ROME - GEOGRAPHY Characterized by the Seven Hills and The Tiber River. Situated on the eastern banks of river Tiber. Rome lies to the west of the Apennine Mountains that forms the backbone of peninsular Italy. Experiences a Mediterranean climate. Popularly called the city of seven hills.seven hills were separated by marshy landand the River Tiber. Rome climate very broadly is of the Mediterranean variety. The summer months are warm to mild, and the winters are cold. The rainfall occurs during the winter months between October to January.
THE SEVEN KINGSThe early history of Rome has always been an interesting mixture ofheroic legend and fact. According to legend, Rome was founded in 753BC. Romulus was Romes first king and after him there were 6 more kings.The period traditionally lasted for 244 years (753-509 BC) and is knownabout through the historian Livy who compiled his Great History of Romein a single narrative during the rule of Augustus, which indicates that heascertained his information through various myths and legends.Numa PompiliusSecond legendary Sabine king of Rome (715-673 BC). According to legendhe was king of Rome, successor to Romulus. Most of the religious rites ofancient and modern Rome were developed by him. He was supposedlyresponsible for the pontifices, flamens (sacred priests), vestal virgins, thebuilding of the temple of Janes, and the reorganization of the calendarinto days. His reign was a peaceful one compared with that of TulliusHostilius who succeeded him.
Tullus HostiliusLegendary third king of ancient Rome. 672-641BC. Tullius Hostilius wasfamous for his warlike exploits. He conquered much surrounding territory andadded it to the growing area of land ruled by Rome. During his reign a long,drawn - out war was fought between Rome and Alba Longa. Rome eventuallywon and vanquished her rival city. The reign of Tullius Hostilius symbolizes theambitious and warlike nature of the Roman people. According to legend helevelled Rome to the ground in 665 BC.Ancus MartiusLegendary fourth king of ancient Rome (640-616 BC). This king issupposed to have enlarged the area of Rome.Tarquinius Priscus(Lucius Tarquinius Priscus). The legendary fifth king of Rome (616-578 BC).
Servius TullusThe legendary sixth king of ancient Rome 578 - 534 BC who built the city wallsand whose accession to the throne was prophesied by Tanaquil, the widow ofPriscus. He was assassinated by his daughter Tullia and her husband Tarquin.Tarquinius Superbus(Lucius Tarquinius Superbus) "Tarquin the Proud" was the legendaryseventh king of ancient Rome. (534-510 BC). He was the last ofthe Tarquins to rule Rome. He murdered Tullus and seized the throne.Under his rule the Etruscans were at the height of their power, and theauthority of the monarchy was absolute. He was despised by the peoplefor his tyranny, and cast out by the senate in 510 BC and the Republic wasestablished in 509 B C.
The FamilyThe family was the most important part of Roman society. The main person incharge legally of the family was the pater or father. He even had the power oflife or death within the family. If the matron, the woman of the house, was of adignified social status, the power of the father was somewhat restrained.Originally called by the Latin title of pater familias, the father evolved intothe patron of Roman Republican and early Imperial society.
Class DivisionsIn Rome there were various class divisions thatwere very stringent. Under the Etruscans, a newwealthy aristocratic class had come into Romeknown as the patricians.The PatriciansThe patricians were great land-owners and of anoble Latin birth. Once the Etruscans were drivenout the patricians declared Rome a republic (acommunity by which people elect their leaders).They served in the Senate and were very privileged.They controlled the offices within the army, and theygoverned the important events that happenedwithin society such as the public religiousceremonies.The PlebeiansThere were also the Plebeians who made up the majority of Romes inhabitants. Plebeianswere a class of citizens who were usually non aristocratic farmers, artisans andshopkeepers, and some were wealthy. They did have rights, such as the right to serve inthe Assembly and the right to vote, trade, hold property, and administer judicial selfdefense. They were not as privileged as the patricians and could never marry one. Theycould not hold a public office and could never receive entry into the Senate and there wasno recorded bill of rights.
The Clients and the SlavesThe Clients were peasant farmers who rented land. Theywould follow a certain patron and perform political duties,including assassinations, and lying in court, if it would helpfurther his patrons political career. In return, the clientoften received money, a job, or an invitation to dinner at thepatrons house. A dinner invitation may not seem like muchto us today, but in Roman times it could mean a great placein society if he appeared at the right dinner parties. Hisprestige in society would be much more enhanced if hewere seen by the rich and famous at only one dinner partyhosted by a powerful patron.This patron-client relationship led to many interestingsituations in ancient Rome. Sometimes candidates forvarious government magistracies would travel aroundRome with several hundred or even a few thousand of theirclients.Lastly were the Slaves, who had no freedom or rightswhatsoever unless it was bestowed upon them by theirmaster.
EIGHTH CENTURY B.C.753The city Rome is founded.753-716 BC: Romulus rules over thecity of Rome that becomes an asylumfor refugees, criminals and runawayslaves . The unequal men: womenratio makes Romulus and his men toforcibly take the virgin women ofneighbouring Sabine town of Cures aswives. Many Greek cities are founded on750 BC:Italy.715-674 BC: Death of Romulus and NumaPompilius, a religious, cultural figure wascrowned the emperor of Rome.
SEVENTH CENTURY B.C. Etruscan influence reaches Rome (c. 625 B.C.) 673-642 BC: After 43 years of peaceful rule, Numa Pompillus is dead. He is succeeded by Tullus Hostilius. Emperor Hostilius was a man of the sword, who went to war with Alba Longa and later on Fidenates. He also went to war with the Sabine neighbors, until a plague on himself and his city forced him to make peace.642-617 BC: Tullus Hostilius was struck by lighting and killed. The fourth emperor torule the Roman throne was Ancus Marcius. He was Numa Pompiliuss grandson.The neighboring cities thought him to be a push over, who would be eager for peaceat any price. But Ancus Marcius proved himself to be a great warrior, administrator,priest and a diplomat. He build the first bridge over the river Tiber, Sublician Bridge.Ancus Marcius was a good king who was respected by his people.
SIXTH CENTURY B.C. 616-579 BC: Lucius Tarquinius Priscus became the fifth ruler of Rome. Also known as Tarquin the Elder, he rose to have a significant influence on Rome. He was a favorite of Ancus Marcius and he was made the guardian of his two sons. After the death of Ancus Marcius, he cunningly sent the sons for hunting while he made the funeral arrangements. On their return they were surprised to find Tarquin on the throne. He had used their absence to win over the Roman votes and become the ruler of Rome. He became a great ruler building a strong army that won over Sabines, Latins and Etruscans. He was killed by assassins hired by the scorned sons of Ancus. His clever wife did not disclose his death immediately and announced that the injured Tarquin wanted his son-in- law Servius Tullius to take over till he recovers. 509 BC Rome becomes a republic. Rome becomes the most important city of his surroundings, Latium.
