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Asia Pacific Internet Leadership Program

APNIC
APNIC

APNIC's Director General, Paul Wilson, gives an outline on the Internet, how it works, and how it is governed.

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How the Internet works
… and why!
Asia Pacific Internet Leadership Program
Delhi
3 August 2014
Internet Fundamentals
• What is the Internet?
• Layers and standards
• Internet Addressing
• … Naming
• … Governance
• … Issues and Challenges
What is the Internet?
• “A network of networks”
– … using IP, the Internet Protocol?
• A collection of useful online applications
– … connected by competing service providers?
• A platform for innovation
– … and for social and economic development?
• A borderless “Cyberspace”
– … inhabited by free-roaming netizens?
• A critical global infrastructure
– … and enabler of e-commerce, e-governance, e-citizenship… ?
How did we get here…
• Initially, research project (70-80s)
– Open, cooperative, public domain
– Highly collaborative environment
– “Rough consensus and running code”
• Then, product of liberalisation (90s)
– Also, catalyst for deregulation
– Highly competitive environment
– Still free to join and use
• Now, public utility and critical infrastructure
(2000 and beyond)
– Internet governance (re-regulation?) is a recent afterthought
4
5
– and many more: Novell, Microsoft etc etc etc
• User choices determined by vendor
• Proprietary systems
• Limited interconnection
Before the Internet…
Applications
Network
OS
Hardware
Applications
Network
OS
Hardware
Applications
Network
OS
Hardware
So, Why is the Internet?
• Global
– “End-to-End”
– Uniform
• “Dumb”
– Lightweight and efficient
– Intelligence at the edges, in applications and devices
• Neutral
– By default
• Open
– No/Low barrier to entry
– Free standards
– Multistakeholder governance (MOTL)

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Asia Pacific Internet Leadership Program

