L O O K I N G AT C O M P U T E R S :
U N D E R S TA N D I N G T H E PA R T S
What is a computer and
6. What is on the
What is the difference
between data and
7. Where are information and
What are bits and bytes
and how they are
Devices that can be used
to transfer data to your
Devices that can be used
to get information from
8. How are devices connected
to the computer.
9. What is the best way to
turn your computer on and
off and when should this
10. How to set up your
computer to avoid strain or
A computer is a data processing device.
Computers have four main functions:
Input: It gathers data, or allows users
to enter data.
Process: It manipulates, calculates,
or organizes that data into
Output: It displays data and
information in a form suitable for the
Storage: It saves data and
information for later use.
Data is a representation of a fact, a figure,
or an idea. It can be a word, a number, a
picture or the recording of a sound.
Information is data that has been
organized or presented in a meaningful
fashion. For example, when you input the
data of your clients name, address and
phone number this then becomes useful to
you in the form of your client’s
Self Quiz: Think of 3 things that are considered
data and can be processed into information.
Computers works in a language called binary language that is consists of only two digits: 0 and 1.
A bit is the short for a binary digit 0 or 1. Eight binary digit together is called one byte. For example,
the letter M in binary digit is 01001101. These digits are also used to represent the quantity of data and
information the computer inputs and outputs.
Hardware and Software are used to process data into information.
Hardware is any part of the computer that
you can physically touch.
Software is the set of computer programs
that allows the hardware to perform
Application software is the set of programs
you use on a computer to help you carry
out tasks such as typing a document or
creating a spreadsheet.
System software is the set of programs that
allows your computer’s hardware devices
and application software to work together.
Self Quiz: Identify 3 application software that
you use on a regular basis.
An input device allows you to enter data
such as text, images and sounds and
instructions into your computer.
Examples of input devices are:
EPOS Digital Pen
An output device allows you to send
processed data out of your computer in the
form of texts, pictures, sounds of videos.
Examples of output devices are:
Produces soft copies such as videos and sounds.
Produces hard copies such as printed document or picture.
Speakers and headphones
Produces sounds such as audio clips.
Converts a computer image to large screen usually used in
classrooms or seminars.
A motherboard is a special circuit board
in the system unit that contains the central
processing unit (CPU), the memory
(RAM) chips, the slots available for
expansion cards; all of the other boards
such as the video and sound cards connect
to it to receive power and to
Self Quiz: How does the processing and memory
on the motherboard work?
(Refer to page 52-53 of text.)
A hard drive is your computer’s primary
device for permanent storage of software
Internal hard drive resides within the
system unit and usually holds all
permanently stored programs and data.
External hard drive resides outside the
system unit and connect to the
computer through a USB or FireWire
Other devices used for storage
Flash memory card
A port is an interface through which
external devices are connected to the
Types of ports are:
Serial and Parallel
Audio and Video
Self Quiz: Where are ports found on a computer?
Cold Boot: Powering on turned your
computer from a completely turned off
state. For example turning on your
computer in the morning.
The power on button is normally on the
front of your computer. This button is
used to turn on your computer, however it
should not be used to turn off your
The computer needs the power supply
which is housed inside the system unit
which is transformed from the wall
voltage to the voltages required by
Sleep Mode: A low-power mode for the
computer that saves electric power and
saves the last used settings.
Hibernate: A power-management mode
that saves the current state of the current
system to the computer’s hard drive.
Warm Boot: Restarting your computer
while it’s powered on.
Ergonomics is how a user sets up his or
her computer and other equipment to
minimize the risks of injury or
Injuries that occurs on the Go.
Ways to prevent strain injuries
while using your computer:
Strain injury such as DeQuervain’s
caused from typing text messages
Hearing loss from loud levels of
sounds in ear buds.
Position your monitor correctly.
Purchase an adjustable chair.
Blur vision caused by squinting to
see tiny screens on cell phones.
Assume a proper position while
Burn of legs from heat generated by
Ensure the lighting is adequate.
Pain caused from using tablets for
long periods of time in an
What are the four main functions on a computer?
What is the difference between data and information?
What is a byte?
List 3 devices that are used to put data into your computer.
List 3 device that are used to get information from out of your computer.
Describe the motherboard of a computer.
List 3 storage devices where you can store information and programs.
List 3 ways how you can connect a device to your computer.
What is the best way to turn your computer on and off?
10) List the ways in which to properly set up your computer to avoid strain and injury.