FIFTH CENTURY B.C 500 B.C.Laws of the Twelve Tables codified in Rome (451 B.C.) The Law of the Twelve Tables ) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. The Law of the Twelve Tables formed the centrepiece of the constitution of the Roman Republic and the core of the mos maiorum (custom of the ancestors). The Twelve Tables must be distinguished from the unrelated — and much older — "twelve shields" of King Numa Pompilius.Rome had believed in early times that shewas destined to rule the world even thoughthere were many hostile peoples around her.She fought hard and survived. By the sixthcentury Rome had thrown out her last kingand the Republic was founded around 510BC.From City-State to Nation-StateFor the next two and a half centuries thesmall city-state of Rome expanded itsboundaries gradually until it ruled theentire Italian peninsula. This protectedthem from many of their hostileneighbours.
The Latin LeagueThe power of the Etruscans was diminishing yetthey had an extremely large army of Italiantribes prepared for war along with two otherpowerful neighboring armies, the greatmountain tribe armies of the Aequi, andthe Volsci. Rome was in great danger becauseof them. Rome was also in danger because theLatin cities had formed a league to threaten thenewly formed republic in Rome and she had todefend herself against this alliance for manyyears.Rome, who had been mainly an army of farmers defending their land, decided to regroupand organize and they finally won a tremendous victory at Lake Regillus in 486 BC and theybecame the dominant partner in the league. They all became allies so that they coulddefend themselves against the armies of the Etruscans, the Aequi, and the Volsci.Meanwhile the northern Sabellians were invading the lands of the Aequi, and the Volsciwhich drove them down into Italy to attack Rome. Two great Roman leaders defeatedthem one named Coriolanus defeated the Aequi and another named Cincinnatus defeatedthe Volsci.After this Rome made more attacks on the Etruscans and doubled her territory whicheventually brought them to a place as leader of the Latin League.
FOURTH CENTURY B.CThe fourth century started out as a terrible time for the Romans and yet by the endof the century they had defeated the combined armies of the Latin League andRome became the capital of all of Latium and her armies defended its borders.Etruscan city of Veii falls to Rome Etruscan civilization in decline (396 B.C.)Rome begins conquest of Italy (396 B.C.) Gauls sack Rome (390 B.C.).The GaulsAround 387 BC a barbarous tribe in the north part of Europe known as theGauls defeated the Romans at the River Allia and invaded Italy and sackedRome. According to the historian Livy, most of the people had fled Rome interror. Only a handful of soldiers and some Roman senators had remained andthe Gauls provoked the senators to defend themselves and when they did theGauls brutally slaughtered them.
Rome signs treaty with Carthage (348 B.C.)First Samnite War between Rome and theSamnites (343 B.C.-341 B.C.)first Roman coins (338 B.C.)Second Samnite War between Rome and theSamnites (327 B.C.-304 B.C.
THIRD CENTURY BC By the turn of the third century Rome had a powerful army, a new navy, and a great military highway, with strong garrisons of soldiers at strategic borders. Rome was well organized in her efforts to maintain a unity within her territory. The statesmen would discourage internal strife by providing generous land grants to the army, as well as the spoils of war and democratic rights. They also forced their victims to join their armies.300 B.C. Third Samnite War between Rome and the Samnites (298 B.C.-290 B.C.)Pyrrhus of Epirus invades Italy, but is forced to withdrawal (275 B.C.)First Punic War between Rome and Carthage(264 B.C.-241 B.C.)When Carthage moved into Messina in northernSicily the local Greek cities under Romes protectioncried out to Rome for help. Rome sent an army toSicily and the wars began. Carthage was larger andwealthier than Rome yet Rome was superior in itsmanpower and its loyal citizenry. The biggest threatto Rome was not in the land battles but in the Seabattles because of Carthages huge navy and hernaval skills.
After winning many victories the Romans lost 200 of their ships and 100,000 men to very violent storms off Camarina in 255 BC. They soon regrouped and defeated Carthage in 241 BC with a third fleet of warships. It took approximately 20 years for the Romans to drive the Carthaginians out of Sicily. This would mark Romes first overseas territory. Colossus of Rhodes completed (c. 275 B.C.) first public gladiator combat in Rome (264 B.C.)Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage (218 B.C.-202B.C.)Hannibals PlanCarthage was not going to give up easily. Adetermined leader of Carthage, Hamilcar Barcadirected his attention to Spain where they could getcontrol over the mineral resources there and createan army from the people there that would match theRoman legions. His son Hannibal was committed toruin Rome and created a military base in Spain.
Hannibal devised an ingenious plan. His intention was to make a surprise attack upon Italyherself. He led his new army consisting of 60,000 men, 6,000 horses and 37 war elephantsover the River Rhone (with his elephants on rafts), then across the Pyrenees mountains,then through southern Gaul and they finally arrived at the Alps after 5 months.Only 1/2 of his army had survived. TheGreek historian Polybius described thescene. Hannibal finally arrived in Italyand went a severe rampage against theRomans. The Romanhistorian Livy describes HannibalsleadershipHannibal is DefeatedRome could not defeat Hannibal in Italy so she retaliated by conquering Spainand then attacking Carthage. Under the leadership of Cornelius Scipio Africanusa Roman army sailed to Africa and attacked Carthage.Hannibal was recalled to Africa in 203 BC to defend his homeland and he wasdefeated by Scipio in 202 BC at Zama Regia, 80 miles southwest of Carthage.This was Hannibals first defeat. He escaped to Greece but for Carthage the warwas lost.
Scipio AfricanusCarthage surrendered and gave upher fleet and all her overseasterritory, including the Spanishcolonies, and paid another largeindemnity.Now Rome was clearly the masterof the Mediterranean Sea Rome and Macedonia sign a non-aggression pact (205 B.C.) ALL THE last Etruscan cities fall to Roman expansion ( 200 B.C.)
Rome attacks Macedonia (200 B.C.)last Etruscan cities fall to Roman expansion (c. 200B.C.)Rome defeats Macedonian army under Philip V atCynoscephalae (197 B.C.)first known paved streets appear in Rome (170B.C.)Rome defeats Macedonia at Pydna (168 B.C.)Macedonia forced to pay tribute to Rome (168B.C.)first water clock in Rome (c. 159 B.C.)Macedonian revolt led by Andriscus defeats aRoman legion (150 B.C.) Water clock
Water clockA water clock or clepsydra is a device for measuring time by lettingwater regularly flow out of a container usually by a tiny aperture. Sincethe rate of flow of water is very difficult to control precisely, waterclocks could never achieve high accuracy.Water clocks were among the earliest chronometers that did notdepend on the observation of celestial bodies. clepsydras ("water thieves") by the Greeks, who began using themabout 325 BC, these were stone vessels with sloping sides thatallowed water to drip at a nearly constant rate from a small hole nearthe bottom. Other clepsydras were cylindrical or bowl-shapedcontainers designed to slowly fill with water entering at a constantrate. Markings on the inside surfaces measured the passage of "hours" asthe water level reached them. These clocks were used to determinehours at night, but may have been used in daylight as well. Anotherversion consisted of a metal bowl with a hole in the bottom; whenplaced in a container of water the bowl would fill and sink in a certaintime. These were still in use in northern Africa in the 20th century.
