country in alphabetical order and include the full address, telephone, fax number and e-mail address. (Raja Tun Uda Library, Shah Alam) Direktori Perpustakaan Awam di Malaysia. Shah Alam: Anzagain, 1997. This edition directory list Malaysian public libraries detail where include address, full name of library, the contact number, email of the library and many more. (Raja Tun Uda Library, Shah Alam) 32
  18. 18. Persatuan Pustakawan Malaysia (DIPLIS). Directory of Information and Library Products and Services. Kuala Lumpur: Persatuan Pustakawan Malaysia, 2002. This edition directory list the library in Malaysia, it also provide information of directory library products and services. And the information presented in this directory is in advertisement form. (UM Library) The standard periodicals directory. 20th ed. New York: Oxbridge Communication Inc, 1997. The standard periodicals directory lists more than 45000 print media and catalogs covering over 265 subject categories. This includes the lists in their newsletter, magazine and mailing lists directory. The objective of this directory is to provide numbers for organization that are particularly relevant to the periodicals included in each directory. The standard periodicals directory list includes numbers that are widespread use to those involved with the periodical industry. (PTAR 2) Encyclopedia Feather, John and Sturges, Paul, eds. International Encyclopedia of information and library science. London: Routledge Taylor & Fronas Group, 2003. This encyclopedia provides articles which are arranged alphabetically and vary from a paragraph to 19 pages. About half of the articles are signed and include short bibliographies. The editors do not claim to give equal treatment to all subjects but intend to provide longer articles for topics of greater importance. Twelve major articles form the backbone of the volume: Communication, Economics of information, Informatics, Information management, Information policy, Information professions, Information society, Information systems, Information theory, Knowledge industries, Knowledge management, and Organization of knowledge. These entries demonstrate a theoretical and managerial approach. In contrast, the entry for book is one-third of a page, and there is no mention of genres or young adult literature. Indeed, youth resources and services are underrepresented. Twenty black-and-white diagrams and 17 tables complement the text is included in this encyclopedia. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Kent, Allen and Daily, Jay E. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. Vol. 34. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1983. 32
  19. 19. This encyclopedia consists of three cumulative indexes to the 33 volume. This encyclopedia is arranged on one straight alphabet as is a dictionary. There are cross references from on heading to another which for one reason or another to use. The emphasis has been throughout on depth of treatment. The editors are equally committed to a “one-world” concept of their science. To this end the approach has been strongly international as expressed through the composition of the Advisory Board, the choice of contributors and in the editors’ instructions to the contributors. The final volume will contain a detailed analytical index to the entire work which is to be used as the principal means of getting into the body of the text. At the end of the article will be found references to other articles for additional information on the same general topic. (PTAR, Puncak Perdana) Khosrowpour, Mehdi, ed. Encyclopedia of information science and technology. Vol. 1. Hershey: Idea Group References, 2005. This encyclopedia highlight current topic, issues and emerging technology such as data mining and data warehousing, knowledge management, intelligent information system, information modeling and evaluation and others. It is most comprehensive, research-based encyclopedia consisting contribution from 900 noted researchers in over 50 countries. It also include with compendium of terms, definitions and explanations of concepts, processes and acronyms. This encyclopedia are organized by topic and indexed, making it a convenient method of references for those people who are in information science and information management field. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Yearbooks Gorman, G. E., ed. Collection Management: International Yearbook of Library and Information Management 2000/2001. London: Library Association Publishing. 2000: 307-339. This International Yearbook of Library and Information Management which in a specific theme in this inaugural compilation focuses the collection management. It presents chapters which cover both big picture issues relating to library and information management. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) The Library Association Yearbook 1990. London: Library Association Publishing 32
  20. 20. Limited, 1990. These serials provide subject indexing services to the library profession covering over 700 British journals. This international index consists of three parts. Part I is mainly about the office, council, headquarter, etc. Part II is more on the Library Association and etc and Part III is the list of members in the Library Association. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Wedgeworth, Robert, ed. The ALA Yearbook of Library and Information Services ’85. Illnois: American Library Association, 1985. This Yearbook has carried 23 major feature articles, 80 special reports and 510 state reports. In addition to approximately 1500 articles on library organization, issues, people, trends, problems, technology, institutions, management, finances, politics and social change. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Books 32
