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Performance appraisals


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Training Program for Line Managers on how to conduct effective appraisals

Published in: Business
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Performance appraisals

  1. 1. A Management Tool Presented by Nicole Ashe November 2008 Performance Appraisals
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a face-to-face discussion in which one employee's work is discussed, reviewed, and appraised by another, using an agreed and understood framework. </li></ul></ul>5-Sep-08
  3. 3. Expectations <ul><li>What do I/we want from this course? </li></ul><ul><li>One thing I want to learn is… </li></ul><ul><li>I will know the course has been successful if… </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  4. 4. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>By the end of the sessions you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set development goals that get results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document critical incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write the appraisal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct an appraisal interview </li></ul></ul>5-Sep-08
  5. 5. Appraisals that get results Plan & Set Goals Measurable based on PD or Development Plan Regular Feedback Informal feedback on a regular basis 1:1 Review Achievements April Half yearly meeting to review achievements and learning New Plan Identify and plan new development areas Informal Feedback Regularly provide feedback on achievements & learning Annual Review October Annual meeting to review achievements
  6. 6. Overview Development & Coaching Performance Appraisal Critical incident and documentation Performance Monitoring Performance planning & goal setting Performance Management
  7. 7. Performance Planning -Get results! Goal Setting
  8. 8. Setting Performance Goals <ul><li>Definition – What is a goal? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an agreed upon statement of what an employee will achieve in a specified period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each goal should be measurable, attainable, moderately difficult and accepted by the employee </li></ul></ul>5-Sep-08
  9. 9. Goal Setting <ul><li>An effective goal should be: SMARTA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific – it should be very clear what the goal is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurable – able to be measured in a transparent and consistent way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievable – in view of both parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic – challenging but not overwhelming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timely – grounded within a timeframe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed – by both parties </li></ul></ul>5-Sep-08
  10. 10. Goal Structure 5-Sep-08 Beginning Middle End Reduce Advertising costs By over 5% from previous year Kick Goal against Ecuador Before end of first half
  11. 11. Goal Achievement 5-Sep-08
  12. 12. Goal Examples 5-Sep-08 Delegate Analyses of safety reports Before end of financial year Increase Sales to retail sector By 15% over previous year Review Staff induction with all line managers Prior to graduate job offers Beginning Middle End
  13. 13. How to write goals? <ul><li>Most goals relate to productivity e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time to produce X </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost per unit of X </li></ul></ul>5-Sep-08
  14. 14. Difficult to measure <ul><li>There may be times when an employee has goals that you cannot measure, you need to put some criteria in place for evaluating the level of achievement e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecasting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee development </li></ul></ul>5-Sep-08
  15. 15. Summary <ul><li>Performance planning establishes expectations and priorities of a job. Planning for performance includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting goals to be achieved for each individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining when the goals and targets will be reviewed </li></ul></ul>5-Sep-08
  16. 16. The Basics Giving Feedback
  17. 17. Feedback n 1: the flow of information among associates, usually as an evaluation of a project or work completed 2: the sharing of observations about job performance or work related behaviours 3: the first step toward positive, productive change
  18. 18. What feedback is <ul><li>Critical part of managing people </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforces preferred behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>Change and improve unsatisfactory behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Multidirectional </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  19. 19. Why is feedback important? <ul><li>Reinforcing or encouraging an effective way of working </li></ul><ul><li>Redirecting a behaviour or pointing out a more productive path of action </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing for better performance </li></ul><ul><li>Contributing to the learning and development of the recipient </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  20. 20. Feedback? Coaching? Performance Appraisals? What’s the difference? 5-Sep-08 Feedback Coaching Appraisals Purpose To reinforce or change behaviour To improve skills To evaluate past work Participants Any two (or more) people Typically supervisor to direct report, can be multidirectional Supervisor to direct report Place Private and quiet space Depends on the skill to be learned Usually in the supervisors office Tone Casual, though can be more formal Somewhat formal, but relaxed Very formal, often stressful Timing Impromptu as needed or during formal sessions Regular meetings Every 6 months Follow-up Continual Continual Based on Development Plan
  21. 21. When to give feedback? <ul><li>When good work, successful projects and resourceful behaviour need to be recognised </li></ul><ul><li>When the probability of successfully improving a persons skill is high </li></ul><ul><li>When a problem cannot be ignored </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  22. 22. Deciding/Timing <ul><li>Straight Away </li></ul><ul><li>Pause – Consider </li></ul><ul><li>Take Stock </li></ul><ul><li>The right time depends on the situation and on the recipient. Are they ready to accept your message? </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  23. 23. When feedback works & when it doesn’t 5-Sep-08 Straight- forward Difficult
  24. 24. The Sandwich Technique