More elaborate andimpressive mechanizedwater clocks weredeveloped between 100 BCand 500 A.D. by Greek andRoman horologists andastronomers.The added complexity wasaimed at making the flowmore constant byregulating the pressure andat providing fancierdisplays of the passage oftime.
Third Punic War between Rome andCarthage (149 B.C.-146 B.C.)By the end of the Second Punic War(the war where Hannibal and hiselephants crossed the Alps), Rome sohated Carthage that she wanted todestroy the north African urban center.The story is told that when Rome finallygot to take revenge, after the Romanswon the Third Punic War, they saltedthe fields so the Carthaginians could nolonger live there.By 201 B.C., the end of the Second Punic War, Carthage no longer had herempire, but she was still a shrewd trading nation. By the middle of the secondcentury, Carthage was thriving and it was hurting the trade of those Romanswho had investments in North Africa.
Meanwhile, African tribes neighboring Carthage knew that according to thepeace treaty between Carthage and Rome that had concluded the SecondPunic War, if Carthage overstepped the line drawn in the sand, it would beinterpreted as an act of aggression against Rome.These neighbors took advantage of this reason to feel secure and made hastyraids into Carthaginian territory, knowing their victims couldnt pursue them.Eventually, Carthage could stand these incursions no longer. In 149 B.C.,Carthage got back into armor and went after the Numidians.Rome declared war because Carthage had broken the treaty.Although Carthage didnt stand a chance, the war was drawn out for threeyears. Eventually a descendant of Scipio Africanus, Scipio Aemilianus,defeated the starved citizens of the besieged city of Carthage. After killing orselling all the inhabitants into slavery, the Romans razed (possibly salting theland) and burned the city. No one was allowed to live there. Catos chant hadbeen carried out.Rome puts down a Macedonian revolt (148B.C.)Macedonia annexed by Rome (148 B.C.)Greece falls under Roman control (147 B.C.)Phrygia becomes a Roman province (133 B.C.)Lydia absorbed into the Roman Empire (133B.C.)
FIRST CENTURY BC100 B.C.birth of Gaius Julius Caesar (100 B.C.)civil war in Rome ( 90 B.C. )revolt of slaves and gladiators led by Spartacus (71 B.C.)birth of Virgil (70 B.C.)birth of Gaius Octavius (Augustus) future Roman Emperor (63 B.C.)Pompey of Rome captures Jerusalem and places Judah underRoman rule (63 B.C.)Triumvirate formed between C. Licinius Crassus, Gaius Julius Caesar,and Pompeius Magnus (59 B.C.)Gaius Julius Caesar begins conquest of Gaul (58 B.C.)Caesar defeats Pompey at Pharsalus in Greece (48 B.C.) JULIUS CAESAR
Caesar murdered (44 B.C.)Herod the Great rules Israel as a Romanvassal (34-4 B.C.)Gaius Julius Octavianus (Augustus) defeatsMark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium (31B.C.)Egypt becomes a Roman province (31 B.C.)construction of the Pantheon begins (30 B.C.)Augustus becomes the first Emperor of theRoman Empire (27 B.C.)Kush assists the Nubians in a revolt againstRome (24 B.C.)Roman army razes Kushite city of Napata (23B.C.) Emperor AUGUSTUS
ZERO CENTURYRome invades the British Isles (30A.D.)Titus suppresses a revolt inJerusalem (70 A.D.)Silk Road from China to Romeopened (74 A.D.)Conflagration in Rome. (64 AD)The Vesuvius erupts; Pompeii andother cities are burried under athick lay of ash. (74 AD) SILK ROUTE FROM ROME TO CHINA
FIRST CENTURY AD100 A.D.Marcus Aurelius becomes emperor ofRome (161 A.D.)great plague in the Roman Empire (164 A.D.)Antonian Emperors rule rome. (117-193 AD) ROMAN EMPEROR MARCUS AURELIUS
Roman art Sculptures Paintings Motifs Mosaic works Pottery
T he Romans developed or improved their art by copying the art from theGreeks for the statues. ROMAN STATUESS tatues were made from clay or marble. Metal was sometimes added to thestatues so that they had added strenght. Statues were well made, were nude andthey were made of gods or important leaders which were recognised . The fact thatthe statues had important people meant that they had to be done as well as possiblesince it was honouring their gods. ROMAN PAINTINGSPaintings and mosaics were important too as they were used to advertise or to showeveryday life scenes. These were made in local colours which were found in the stone,plants and any other source of colour. one example of this is in the Roman town ofPompeii. These paintings usualy showed scenes of everyday life in the countryside.Mosaics are said to have come from the city of Babylon and that since the Romansfound great beauty decided to copy it, adding it to buildings etc.
ROMAN MOTIFS , MOSAIC AND GEM WORK There are different styles of mosaics and there is a name for each style. These names are opus sectile which is a name given to mosaics made with geometric shapes of stone put in a certain way to make a shape of the desired look. There is also opus tessellatum which are like dice. Square in shape and are all of the same shape so these were used mostly on floors. There is a more complex styles which is called Opus vermiculatum where the square stones are of varying sizes. Mosaics are usually made up of tiny stones which are painted. When they are placed in a certain way they make scenes from everyday life like paintings or photos do now. The Romans also engraved gems and used them as seals, to mark official documents to prove that they were by certain people so that no one could falsify the document. They engraved the background so that the character stood out of the ring.
Roman PotteryRoman pottery was inspired by Estruscan pottery, butrapidly evolved its own unique style.During the Roman Republic, most pottery was madelocally. In the era of Augustus, 63 BC – 14 AD, to meetthe demands of an expanding empire, pottery wasmass-produced in large factories.Arezzo in Italy, was famed for it potteries.There were other potteries situated in southern France.This pottery, called Samian ware, was a distinctive redcolour.It was very popular and exported throughout the Romanworld.The decorative elements were made by plaster moulds.The styles and shapes were influenced by the West Asianpotters.