  21. 21. Deegan, Marilyn and Simon Tanner. Ed. Digital Preservation. London: Facet Publishing, 2006. This book discussed about digital preservation by having in complex issue by approaching many different aspects and views. Each chapter in this book is edited collection where it is written by international expert on the topic. Among chapters includes in this book are key issues in digital preservation, strategies for digital preservation, web archiving and provides with an example of case studies of digital preservation projects. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Dempsey, Lorcan. Eds. Networking and the future of libraries 2 : Managing the intellectual records. London: Library Association Publishing, 1995. This book examines the future central role of networking for the library and publishing community. It can be used as a supplemental text by academicians, researchers who want to expose their knowledge to the digital libraries issues and topics relevant to specific functional areas of information society. It is also will make compelling reading for library and information professionals at any level, and will be equal interest to the publishing profession. (KM, Centre, BNM) Haywood, Trevor. Info-rich info-poor: Access and exchange in the global information society. London: Bowker-Saur, 1995. This book basically is about the issues in information age and the digital divide between info-rich and info-poor. It is about the analysis done of the world as information system. From an international perspective, came out the problems, iniquities, controversies and potential arising from the database society. There are six chapters that cover the information-knowledge chain, cultural context, and epilogue and also include an index. This book is suitable to be used as a primary text for all the information professionals especially to understand more about the transformation concept of digital libraries and information era. (KM, Centre, BNM) Shepherd, Elizabeth and Geoffrey Yeo. Managing Records: A Handbook of Principles and Practice. London: Facet Publishing, 2003. 32
  22. 22. This book provides a detailed introduction to the concepts and practice of records management, for organizational staff who have responsibility for establishing, maintaining and restructuring a records management programme. This book also provides overview of principle of records management programmes and systems and describes some techniques that records managers can use to gain understanding of the context for their work. There is extensive bibliography on this book for further information about the topic discuss in each chapter. (PTAR 1) Hughes, Lorna, M. Digitizing Collections: Strategic Issues for the Information Manager. Oxford: Facet Publishing, 2004. This book divided into two sections. The first part deals with the strategic decisions that will precede a digitization initiative such as the advantage and economics of digitization, the developing selection and policies and criteria for digitization and managing the intellectual property and copyright questions that may arise. The second part takes the reader through the many complex issues involved running a digitization initiatives in cultural heritage institution around the world. Another topics include are the costs and benefits of digitization, selecting materials, project funding and management, managing a digitization project, and more. This book helps project manager to formulate the right question for assesing all of the components that go into developing a digitization project. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) McLeod, Julie and Catherine Hare. Managing Electronic Records. London: Facet Publishing, 2005. This book discussed about the strategies, systems and procedures necessary to ensure that electronic records are appropriately created, captured, organized and retained over time to meet business and legal requirement. This book also covers the theory and practices of managing electronic records as business and information assets. Besides that the authors also included case studies in records management in the private sector as well as legal issues in this topic. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Tredinnick, Luke. Digital Information Contexts: Theoretical Approaches to Understanding Digital Information. Oxford: Chandos Publishing, 2006. 32
