Metaphor • Example:Metaphor is when you • "I am a rainbow" is a example ofuse two nouns and metaphor because it is comparingcompare or contrast two nouns, a person, and a rainbow,them to one another. but does not use like or as.Unlike simile, youdont use "like" or "as"in the comparison.
• Example:Simile • Shrek: Ogres are like onions. Donkey: They stink?A figure of speech in Shrek: Yes. No!which things different Donkey: They make you cry?in kind or quality are Shrek: No!compared by the use Donkey: You leave them out in theof the word like or as sun, they get all brown, start sprouting little white hairs. Shrek: No! Layers! Onions have layers! (Shrek, 2001)
• Example:Irony • I have no doubt your theatrical performance will receive the praiseThe use of words to conveythe opposite of their literal it so richly deserves.meaning; a statement orsituation where themeaning is contradicted bythe appearance orpresentation of the idea
• Example:Personification • She did not realize that opportunity was knocking at her doorAssigns the qualities of aperson to something thatisn’t human or in somecases to something thatisn’t alive.•Can be used to emphasizea point
• Examples:Symbol • A heart means loveSomething that represents • Tears- Emotionsomething else by • Red light means stopassociation, resemblance,or convention • Light bulb means “new idea”
• Examples:Pun • Sir Lancelot once had a very bad dram about his horse. It was a knightA play of words, either ondifferent senses of the mare.same word or on the • Our social studies teacher says thatsimilar sense or sound of her globe means the world to her.different words.
• Example:Motif • Moon shadows(shades of darkness)A recurring theme or • A candle(a light in darkness)verbal pattern in a single • A ray of sunshine(through thetext or a number of darkness)different texts
• Example:Understatement • I have to have this operation. It isn’t very serious. I just have a tumor onWhen a writer or speakerdeliberately makes a my brainsituation seem lessimportant or serious thanit is.
• Example:Euphemism • Passed away – diedThe substitution of • I’m busy – Leave me the hellan inoffensive term alonefor one considered • Your being let go – Your Firedoffensively explicit
• Examples:Hyperbole • It was so cold, I saw polar bears wearing jackets.An extremeexaggeration used • I am so hungry I can eat a horseto make a point. • I had a ton of homework•Opposite of anunderstatement
• Example:Litote • “Not attractive” • “You are not wrong”Is a figure of • “Not unlike…”speech in whichunderstatement isemployed for arhetorical effectwhen an idea isexpressed by adenial of itsopposite,principally adouble negative.
• Example:Metonymy • Crown is for loyaltyIn which one wordor phrase is • Fear gives wingssubstituted foranother which it isclosely associated;describessomethingindirectly byreferring to thethings around it
• Example:Oxymoron • Great DepressionIn which • Criminal Justiceincongruous or • Hell’s Angelscontradictoryterms appear sideby side. Known as acompressedparadox
• Example:Paradox • “The swiftest traveler is he that goes afoot.”In which a • “War is Peace.”statement • “Freedom is slavery.”appears to • “Ignorance is strength.”contradict itself
• Example:Synecdoche • White-collar criminalsIn which a part is used to • All hands on deckrepresent the whole or the • Friends, Romans, countrymen, lendwhole for a part. me your ears.•Treated as a type ofmetonymy
• Example:Allegory • The idea of human nature and the need to put oneself ahead of othersThe rhetorical strategy ofextending a metaphor could not be represented betterthrough an entire narrative than the classic tale of “Lord of theso that object, persons, Flies”. The novel describes the storyand actions in the text are of a group of boys stuck on aequated with meaning that deserted island, representedlie outside the text allegorically through depictions of a rational mind, democracy, order and civility.