Popularity of Samian WareBy c.70AD, the Italian and French Samian potterywas being extensivly copied. These imitations have different names accordingto where they were produced.Hispania Baeticacopies were called Terra Sigillata HispanicaThe North African copies, were known as AfricanRed Slip Ware, or terra Sigillata, were highlypopularAmphoras and lamps were also manufactured ona large scale.African Red Slip ware was exported all over thewestern part of the Roman empire, eventuallybankrupting the Italian and French potteries. Thestandard of craftsmanship slowly declined oncethe market had been flooded.African Red Slip continued to be made until the7th century. Islamic invaders introduced theirvibrant lusters to the future al-Andalus Arts andCrafts.
Origins of Roman ArchitectureAs with sculpture, the Romansborrowed heavily from two culturesthat they conquered – the Etruscansand the Greeks.Elements of Roman architecture showvery significant Greek influence.However, Roman functional needssometimes differed, resulting ininteresting innovations.The Romans were less attached to“ideal” forms and extended Greek ideasto make them more functional.Romans needed interior space for worship, whereas the Greeks worshipped outside.Their solution was to extend the walls outward, creating engaged columns, whilemaintaining the same basic shape.
Roman InnovationTo the original Greek orders,the Romans added two: The Tuscan order. The Compostite order.Tuscan Order: Like the Doric, except this one has a base.The Composite order combinedelements of both the Ionic and Corinthian.It appears to be Corinthian acanthus leaves,supplemented with volutes.
The Romans were the great engineers of theancient world.Their structures, particularly of public works,were often massive in scaleThe Roman ability to build massively waslargely determined by their discovery of slow-drying concrete, made with pozzolana sand.This allowed not only bases, but also walls tobe constructed of mainly concrete or concreteand rubble.Facings could be made of more expensivestone or inexpensive brick.The result was strong structures that could beformed in any desirable shape.Roman Architecture used arches on a scale which had hitherto been unknown. The Romansperfected the mixing of a heavy duty, waterproof, fire-resistant concrete: cement, sand andsmall-sized rocks binded in a limestone mixture with volcanic ashes and pulverized pumice.This concrete facilitated the construction of large arches and domes that could carry a greatdeal of weight. The arches of Ancient Rome made a vast impact on architecture. Thistechnique thereafter was copied and adapted throughout the world.
The Transcendance ofRoman Town PlanningRoman cities and towns weredrawn up in a rectangular overallplans.Two main streets divided themetropolis into sections:The Cardo (north-south street)and the Decumanus (east-weststreet). streets subdivided eachSmallersection. Roman cities wereprotected by a wall and gate.Fresh running water and Public baths were an essential feature aswere sewerage drains, keeping health and hygiene as a integral partof civilization.Roman Art and Architecture Baelo Claudia Model
Roman Architecture wasimperial, monumental andimpressive Centuries later...Spanishroyalty chose to build twoRoman-styled palaces: The Palace of Carlos V atthe Alhambra GranadaSpain and during theSpanish Siglo de Oro: Felipe11s El Escorial Palace inSan Lorenzo de El Escorial -whose architect JuanBautista de Toledo hadspent most of his life inRome.Roman influence survivedthe centuries, clearlyvisible, in Roman art andarchitecture.
The typical Roman city of the later Republicand empire had a rectangular plan andresembled a Roman military camp with twomain streets—the cardo (north-south) and thedecumanus (east-west)—a grid of smallerstreets dividing the town into blocks, and awall circuit with gates.Older cities, such as Rome itself, foundedbefore the adoption of regularized cityplanning, could, however, consist of a maze ofcrooked streets. The focal point of the citywas its forum, usually situated at the centerof the city at the intersection of the cardo andthe decumanus
ARCHITECTURE 800 – 700 BC The first primitive cottages on the Palatine.
Later stages of roman housing Roman houses were so well built, if you were rich, that many examples of Roman houses exist throughout the Roman Empire. If you were poor in Rome, you lived in simple flats or apartments - the inside of these places was symbolic of your lack of wealth. These flats were known as insulae and only contained two rooms at the most. People tended to use them only for sleeping as they had to work, visit the baths (as their flats had no running water) and they usually ate in local inns as cooking in these flats was not safe. Rich family homes were very different. The rich lived in single-storey houses which were built around a central hall known as an atrium. Atrium had rooms opening up off of them and they were also open to the weather as they had no roofs.Roman insulae Many atriums had a trough built into their design so that water could be collected when it rained.
Beyond an atrium was a second opencourtyard known as a peristylum. This areaincluded a garden and it also had roomsopening up off of it. In the homes of thewealthy, the gardens served as a meetingpoint so they were designed to be shady andcomfortable so that people could meet inthem regardless of whether the sun wasfierce.The main rooms were decorated withcoloured plaster walls and, if they could beafforded, mosaics. These decorated floorswere a statement of your wealth andimportance. The grander mosaics had to bedone by experts and they were expensive. Amaster mosaic craftsman would map out thepicture while those who worked for him didthe actual work in making a mosaic. Probablythe most famous Roman mosaic in Britain isat Fishbourne Palace in West Sussex. Plan of rich roman houses
Though mosaics could be spectacular, furniture,even in the homes of the rich, tended to be basic. Stools were common as opposed to chairs andreclining couches were used. Beds were simpleaffairs with springs being provided by leatherstraps that criss-crossed a bed frame.Houses also had water piped straight to them -unlike flats and apartments. Lead pipes broughtwater to a house. However, these pipes were taxedaccording to size - the larger the pipes, the more thetax.Archaeologists can usually tell the wealth of anowner of a Roman house by simply looking at thesize of the lead pipes that brought water to thathouse. A roman atriumHouses were also centrally heated by what was known as a hypocaust. This was under-floor heating.Slaves were charged with keeping the hypocaust both clean and alight during the day.This system of heating was also used to keep some Roman baths hot if they had no accessto naturally heated water.
Some Roman villas in Britain havesurvived in such good conditionthat we have a very clear ideaabout how the rich lived andwhat their homes were like. When the Romans left Britain, itappears that some villas werecovered with dirt to trap intothem the spirits of the Romans -thus, they could not escape. In 1960, a workman foundsubstantial ancient buildingrubble at Fishbourne, WestSussex, while digging a trench.In 1961 a trial excavation tookplace and what was essentially acomplete Roman villa was found.A huge variety of Roman homes 3-d veiw of a roman villacan also be found at Pompeii, ofcourse.
ForumsThe forum, an open area bordered bycolonnades with shops, functioned as the chiefmeeting place of the town. It was also the site of the citys primaryreligious and civic buildings, among them theSenate house, records office, and basilica.When archaeologists began excavating the cityof Pompeii, which had been covered with ashand mud by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius inad 79, they found the remains of people,ancient buildings, and other artifactspreserved amid the volcanic debris. Among the structures uncovered was TheForum of Pompeii, pictured, a group oftemples, courts, and palaces that served as thecity’s legislative center.