  23. 23. This book provides a comprehensive understanding about digital information. It also explores the historical context of those ideas that have informed the understanding of information by clearing the idea in the chapter of introduction of the book. Among others chapter that being discussed are librarianship and culture, digital information and computer science, digital information, and complexity. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Handbooks Bielefield, Arlene & Cheeseman, Lawrence. Maintaining the privacy of library records. US: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 1994. This handbook is a practical guide to the constitutional issues, federal laws, and state statues governing the privacy of library records. Its basic supposition is that the only way to fully protect the confidentiality of library records in order to practice defensive law-avoiding legal problems by anticipating and taking affirmative steps to avoid them. These steps taken are understanding the legal and constitutional issues involved, and developing a library policy that is understood and practiced by all library staff. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Booth, Andrew and Brice, Anne, ed. Evidence-based practice for information professionals: A handbook. London: Facet Publishing, 2004. The handbook of evidence-based practice for information professionals employs a different approach according to its subject content. It attests to an increasing interest in the evidence base for our own practice. This book addresses the application of the tools and techniques required to your specific area of proactive, be it in libraries, museum or archive and its sensitive adaptation to your local culture and environment. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Tipton, Harold F., and Micki Krause. Information Security Management Handbook. 4 ed. Vol 2. Auerbach: Boca Raton, 1999. This handbook discussed emerging trends and new concepts in information security, along with security methodologies for evolving technologies. And it also provides comprehensive coverage of information security management such as network security, intrusion detection, penetration testing and secure voice communication. (UKM Library) Prytherch, Ray, ed. Handbook of library and information management. England: Publishing Company Limited, 1998. 32
  24. 24. This is the latest edition of a standard reference source, first published in 1938. It reflects the changing emphasize of the information world: technological developments and electronic formats have so altered the range of skills required by information professional that some fundamental changes had become necessary. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Journal Articles 32
  25. 25. Ball, Rafeal. “The scientific information environment in the next millennium.” Library Management incorporating Librarian Career Development, 21. 1. (2000): 10-12. The evolution of the information environment in research and development at the beginning of the next millennium is dominated by the change of medium from printed to digital information and by the diversification of the information environment. Knowledge and information have always been the most important resources in science. However, the change in the methods of scientific information retrieval. This article shows how a scientist’s effort, tools and methods have changed in the past decades for verification and retrieval of literature and information required against the background of changing media. (UKM Library) Hannabuss, Stuart. “Being negligent and liable: a challenge for information professional.” Library Management incorporating Librarian Career Development, 21. 6. (2000): 316-329. In recent years, increasing attention appears to have been paid by information professional negligence and liability. Key legal issues are discussed, and negligence and liability is examined in the electronic domain. It is suggested that the commercialization of the information marketplace and growing awareness of negligence and liability issues are encouraging information professionals to look to a mixture of law, ethics, and self-interest for personal and personal and professional effectiveness security. (UKM Library) Hui Chun, C. A Knowledge engineering approach to developing e-libraries for mobile learning. The Electronic Library Journal. vol. 26 (3)(2008): p.303-317. The Electronic Library is devoted to the applications and implications of new technology, automation, digitisation, the Internet, user interfaces, and networks in all types of libraries, information centres and museums throughout the world as well as the development of software and hardware for such applications. It provides a vehicle for the latest research and ongoing developments in today's digital library and information environments in different countries, and offers practical advice, useful information and descriptions of specific applications around the globe. The audiences for this journal normally are senior library managers, collection development officers, acquisitions librarians, reference librarians and other professionals. (PTAR:Puncak Perdana) Immroth, Barbara. et. al. “ Library services to youth of Hispanic heritage.” Public Library Quarterly. 20 (1-4) (2001): 71. 32
  26. 26. This article discusses the library services attuned for young people of Hispanic heritage, to their specific needs and interest which are crucial. May librarians struggle with how to properly create and maintain library programs and a collection that are suitable to the needs of Hispanic youth. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Kneale, Ruth. “ Spectacles: How modern culture sees librarian.” Marketing Library Services. 22 (4) (July-August 2008): 5. This article discusses about libraries and librarians that play important role inmodern society and it also highlighted how librarians are portrayed in modern life and how they face the challenge that are getting complicated and complex. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Kniffel, Leonard. “ 8 years later Laura Bush: Librarian in the white house.” American Libraries. 39 (11) (December 2008): 42-44. This article discusses about Laura Bush, which look back at the First Lady’s ambitions, accomplishments, and challenges as the teacher-librarian wife of President George W. Bush. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Magazines Busetti, Max S.(ed.). From loss to profit: making fee-for services unsuccessful and Global sourcing: one company’s approach to managing information services. Information Outlook. Sept 2008. 12-19. This magazine focus on management which it features two article which are From loss to profit: making fee-for services unsuccessful and Global sourcing: one company’s approach to managing information services. Besides those articles, this magazine also includes information on news, sites, and technologies. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Coult, Graham.(ed.). Digital Britain- perspectives from the British Library. Managing Information. May 2009. 32