  • 1. How the Internet works … and why! Asia Pacific Internet Leadership Program Delhi 3 August 2014
  • 2. Internet Fundamentals • What is the Internet? • Layers and standards • Internet Addressing • … Naming • … Governance • … Issues and Challenges
  • 3. What is the Internet? • “A network of networks” – … using IP, the Internet Protocol? • A collection of useful online applications – … connected by competing service providers? • A platform for innovation – … and for social and economic development? • A borderless “Cyberspace” – … inhabited by free-roaming netizens? • A critical global infrastructure – … and enabler of e-commerce, e-governance, e-citizenship… ?
  • 4. How did we get here… • Initially, research project (70-80s) – Open, cooperative, public domain – Highly collaborative environment – “Rough consensus and running code” • Then, product of liberalisation (90s) – Also, catalyst for deregulation – Highly competitive environment – Still free to join and use • Now, public utility and critical infrastructure (2000 and beyond) – Internet governance (re-regulation?) is a recent afterthought 4
  • 5. 5 – and many more: Novell, Microsoft etc etc etc • User choices determined by vendor • Proprietary systems • Limited interconnection Before the Internet… Applications Network OS Hardware Applications Network OS Hardware Applications Network OS Hardware
  • 6. So, Why is the Internet? • Global – “End-to-End” – Uniform • “Dumb” – Lightweight and efficient – Intelligence at the edges, in applications and devices • Neutral – By default • Open – No/Low barrier to entry – Free standards – Multistakeholder governance (MOTL)
  • 8. Layers – in the telephone network Wires Exchanges Devices
  • 9. Layers – according to ISO OSI 7: Application 6: Presentation 5: Session 4: Transport 3: Network 2: Link 1: Physical
  • 10. Layers – in practice Phone/Fax/SMS TV/VOD/conf “The Internet” Applications Fixed, Dialup/ISDN Mobile/2G Cable/ADSL Infrastructure Voice Video Data Network
  • 11. Layers – in the Internet 11 Voice, email, IM Video, TV, conf WWW, +++ DNS Applications 802.11x/WiMax Mobile/4G/LTE Cable/xDSLx FTTH, ETTH Infrastructure Internet Network
  • 12. So, what is a standard? • Standards operate at different levels of the protocol stack – In fact they define the protocol stack • A standard (or protocol) is simply an agreement – among members of a community, – on a set of guidelines or rules, – which allow cooperation (interoperability), – and often, agreed by a recognised standards body such as ISO, ITU, W3C or IETF. • An open standard is a standard which is – Developed through open and accessible processes – Freely accessible, implementable and usable – Available without barriers such as licenses and fees. – … “ideally”, at least. 12
  • 13. 13 Communications standards Must agree on: language, medium… The Internet Telco Telco Telco Telco ISP ISP ISP DNS RIR DNS Let’s use the Internet! ?
  • 16. What’s an IP Address? • The fundamental Internet address – Every address must be unique within the network – Every device must have an address – Every network must have a block (or more) or addresses • A finite “Common Resource” – Managed in the common interest – According to openly-defined policies • Please learn to distinguish: – Domain names (eg rigf.asia) – Email addresses (eg pwilson@apnic.net) – and IP and Intellectual Property
  • 17. IP Addresses in use… Traffic 202.12.29.0/24 The Internet Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 202.12.29.0/24 … Announce 202.12.29.0/24 202.12.29.0/24 R
  • 18. Internet Address Routing The Internet Net Net Net Net Net Net Net Net Net Net Net Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table 4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … Global Routing Table
  • 19. Global Routing Table – IPv4 http://bgp.potaroo.net/as1221/bgp-active.html
  • 20. Where do IP Addresses come from? Definition Allocation Allocation Assignment End user RIRs
  • 23. IPv4 vs IPv6 • IPv4 – 32-bit* number: 232 = ~4 billion addresses – Example: 202.12.29.142 – Existing supply is very nearly exhausted • IPv6 – 128-bit* number: 2128 = 340 billion billion billion billion – Example: FE38:DCE3:124C:C1A2:BA03:6735:EF1C:683D – Existing supply should/must last for many decades • The transition – Underway since 2000 – Much slower than expected – Not really necessary while IPv4 addresses available * bit = binary digit
  • 24. Why IPv6? • IPv4 address supply is exhausted – New networks require addresses – Stop-gap measures are damaging • The Internet is growing fast – Broadband, mobile, Internet of Things • IPv6 is the only viable option we have now – Much larger address space than IPv4 – Enable sustainable growth of the Internet – Support the emergence of new technologies
  • 26. Private addresses and NAT 10.0.0.1 ..2 ..3 ..4 ISP 202.12.29.0/24 The Internet 202.12.29.1 … .2 … .3 … .4 *AKA home router, hotspot, etc NAT* 202.12.29.32
  • 27. Private addresses and NAT Internet 10.0.0.202 202.12.29.32 NAT ? Extn 202 Phone Network 02 6262 9898 PABX
  • 29. Global Routing Table – IPv6 http://bgp.potaroo.net/v6/as2.0/
  • 31. Global IPv6 deployment leaders ASN Entity Economy IPv6 preferred rate 22394 Cellco Verizon Wireless US 63.39 6848 Telenet N.V BE 45.73 10091 StarHub Cable Vision Ltd SG 43.48 18126 CTCX Chubu Telecommunications Company; Inc. JP 37.72 31334 Kabel Deutschland Vertrieb und Service GmbH DE 34.78 2516 KDDI KDDI CORPORATION JP 30.29 3303 Swisscom Ltd CH 27.00 29562 Kable BW GmbH DE 25.88 55430 STARHUBINTERNET-AS-NGNBN Starhub Internet Pte Ltd SG 24.93 21928 T-Mobile USA US 24.81 41164 GET Norway NO 20.38 7018 AT&T US 20.36 12322 Free SAS FR 19.89 7922 Comcast Cable Communications US 19.83 4739 INTERNODE-AS Internode Pty Ltd AU 19.37 http://labs.apnic.net/ipv6-measurement/AS/ 24/06/2014