Roman TemplesThe chief temple of a Roman city, thecapitolium, was generally located at one end ofthe forum. The standard Roman temple was ablend of Etruscan and Greek elements;rectangular in plan, it had a gabled roof, a deepporch with freestanding columns, and a frontalstaircase giving access to its high plinth, orplatform.By the 1st century b.c, the extensive conquestsof the Romans led them to regard theMediterranean as mare nostrum (our sea).Roman influence went far beyond politics.Roman art, architecture, and language wereamong the cultural traits that slowly took holdin many of Romes conquered territories. Ruinsof ancient temples in Baalbek, Lebanon, includethe Temple of Jupiter, built by the Romans afterthey took control of the territory that includedwhat is now Lebanon in 64 b.c.
The Regia was a structure in Ancient Rome,located in the Roman Forum. It was originallythe residence of the kings of Rome or at leasttheir main headquarters, and later the officeof the Pontifex Maximus, the high priest ofRoman religion. It occupied a triangular patchof terrain between the Temple of Vesta, theTemple of Divus Julius and Templeof Antoninus and Faustina. Only the foundations of Republican/ImperialRegia remain. Like the Curia it was destroyedand rebuilt several times, as far back as theRoman monarchy. Studies have foundmultiple layers of similar buildings with moreregular features, prompting the theory thatthis "Republican Regia" was to have adifferent use.
ROMAN INNOVATION – MASSIVE BUILDING - THE TEMPLE OF FORTUNA PRIMIGENIA The Temple of Fortuna Primigenia was a massive structure, made possible by concrete construction.
Servian WallThe Servian Wall was a defensive barrierconstructed around the city of Rome in theearly 4th century BC. The wall was up to10 metres (32.8 ft) in height in places,3.6 metres (12 ft) wide at its base, 11 km (7 mi)long, and is believed to had 16 main gates,though many of these are mentioned only fromwritings, with no other known remains.HistoryIt is presumed that the wall is named after thesixth Roman King, Servius Tullius. Although itsoutline may go back to the 6th century BC, thecurrently extant wall was, it is estimated, builtduring the later Roman Republic, possibly as away to prevent a repeat of the sack of Romeduring Battle of the Allia bythe Gauls of Brennus. Due to the ease with whichthe Gauls entered the city, it is conjectured thatat some time previous to this, Rome had beenforced by its Etruscan rulers to dismantle anysignificant prior defenses.
Temple of Jupiter Optimus MaximusThe Temple of Jupiter OptimusMaximus, also known as the Templeof Jupiter Capitolinus was the mostimportant temple in Ancient Rome,located on the Capitoline Hill.First buildingMuch of what is known of the first Temple of Jupiter is from later Roman tradition. LuciusTarquinius Priscus vowed this temple while battling with the Sabines , and accordingto Dionysius of Halicarnassus began the terracing necessary to support the foundationsof the temple. Modern coring on the Capitoline has confirmed the extensive work neededjust to create a level building site. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Livy, thefoundations and most of the superstructure of the temple were completed by LuciusTarquinius Superbus.
Second buildingPlan of the temple.Sulla hoped to live until the temple was rebuilt,but Quintus Lutatius Catulus had the honor ofdedicating the new structure in 69 BC. The newtemple was built to the same plan on the samefoundations, but with more expensive materialsfor the superstructure. Literary sources indicatethat the temple was not entirely completed untilthe late 60s BC. Brutus and the other assassinslocked themselves inside it aftermurdering Caesar. The new temple of QuintusLutatius Catulus was renovated and repairedby Augustus.The second building burnt down during thecourse of fighting on the hill on December 19in 69 AD, when Vespasian battled to enter the cityas Emperor in the Year of the FourEmperors. Domitian narrowly escaped with hislife.
Third buildingThe new emperor, Vespasian, rapidly rebuilt the temple on the same foundations but witha lavish superstructure. The third temple of Jupiter was dedicated in AD 75. The thirdtemple burned during the reign of Titus in the great fire of AD 80.Fourth buildingRelief sculpture of Marcus Aurelius sacrificing at the fourthtemple.Domitian immediately began rebuilding the temple, again onthe same foundations, but with the most lavish superstructureyet. According to ancient sources, Domitian used at leasttwelve thousands talents of gold for the gilding of the bronzeroof tiles alone. Elaborate sculpture adorned the pediment.A Renaissance drawing of a damaged relief in the LouvreMuseum shows a four-horse chariot) beside a two-horsechariot to the right of the latter at the highest point of thepediment, the two statues serving as the central acroterion,and statues of the god Mars and goddess Venus surmountingthe corners of the cornice, serving as acroteria.In the center of the pediment the god Jupiter was flanked byJuno and Minerva, seated on thrones. Below was an eaglewith wings spread out. A biga driven by the sun god and a bigadriven by the moon were depicted either side of the threegods.The temple completed by Domitian is thought to have lasted Relief sculpture of Marcusmore or less intact for over four hundred years, until the fifth Aurelius sacrificing at the fourthcentury depredations of Stilicho, Gaiseric, and Narses. temple.
It was said that the Temple of Jupiter was dedicated on September 13 the year ofthe Roman Republic, c. 509 BC. It was sacred to the Capitoline Triad consisting ofJupiter and his companion deities, Juno and Minerva.The man to perform the dedication of the temple was chosen by lot. The duty fellto Marcus Horatius Pulvillus, one of the consuls in that year.The original Temple measured almost 60 x 60 m and was considered the mostimportant religious temple of the whole state of Rome. Each deity of the Triad had aseparate cella, with Juno Regina on the left, Minerva on the right, and JupiterOptimus Maximus in the middle. The first temple was decorated with many terracotta sculptures. The most famous of these was of Jupiter driving a quadriga, achariot drawn by four horses, which was on top of the roof as an acroterion. Thissculpture, as well as the cult statue of Jupiter in the main cella, was said to have beenthe work of Etruscan artisan Vulca of Veii. An image of Summanus, a thunder god,was among the pedimental statues.The plan and exact dimensions of the temple have been heavily debated. Fivedifferent plans of the temple have been published following recent excavations onthe Capitoline Hill that revealed portions of the archaic foundations. According toDionysius of Halicarnassus, the same plan and foundations were used for laterrebuildings of the temple.The first Temple burned in 83 BC, during the civil wars under the dictatorship of Sulla.Also lost in this fire were the Sibylline Books, which were said to have been writtenby classical sibyls, and stored in the Temple (to be guarded and consulted bythe Quindecemviri (council of fifteen) on matters of state only on emergencies).