  27. 27. This magazine is a leading and very well read magazine for information managers, knowledge managers, librarians, web masters, and anyone else who has to manage information effectively. This magazine is available in both print and online version. It features a combination of high-calibre features top level interviews, analysis and practical solutions all are packaged in a readable and attractive style. This issue focus on IT security update, business intelligence and the special feature in this issue are the article titled Digital Britain- perspectives from the British Library. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Cunningham, Adrian. Digital Curation/ Digital Archiving: A view from the National Archives of Australia. The American Archivists. March 2008. This issue provides timely and informed perspectives on the archival enterprise in the twenty-first century. One of the articles in this issue explore the archival role in the digital universe where technology makes all document look like buckets of bits. In “Digital Curation/ Digital Archiving: A view from the National Archives of Australia”, Adrian Cunningham decries the blurring of important professional distinction among digital curators, digital librarians, and digital archivist. He delineates the distinctly Australian strategy of beginning digital preservation with the records creators to ensure that good records are created and kept, rather than waiting at the door of the archives to see what comes in. The National Archives of Australia leverages the role of archivist and records managers in setting standards for digital record keeping within the parent organization. (UKM Library) Grimshaw, Anne (ed.). Information Management & Technology. Vol. 39. 3. England: Cimtech Limited, 2006. This magazine focus on electronic document, records and content management, business processes and compliance in the NHS and healthcare and hospital trusts. Among articles features in this issues are Mind the gap: digital preservation, Central records management, Making content king, Small is beautiful and this magazine also included with the case studies, product review and abstracts. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science. Vol. 13. 2. Kuala Lumpur: Faculty of Computer Science and Information, University of Malaya, 2008. The Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science is published semi-annually in July and December by the Library and Information Science Unit, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Malaya. This journal publishes original articles based on professional policies, practices, principles and 32
  28. 28. progress in the field of library and information science. It is aims to provide forum for communication among library and information professionals, to introduce new concepts, systems and technology. This journal also being indexed and abstracted by Social Sciences Citation Index, Social Scisearch, Journal Citations Reports, Scopus, LISA (Library and Information Science Abstacts), Library Literature, and Journal of Academic Librarianship. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Newspapers IT Services Expected to Grow 12% this year. STAR, 17 December 2009 , B4. This article gave the survey conducted by IDC Malaysia IT services research about the Malaysian’s spending on Information Technology (IT) services will grow 11% to 12% in 2009, as the local IT services market is more resilient to the global IT downturn. It also shows the top 10 predictions that expected to be the result of the growth. (Raja Tun Uda Library, Shah Alam) CD-ROM 32
  29. 29. Knowledge communities: rising to the performance challenge (2008). Special Library Conference 2008 [CD-ROM], Petronas and Persatuan Pustakawan Malaysia (2008, February 18-20). This CD-ROM is a compilation of the 2nd series of the Special Library Conference (SLib 2008) with the theme Knowledge communities: rising to the performance challenge held in KLCC, Convention Centre Kuala Lumpur. This CD comprises for more than 50 authors who are expert in their field in Malaysia especially in the library, information, knowledge filed and etc. The knowledge and understanding of the subject discussed in the Conference will certainly be instrumental in shaping and nurturing the critical minds of a knowledge society and in preparing new Leaders to be more information proficient and empowering. (KM Centre: BNM) Online/CD-ROM Business Sourcebook. US: Bowker-Saur, 1999. Online/CD ROM Business sourcebook contains 397 pages is the only evaluative guide to electronic business database. It is designed to indicate to the business user those databases that are likely to be of the most use in searching for a particular category of information. The arrangement of databases within the sourcebook is by chapter. Chapters on filtering services and the Internet are also included. Within each chapter, the databases are arranged by the following geographical regions. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Online Article Bikson, Tora. “Carrying authentic, understandable and usable digital records through time.” 3 Sept 2009 < report_4.pdf>. In 1999, the research report 'Digital Preservation: Carrying Authentic, Understandable and Usable Digital Records Through Time' was drawn up. In this report the possibilities of a few technologies and approaches were explored for the long term preservation of digital records. The report shows that it is not yet possible to make a responsible choice from these technologies and approaches. According to the recommendations of the researchers, the Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations and the Ministry of Eductation, Culture and Sciences (the National Archives) decided to establish a 'Testbed' to gain the essential knowledge and experience. The Digital Preservation Testbed is carrying out experiments according to pre-defined research questions to establish the best preservation approach or combination of approaches. The Testbed will be focusing its attention on three different digital preservation approaches - Migration; Emulation; and XML - evaluating the effectiveness of these approaches, their limitations, costs, risks, uses, and resource requirements. (WWW) Filip, Boudrez. “Digital signatures and electronic records.”2005. 8 Sept 2009, 32
  30. 30. <>. Electronic records have the advantage that they are reusable. One can very quickly adapt a record or compile a new record on the basis of an existing one. This digital advantage is at the same time a vulnerability because adaptations or changes are not always observable. Because of this, the reliability of electronic records might be questioned. Finding methods for guaranteeing the reliability of digital documents in general, or electronic records in particular, is the subject of research in various professional fields. At present, one of the most widely suggested solutions is digital signing electronic records. More specifically, the use of asymmetric cryptography and the digital signature is advanced as a proof of authenticity and integrity for electronic records. This technique might also be usable to ensure the reliability of electronic records. (WWW) Online databases Wallis, Jake. Digital directions: cyberspace, information literacy and the information society, Library Review, vol 54 (4). p. 220, 2005 <> This article based on the author’s opinion and experiences in digital library research, as a citizen of an information society and as a worker in the knowledge economy. This article is important for an information literacy skill set for citizens of the modern information society, and that the role of library and information professionals may have to evolve, from intermediaries to facilitators and trainers. Librarians and information professionals face less demand for their traditional role as intermediaries. Information literacy is defined and described as a vital skill set for citizens of information societies. It is suggested that librarians and information professionals are needed to pass on these skills to citizens at all levels of society for economic, social and personal empowerment. (KM Centre: BNM) Video 32
  31. 31. Intranets for Business. Videocassette. Australia: Ash Quarry Productions, 2005. 15 minutes. This video describes the increasing use of intranets within organizations. Discover just what intranets are, how they work and what benefits they can provide. Key learning points include: the difference between the internet, intranets and extranets; using digital assets (such as film on demand); potential uses of intranets; using extranets to enhance customer service; keeping intranets up to date; dealing with security and confidentiality. The program features psychologist Peter Quarry, interviewing Steve Cohen, Data Systems West, USA. (KM Centre: BNM) Success Factors for Virtual Teams. Videocassette. Australia: Ash Quarry Productions, 2005. 14 minutes. In this video, the audience can learn from the experiences of IBM and Lotus to uncover the factors that will contribute to virtual team success. The audience can gain valuable insights whether they are a manager, team leader or even a new virtual team member. The key learning include the typical mistakes made in setting up virtual team, how multimedia technology creates richer communication and problems with email and “email bullying, developing trust in a virtual work environment; getting a virtual team to collaborate together; using the ‘virtual tearoom’. The video program features psychologist Peter Quarry, interviewing Ron Young, Chief Executive, Knowledge Associates, United Kingdom. (KM Centre: BNM) Bulletin 32