  25. 25. 4 Step Feedback Model 5-Sep-08 Ask Describe Behaviour Describe Impact Discuss next steps Ineffective: “Jason, pay attention.” Jason, you’ve got a problem.” More Effective: “Jason may I give you some feedback?” or “ Can I share something with you?” Key Words: “May I” Ineffective: “I’m tired of you ticking people off. I can’t cover for you any longer.” More Effective: “ Jason, when you roll your eyes in meetings when others talk; when you say ‘you guys don’t get it’; when you come late to meetings and leave in the middle?” Key Words: “…When you…” Ineffective: “How come you can’t get your reports to me on time lately?.” More Effective: “ Jason, when you roll your eyes and tell others they ‘don't get it”, here’s what happens. We loose good people. You lose opportunities you want, like that last move you didn’t get. I have to bail you out and have conversations like these” Key Words: “Here’s what happens…” Ineffective: “So what you need to do, Jason, is control your temper. That’s not too much to ask, is it?.” More Effective: “ What can you do about this? How can I help you? Any thoughts on how you can eliminate this minor issue” Key Words: “ What are you going to do about this?” or for positive feedback, “thank you – keep it up”
  26. 26. Summary <ul><li>Feedback is about future behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>It’s NOT about the past </li></ul><ul><li>If you want more of the same – affirm that </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t use adjustment feedback as punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Used regularly people will start ASKING for more! </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  27. 27. Documenting & Recording Critical Incidents
  28. 28. What is a critical incident? <ul><li>A critical incident is behaviour that is usually extreme (either good or bad) that needs to be recorded for legal reasons, for disciplinary measures, or for recognising exemplary actions above expectations </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  29. 29. Why keep records? <ul><li>Increases accuracy of the performance appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>It provides evidence to support ratings </li></ul><ul><li>It reduces bias that occurs by not rating only the most recent behaviour </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  30. 30. Examples of significant behaviour <ul><li>Customer called after hours with urgent need for a replacement fitting for an emergency situation. Employee personally delivered fitting </li></ul><ul><li>Made specific suggestion on process that resulted in $50,000 saving over 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Angrily reacted to an incident in the finance department that intimidated other employees and made it more difficult to investigate what happened </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  31. 31. Common Review Errors Writing the Appraisal
  32. 32. Appraisal Form <ul><li>The employee rates themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal returned to you for your rating </li></ul><ul><li>Critical incident documentation will assist you in completing the form </li></ul><ul><li>Add comments to justify your ratings </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  33. 33. Common Errors <ul><li>Contrast Error </li></ul><ul><li>First Impression Error </li></ul><ul><li>Recency Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Halo Effect </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  34. 34. Common Errors <ul><li>Devil Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Similar-to-me effect </li></ul><ul><li>Central Tendency </li></ul><ul><li>Negative or Positive Leniency </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  35. 35. Reduce Error Ratings <ul><li>Ensure that the criteria being used are job related </li></ul><ul><li>Rate employees in relation to the job responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Put other people’s input into proper perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Consider all performance dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t rate people in any order </li></ul><ul><li>Do not compare rating of employees until all evaluations are complete </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  36. 36. Legal Issues <ul><li>There is no substitute for proof </li></ul><ul><li>You must have evidence or records </li></ul><ul><li>Document all performance related discussions </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  37. 37. Points to Remember <ul><li>Keep copies of HR records even if the HR department also has these records </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain accurate performance data </li></ul><ul><li>Meet regularly with employees to provide feedback & information they need to perform well </li></ul><ul><li>No surprises </li></ul><ul><li>Document, document, document! </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  38. 38. How to talk performance Conducting the Review
  39. 39. Preparation <ul><li>Notify the employee </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Allow self appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Plan the interview </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an action plan </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  40. 40. Communication <ul><li>Can be simply summarised as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who : says what: in what way : to whom :with what effect </li></ul></ul>5-Sep-08 Adapted from Nutting, J. et al (1991) The business of communicating, McGraw Hill Book Company, Sydney Sender Receiver Feedback 1 2 3
  41. 41. Discussion <ul><li>Put employee at ease </li></ul><ul><li>Job responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>KPI’s </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement areas </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of performance </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  42. 42. The Review <ul><li>No Surprises </li></ul><ul><li>A formal means to summarise the informal interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on development </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about goals, expectations and resources </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  43. 44. Performance Review Video 5-Sep-08
  44. 45. Successful Review Tips <ul><li>Discuss actual performance data/significant behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Compare data with responsibilities/goals </li></ul><ul><li>Rate performance </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain positive focus </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on solving problems not fault finding </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  45. 46. Successful Review Tips <ul><li>Solicit and use input from employees </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate objectively </li></ul><ul><li>Provide recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss specific actions for you and the employee to take </li></ul><ul><li>Express confidence </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  46. 47. Quiz Time 5-Sep-08
  47. 48. The Next Step <ul><li>Diarise the next review date </li></ul><ul><li>Set up training as needed </li></ul><ul><li>If an employee continues to perform poorly, make them aware of consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Provide positive feedback when you see improvements </li></ul>5-Sep-08
  48. 50. Certificates 5-Sep-08