The Etruscan obsession with elaborate burials leads us to suppose that they may have had an underlying belief, similar to the Egyptians that a part of the soul remained with the body, or at least that the body was important for the afterlife. Having said that, the earliest grave sites were cremations, with the ash being retained either in biconical urns, or urns fashioned to represent huts. Gradually inhumation burials began to appear, the first being in Tarquinia and Caere, and during the Orientalizing period eventually became the prevailing rite, except in northern Etruria, where cremation persisted right up to the 1st century BC, epitomised by the elaborately carved alabaster urns of Volterra.In the Orientalizing period the use of writing, the potters wheel, and monumentalfunerary architecture reflected the accumulation of luxury goods of gold and ivoryand exotic trade items such as ostrich eggs,tridacna shells, and faience. Many scholarshypothesize the existence of a powerful aristocratic class, and craftsmen, merchants,and seamen would have formed a middle class; it was probably at this time that theEtruscans began to maintain the elegant slaves for which they were famous.
Funerary GamesThe passion for games was very widespread among the Etruscans. Besides the funerealgames of the Phersu (See: tomb of the Augurs), other games of skill were popular ( Seetomb of the Juggler): In this game, the objective was to throw a series of disks into a largewine crater balanced on the head of a female performer. The game of Pertica, consisted ofa slippery wooden pole which competitors had to climb . Sporting competitions wereimportant events in the Etruscan world and took place at religious ceremonies such asfunerals. Athletic competitions took place in the stadiums while horse races took place inthe Hippodrome. One of the most frequent competitions was the chariot race, asillustrated in dramatic detail in the Tomb of the Bigas in Tarquinia. In the arena jumpers anddiscus and javelin throwers also competed. The Tomb of the Olympic Games shows somegraphic details of such sports together with crowds of spectators.CaereThe Tombs of Caere (or Cerveteri as it is known today) span an extensive timescale,from the Villanovan period right up until the late Roman period, but by far the majorityof the tombs are those of the 6th and 7th Century BCE- a time when Caere reached itspeak, and must have rivaled such cities as Athens and Corinth.
The tombs occupy a wide area: The valley of the Sorbo, where the famous Regolini - Galassi tomb (c. 650 - 625 BCE) with its splendid Gold Jewellery was discovered, and the neighbouring hills of Monte Abatone, with its Torlonia tomb and Campana Tumulus, and the Banditaccia, which has over four hundred Tombs, in some cases forming veritable streets of the dead carved out of the volcanic tufa.*1 - Via degli Inferi (street of Hades) *11 - Via dei Monti della Tolfa (Street of the Tolfa Hills)*2 - Tomba dei Capitelli (Tomb of the Capitals) *12 - Tomb of the Street of the Tolfa Hills*3 - Tombs of the late period *13 - Via dei Monti Cerifi (Street of the Cerveteri Hills)*4 - Tufa containers (Ziri) *14 - Maroi Tumulus*5 - Tomba della Capanna (Tomb of the Hut) *15 - Tumulus of the Polichrome Cornice*6 - Excavation of tombs of the late period *16 - Tumulus with decorated drum*7 - Tomba dei Rilievi (Tomb of the Bas-reliefs) *17 - Mengarelli Tumulus*8 - Tomba della Cornice (Tomb of the Cornice) *18 - Drainage tunnel*9 - Tomba della Casetta (Tomb of the House) *19 - Tumulus of the Colonel*10 - Via dei Vasi Aretini (Street of the Aretine Vases) *20 - Tomba a Dado (Cube Tomb) *21 - Drainage channel
TarquiniaThe earliest archaeological remains at the original site of Tarquinia are 9th-century BCE Villanovan (Iron Age) welltombs. Cremation with ashes in a biconical vessel is commonly found from this period, but the earliest examples of inhumation also started to appear, contemporaneous with cremation sites, but possibly associated with varying family traditions.The famous Etruscan necropolis of Monterozzi, situated on a ridge southwest of the ancient city, contains the most important painted tombs in Etruria, mostly rock-cut chamber tombs dating from the 6th to the 4th century BCE.Today the location of more than one hundred and fifty painted tombs are known. The Tarquinia tomb frescos arewell preserved in many cases, and we owe much of our insight into Etruscan lifestyle to the Tarquinia frescos. The Tarquinia frescos represent approximately 90% of all Etruscan necropolis frescos.One of the most famous is the Fowling and Fishing Tomb with its polychrome frescoes painted about 520 BCE. The tombs of the Lionesses of the Augurs , and of the Banquet (Bacchantes) (all 6th century BCE) show dancing and banqueting scenes. The Tomb of the Triclinium is the most outstanding 5th-century painted tomb, and the Tomb of the Shields is a masterpiece of 4th-century painting. A distinctive 2nd-century painting tradition, rare in Etruria, is found in thepaintings of the Tomb of the Cardinal, and the Tomb of the Typhon. A serious conservation problem has arisen asmany of the paintings have been attacked by moisture and fungus since the collection was opened to the public. A rich collection of articles from the necropolis is housed in the archaeological museum in the Palazzo Vitelleschi (1436-39) in modern Tarquinia. At the upper floor some tombs have been rebuilt with the original paintings. The race between chariots (bigas)where one is moved by the feeling of speed (from the "Tomb of the Olympic games"), the cruel game of "phersu"(in the "Tomb of the Bigas " ) or scenes of funeral banquets and dances and the rare representation of a big ship are the rare and fascinating visions of a magnificent past where Tarquinia imposed itself as one of the most flourishing centres of the Etruscan Civilisation especially in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE.
VulciThe Tombs of Vulci date from the 8th Century BCE. The frescoes of one of its tombs,called the "François Tomb" after its discoverer, are unique in that they show earlyscenes from Etruscan history. These paintings, which date from the 4th-3rd century,were detached and taken to the Museo Torlonia in Rome. From other tombs cameremarkable stone sculptures and imported Greek vases.Four necropolises dating from the 8th century BCE have been found around the city ofVulci.The tombs of the 6th and 5th centuries BCE are generally of the sarcophagus type. Onlya few inhumations are to be found, including the large tumulus of the "cuccumella".The habit of placing statues of imaginary animals to guard the tombs is characteristicof Vulci.Immensely rich burial treasures have been found in these tombs, in particular a largenumber of ceramics of Greek production, and bronze objects of local production.In the second half of the 4th century BCE, the tombs became of the hypogeal type andreproduce the shapes of the dwellings.The most well-known of these hypogea is the François tomb, famous for its paintings(now at Villa Albani in Rome) portraying, as well as the deceased, episodes from Greekmythology together with characters from Etruscan myths and history.
Temple of Castor and PolluxThe Temple of Castor and Pollux is an ancientedifice in the Roman Forum , Rome , central Italy .It was originally built in gratitude for victory atthe Battle of Lake Regillus (495 BC ). Castor andPollux (Greek Polydeuces) were the Dioscuri , the"twins" of Gemini , the twin sons of Zeus (Jupiter )and Leda . Their cult came to Rome from Greecevia Magna Graecia and the Greek culture ofSouthern Italy. Location Regione VIII Forum Romanum Built in 495 BC Built by/for Unknown builder Type of structure Roman Temple .