  32. 32. Siti Zakiah Aman. Sharing the nation’s knowledge and cultural heritage through PERDANA (National digital library system: issues and challenges). Sekitar Perpustakaan. Kuala Lumpur: Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia. (2003), bil. 36/2003. This bulletin gives informtion about the issues and challenges of National Digital Library System (PERDANA). (Raja Tun Uda Library, Shah Alam) Conferences papers Dixon, Diana. “ Attracting diverse audience.” Library & Information Update. U.K. Liverpool, December 2008. This conference discusses the reflection of the community, imaginative ways to present collections, workplace diversity, and openness to change. It stated that museums and libraries have many common concerns. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Wright, Duncan. “School libraries: Leading learning.” The School Librarian. Glasgow: Strathelyde University. 13-15 June 2008. This conference welcomed over 160 school librarians to their annual Weekend Course and it was to prove to be another highly successful event. This conference discusses about the importance of school libraries in providing continuing learning for school students and to enhance their interest in using school library as the primary resource to get knowledge. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Dissertation Schlachter, Gail A. and Thomison, Dennis. Library Science Dissertations, 1973-1981 an annotated bibliography. Colorado: Libraries Unlimited. This book provides bibliographic control over doctoral dissertations produced in library schools as well as over dissertations completed in other departments which related to the practice or the philosophy of the profession. A number of primary efforts have provided partial bibliographic control over doctoral studies in the library field. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Pamphlet 32
  33. 33. Information in the Service of Society. International Federation for Information and documentation (FID). This pamphlet tells about the functions of International Federation for Information and Documentation (FID). FID has played a leading role in developing information and documentation techniques and services and promoting the interests of information specialists and users from around the world for more than 100 years. It has institutional and individual members in some 75 countries. FID is recognized as a leader among international non-governmental organizations concerned with information and documentation activities worldwide. In this pamphlet, it describes about the FID work, membership benefits, publications, website, exhibitions, conference and etc. (Raja Tun Uda Library, Shah Alam) Proceedings Cernish, Graham P. ASLIB Conference Proceedings: Libraries: Peacemakers in the New Electronic World. 18-19 July 1995. London: Aslib, The Association for Information mgt., 1995. This proceeding is focus on a conference on development that have been made to lead some people in Information Industry to perceive a conflict between libraries and the owners of intellectual property. Also, it discusses the role of library and librarian in facing the challenge in information industry. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Loertscher, David V.. Building Knowledge-rich Environments for Youth: A World- wide Challenge for School Libraries. Presented in Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship and the Sixth International Forum on Research in School Librarianship. 5- 9 August 2002 held in Petaling Jaya. (International Association of School Librarianship: Seattle). 2002. This paper written by David V.Loertscher, Professor of the School of Library and Information Science. This people outlines the development of a digital school library intranet as an information-rich environment designed to provide a nurturing and safe environment for both students and teachers throughout the school and extending into the home. Emphasis is given to the certain creation of individualized views of the intranet by both students and teachers complete with academic, career/professional and personal information spaces. Built upon this environment, the author proposes strategies designed to stimulate the rise of a knowledge-rich environment or learning community using concepts of collaboration, information literacy, user control, and the phenomenon of small work networks. (Raja Tun Uda Library, Shah Alam) 32
  34. 34. Wilkinson, E. H., Proceedings 15th Biennial Conference. Sydney: Library Association of Australia. 1971: 18-35. This proceeding was held in Adelaide from 25th to 29th August, 1969 was the largest conference of the Association to that date. This was partly a reflection of the expanding horizons of librarianship and information science and partly a result of the need in planning for a large conference to allow scope for many specialized group to come together to hear and discuss topic of common interest. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Report Eden, Brad. “Information visualization.” Library Technology Reports. 41 (1) (January-December 2005). Chicago: American Library Association, 2005: 7-15. This report highlighted introductory material and a history and discussion of various information visualization applications, it also focuses exclusively on 2D and 3D issues, products and services related to information visualization and discussion related to the popularity of 2D information landscapes or posters set in a 3D world. (PTAR: Puncak Perdana) Standard Information Technology - Security Techniques – Evaluation Criteria Forit Security – Part 3: Security Assurance Requirements. p. 162. MS ISO/IEC 15408-3:2005. This part of ISO/IEC 15408 defines the assurance requirements of ISO/IEC 15408. It includes the evaluation assurance levels (EALs) that define a scale for measuring assurance, the individual assurance components from which the assurance levels are composed, and the criteria for evaluation of PPs and STs. (KM Centre: BNM) 32