  • 33. Internet Exchange Points ISP ISP The Internet ISP Local services DNS root servers Data centres etc ISP ISP ISP
  • 34. Names
  • 36. Domain Name System • Converts domain names to IP addresses – Like a phone book – A “critical infrastructure service” on the Internet – A specialised database service, essentially • Highly distributed and reliable – Distributed servers – Distributed administration – Distributed authority (through “delegation”) – Redundancy/secondary services, caching etc – Security deployment via DNSSEC
  • 37. Using the DNS The Internet www.apnic.net www.apnic.net? 202.12.29.194 2001:dc0:2001:11::211 DNS 2001:0C00:8888:: 2001:dc0:2001:11::211
  • 38. DNS name hierarchy whois www www www www .The “root” net org com asia in… …TLDs apnic iana …. rigf nixi SLDs www.rigf.asia.
  • 39. Domain name resolution .rigf.asia server .asia server www.edu.au server Root server 198.41.0.4 www.rigf.asia? “Ask 128.250.1.21” “Ask 8.50.200.5” “Ask 132.234.1.1” “132.234.250.31” “132.234.250.31” www.rigf.asia? Local resolver www.rigf.asia? 210.80.58.34 132.234.250.31 *All IP addresses are fabricated
  • 40. What’s in a nameserver? • Authority for a particular zone eg “rigf.asia” • The “zonefile” for that zone • Zonefile records including – A: www = “203.12.45.91” (IPv4 address for this name) – AAAA: www = “2001:FC03::203:EFEF” (IPv6 address) – NS: www = “220.35.35.1” (delegation to another server) • In real life, much more than this – Caches of recent queries – Secondary (backup) server configurations – Configuration and tuning settings – Many more record types – Replication using the “anycast” technique
  • 41. What’s in a root nameserver? • The all-important “root zone file” • Delegation records for all TLDs – gTLDs such as: .com .org .asia etc – ccTLDs such as: .in .us .cn .ch .tv etc – IDN TLDs: .网络 (Wǎngluò for net) and .公司 (Gōngsī for com) • Actually, there are 13 distinct root operations – Most have a different operator – Named A, B, C, … L and M – Each can have multiple secondaries – Each can have many “anycast” copies/clones/instances – Now there are many hundreds of individual root servers globally
  • 42. Authority in the DNS • Root zone – Managed by ICANN under USG authority – New TLDs can be created under new ICANN framework • TLDs – gTLDs and ccTLDs – Authority is delegated technically by ICANN – gTLDs to nonprofit and commercial Registry organisations – ccTLDs to authorities specified (mainly) by National administrations – Registry authorities may rely on technical service providers • SLDs and below – In general, under sole authority of the TLD – Some have “open second level” – Some have .com .edu .org etc; some have .co .ac .or etc
  • 44. What is Internet Governance? • Any aspect of the Internet which requires regulation, coordination or oversight – Cybercrime, security, spam, phishing, hacking – Content regulation – Commerce, competition, trade and taxation – Intellectual property – Development and education, capacity building – Equity of access – Technical standards and coordination • None of these are completely new – Most fall under existing governance systems
  • 45. “Content Layer” “Code Layer” “Physical Layer” DiploFoundation www.diplomacy.edu Lawrence Lessig www.lessig.org Internet Governance
  • 46. “The Internet tradition” • For thirty years, the Internet and its coordination structures have evolved hand-in-hand – Open, bottom-up processes • Successes recognised in WSIS – “Internet Governance” – “Multistakeholder Model” – These things were discovered, not invented, by WSIS • Internet Governance is now a critical issue – “Multistakeholder” vs intergovernmental approaches – But continuous improvement/evolution will continue – Discussions will go on for many years… 46
  • 47. Internet Governance Forum • The multistakeholder model in action – Open discussions that can help inform policy making on all aspects of Internet governance – “For decision makers not for decision making” • Regional IGFs – Delhi, August 2014 • Global IGFs – Istanbul, September 2014 • National events too – IN,BD, AU, NZ… 47
  • 48. Internet technical coordination • A.K.A. the “code layer” (Lessig) • One aspect of Internet governance –Internet standards development –DNS administration –DNS infrastructure coordination –IP address and related resource management • Includes activities of several types –Administrative –Operational –Standards and technical policy –Internet address management (RIRs) 48
  • 50. RIR Policy Process OPEN TRANSPARENT‘BOTTOM UP’ Anyone can participate All processes documented and freely available Internet community proposes and approves policy
  • 51. OPEN TRANSPARENT‘BOTTOM UP’ RIR Policy Process Need Discuss ConsensusImplement Evaluate
  • 52. Other communities • Technical standards – Internet Engineering Task Force – “RFC” series of documents • Names – Registries, Registrars, Business, Individual users – GNSO, ccNSO (and other CCs) • Numbers – Number Resource Organisation (umbrella for RIRs) – ASO for global policy coordination • ICANN – Umbrella for coordination of names and numbers (mostly names)
  • 54. Internet Fundamentals – Recap • What is the Internet? – Why is is successful? – What are we taking for granted? • Layers and Standards – Essential concepts, from the cables to the politics • Internet Addressing and Naming – The critical technical resources of the Internet – Technical factors must be understood • Internet Governance – Intrinsic to the the Internet’s success – Will continue while the Internet keeps growing and changing!