According to Edward Gibbon, thetemple of Castor served as a secretmeeting place for the Roman Senate.He said the senate was roused torebellion against Emperor MaximinusThrax and in favor of futureemperor Gordian I at the Temple ofCastor in 237 AD.The temple was still standing intact inthe 4th century, but nothing is known ofits subsequent history, except that inthe 15th century, only three columns ofits original structure were still standing. The Temple of Castor and Pollux (right) with theThe street running by the building was Temple of Vesta to the leftcalled via Trium Columnarum. Architecture The octostyle temple was peripteral, with eight Corinthian columns at the short sides and eleven on the long sides. There was a single cella paved with mosaics. The podium measures 32×49.5m and 7m in height. The building was constructed in opus caementicium and originally covered with slabs of tuff which were later removed. According to ancient sources the temple had a single central stairway to access the podium, but excavations have identified two side stairs
Temple of SaturnThe Temple of Saturn is a monument to theagricultural deity. The Temple of Saturnstands at the foot of the Capitaline hill inthe western end of the Forum Romanumin Rome, ItalyInteriorAccording to the sources, the statue Location Regione VIII Forumof the god in the interior, veiled and Romanumprovided with a scythe, was woodenand filled with oil. The legs werecovered with linen bents, which Built in 497 BCwere released only on December17, the day of the Saturnalia. Built by/for Tarquinius Superbus Type of structure Roman temple
While dedicated to the god Saturn, thetemples chief use was as the seat ofthe treasury of the Roman Republic,storing the Republics reservesof gold and silver. Also the statearchives, the insignia and the officialscale for the weighing of metals werehoused in the temple. Later, the aerarium was moved toanother building, while the archiveswere transferred to the nearbyTabularium. The temples podium, inconcrete covered with travertine ,was used for bill-posting.
All Roads Lead to Rome The road system of the Ancient Romans was one of the greatest engineeringaccomplishments of its time, with over 50,000 miles of paved road radiating fromtheir center at the miliarius aurem in the Forum in the city of Romethe roads were used for trade. The Romans were the first ancient civilization tobuild paved roads, which did not prevent travel during or after inclement weather.Roman engineers, however, did not stop with just paving Roman roads. Roads werecrowned—that is, they were higher in the middle than on the sides to allow waterto run off—and they often had gutters for drainage along the shoulders. Probablythe most incredible engineering feat concerning the Roman road system, though, ishow well the roads were built. Many are still major thoroughfares for cars today.Indeed, their road-building methods were unsurpassed until the invention of themacadam in the 19th century.
Appian WayAn expanding network of roads helped to linkRomes distant territories. One of the most important paved militaryroads was the Appian Way, commissioned bythe Roman official Appius Claudius Caecus. Itbecame the major route from Rome toGreece.Although these large lava blocks may not bethe original material, the route itself hasremained unchanged and in use since it wasfirst paved more than 2200 years ago.There was nothing like it and without it Rome could not have won its tremendousempire. The use of cemented stone blocks has preserved it to the present day.Roman roads were built so well that some are still in use today. They built their roads inthis manner: from bottom to top they contained rubble, flat slabs in mortar, concreteand gravel, and tightly laid flat paving stones. Each road had its own curb (curb stones)and a drainage ditch.
AqueductAmong the other great public buildingprojects of the Romans, the most noteworthyare the network of bridges and roads thatfacilitated travel throughout the empire, andthe aqueducts that brought water to thetowns from mountain sources (Pont du Gard,late 1st century bc or early 1st century ad,near Nimes).The Roman aqueduct at Pont du Gard nearNîmes, France, was built between the late 1stcentury bc and the early 1st century ad. TheRomans built extensive systems of aqueductsto carry water to their residential areas fromdistant sources.
Aqua AppiaThe Aqua Appia was the first Roman aqueduct. Itwas constructed in 312 BC by Appius ClaudiusCaecus , the same Roman censor who also built theimportant Via Appia . Its source, which Frontinusidentifies as being about 780 paces away from viaPraenestina , was allegedly established by CaiusPlautius Venox.The Aqua Appia flowed for 16.4 km into the cityof Rome through the Porta Maggiore , and emptiedinto the Forum Boarium , near the Porta Trigemina.Nearly all of its length was underground, which wasnecessary because of the relative heights of itssource and destination, and afforded it protectionfrom attackers during the Samnite Wars that wereunderway during its construction. It dropped only 10m over its entire length, making it a remarkableengineering achievement for its day.Frontinus calculates that the aqueduct was capableof delivering 73,000 cubic meters of water a day intoRome.
The Mausoleum at HalicarnassusIn 377 B.C., the city of Halicarnassus was thecapitol of a small kingdom along theMediterranean coast of Asia Minor. It was inthat year the ruler of this land, Hecatomnus ofMylasa, died and left control of the kingdom tohis son, Mausoleums. Hecatomnus, a localsatrap to the Persians, had been ambitious andhad taken control of several of the neighboringcities and districts. Then Mausolus during hisreign extended the territory even further sothat it eventually included most ofsouthwestern Asia Minor.Mausolus, with his queen Artemisia, ruled overHalicarnassus and the surrounding territoryfor 24 years. Though he was descended fromthe local people, Mausolus spoke Greek andadmired the Greek way of life and government.He founded many cities of Greek design alongthe coast and encouraged Greek democratictraditions.
then in 353 B.C. Mausolus died, leaving his queenArtemisia, who was also his sister, broken-hearted (It wasthe custom in Caria for rulers to marry their own sisters).As a tribute to him, she decided to build him the mostsplendid tomb in the known world. It became a structure sofamous that Mausoluss name is now associated with allstately tombs throughout the world through theword mausoleum. The building, rich with statuary andcarvings in relief, was so beautiful and unique it becameone of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.Artemisia decided that no expense was to be spared in thebuilding of the tomb. She sent messengers to Greece to findthe most talented artists of the time. These includedarchitects Satyros and Pytheos who designed the overallshape of the tomb. Other famous sculptors invited tocontribute to the project were Bryaxis, Leochares,Timotheus and Scopas of Paros .According to the historian Pliny Bryaxis, Leochares,Timotheus and Scopas each took one side of the tomb todecorate. Joining these sculptors were also hundreds ofother workmen and craftsmen. Together they finished the This lion is among the few free-building in the styles of three different cultures: Egyptian, standing sculptures from theGreek and Lycian. Mausoleum at the British Museum.
Circus MaximusThe Circus Maximus was the largest stadium in ancient Rome. At one point the Circuscould seat 250.000 people, one quarter of Romes population.Early HistoryChariot races were one of the Romansmost popular form of entertainment.Romulus, the first of Romes seven kings, issaid to have held chariot races.The origins of the Circus Maximus go backto the 6th century BC when TarquiniusPriscus, the fifth king of Rome, created atrack between the Palatine and Aventinehills. The first permanent starting gateswere created in 329 BC. In 174 BC thegates were rebuilt and seven wooden eggswere placed on top of the spina, thecentral wall in the arena. The eggs wereused to count the number of laps; aftereach lap one egg was removed. In 33 BCseven bronze dolphins were added to thespina for the same purpose.
Wooden StructuresA fire in 31 BC, the first of three, destroyed thewooden structure. It was rebuilt by emperorAugustus who also added an imperial box on thepalatine hill. A large obelisk from Heliopolis wasadded to the spina as a decoration. The obeliskcan now be found at the center of the Piazza delPopolo. Another obelisk was added much later, inthe 4th century.A second fire, in AD 64, which started in woodenshops at the bottom around the track started thefire that burned much of Rome during the reignof emperor Nero.The Marble StadiumAfter yet another fire the Circus was rebuilt by Trajan in AD 103. The Roman empire wasat the height of its power and the new Circus Maximus reflected this status. The Circuswas now a stone construction, three stories high. The lower part of the cavea (seatingarea) was built in marble. The arena complex was now more than 600m long and 150mwide (2000x500ft).
Popular EventsThe Circus Maximus was occasionally used forevents such as processions or gladiatorcombats, but on most days only chariot raceswith quadrigaes, pulled by four horses, wereheld here. The races themselves were wildlypopular with people fanatically supportingone of the four factions: red, white, green andblue representing summer, winter, spring andautumn respectively. Bets were laid on one ofthe factions and supporters of the differentfactions often clashed, sometimes resulting indeaths among the spectators.The Last RaceThe last race at the Circus Maximus was heldin AD 549, almost a millennium after the firstraces were held at this location. Today onlythe layout of the original circus can be seen inwhat is now a large grassland. Most of theoriginal structure has been used as buildingmaterial for medieval and Renaissanceconstructions.
The Colossus of RhodesTravelers to the New York City harbor see amarvelous sight. Standing on a small island in theharbor is an immense statue of a robed woman,holding a book and lifting a torch to the sky. Thestatue measures almost one-hundred and twentyfeet from foot to crown. It is sometimes referredto as the "Modern Colossus," but more oftencalled the Statue of Liberty.This awe-inspiring statue was a gift from France toAmerica and is easily recognized by peoplearound the world. What many visitors to thisshrine to freedom dont know is that the statue,the "Modern Colossus," is the echo of anotherstatue, the original colossus, that stood over twothousand years ago at the entrance to anotherbusy harbor on the Island of Rhodes. Like theStatue of Liberty, this colossus was also built as acelebration of freedom. This amazing statue,standing the same height from toe to head as themodern colossus, was one of the Seven Wondersof the Ancient World.
The Colossus of Rhodes was a statue of theGreek Titan Helios, erected in the cityof Rhodes on the Greek island of Rhodesby Chares of Lindos between 292 and 280BC. It is considered one of the SevenWonders of the Ancient World. It wasconstructed to celebrate Rhodes victoryover the ruler of Cyprus, Antigonus IMonophthalmus, who unsuccessfullybesieged Rhodes in 305 BC. Before itsdestruction, the Colossus of Rhodes stoodover 30 meters (107 ft) high, making it oneof the tallest statues of the ancient world
BasilicaThe basilica was a roofed hall with a widecentral area—the nave—flanked by side aisles,and it often had two or more stories. In Roman times basilicas were the site ofbusiness transactions and legal proceedings,but the building type was adapted in Christiantimes as the standard form of the Westernchurch with an apse and altar at the end of thelong nave. The first basilicas were put up in the early 2ndcentury b.c. in Romes own Forum, but theearliest well-preserved example of the basilicas(circa 120 b.c.) is found at Pompeii. This Roman basilica was begun by the emperor Maxentius between 307 and 310 and completed by Constantine the Great after 312.Although it was one of the most importantmonuments in classical antiquity, almost allthat remains of the building are these threehuge, barrel-vaulted bays
TABULARIUM ROME The Tabularium is a building that housed important documents and decrees in ancient Rome. To fully understand the significance of the Tabularium, one must remember that this was the place where deeds, records and laws were housed. To put it in modern day terms, this was the National Archives of ancient Rome. Those who wanted to study the documents would have gone to the Tabularium as well as those looking for some particular piece of information. In addition, new filings would have been handled by clerks there, and a number of public officials kept offices in the Tabularium.
PantheonRoman temples were erected not only in theforum, but throughout the city and in thecountryside as well; many other types areknown. One of the most influential in later times wasthe type used for the Pantheon (ad 118-28) inRome, consisting of a standard gable-roofedcolumnar porch with a domed cylindricaldrum behind it replacing the traditionalrectangular main room, or cella.The Pantheon in Rome is one of the mostfamous buildings in the world. It wascommissioned by Hadrian in 118 andcompleted in 128. At one time it had acolonnaded court leading to the portico. The dome of the rotunda behind the portico is43.2 m (142 ft) in diameter. The oculus (around opening) at the top is 8.5 m (28 ft) indiameter and provides the only source of lightfor the interior.
Roman engineers completed the Pantheon, atemple to all the gods, in ad 128. Its interiorwas conceived as a single immense spaceilluminated by a single round opening, calledan oculus, at the highest point in the dome.The interior is decorated with colored marble,and lined with pairs of columns and carvedfigures set into niches in the wall.
Roman TheatersRoman theaters first appeared in the lateRepublic.They were semicircular in plan and consistedof a tall stage building abutting asemicircular orchestra and tiered seatingarea (cavea).Unlike Greek theaters, which were situatedon natural slopes, Roman theaters weresupported by their own framework of piersand vaults and thus could be constructed inthe hearts of cities.The Roman emperor Augustus founded thecity of Aosta during the 1st century b.c nearthe junction of natural transportation routesfrom Italy through the mountains to Franceand Switzerland. The city has many remnants of Romanarchitecture, including wall segments fromthis theater.
AmphitheaterAmphitheaters (literally , doubletheaters) were elliptical in planwith a central arena, wheregladiatorial and animal combatstook place, and a surroundingseating area built on the patternof Roman theaters.The earliest known amphitheater(75 bc) Is at Pompeii, and thegrandest, Romes Colosseum(ad70-80) , held approximately50,000 spectators , roughly thecapacity of todays large sportsstadiums.The Colosseum in Rome (70-82) is best known for its multilevel system of vaultsmade of concrete. It is called the Colosseum for a colossal statue of Nero that once stood nearby, butits real name is the Flavian Amphitheater.It was used for staged battles between lions and Christians, among otherspectacles, and is one of the most famous pieces of architecture in the world.