HISTORY Flourished during the high and late medieval period. evolved from Romanesque architecture , succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Includes architecture of many castles, palaces, town halls, guild halls, universities and to a less prominent extent, private dwellings. Religious conditions: Immense power was Bishops and Popes .Power of church increased. Churches became dominant. Churches constructed to create a physical representation of the Heavenly Jerusalem, a building with a high degree of linearity that was filled with beautiful light and color. Most of the architecture in Gothic cathedrals has a sense of verticality suggesting a goal to the Heavens.
GOTHIC STYLE Characteristics - stone structures, large expanses of glass, clustered columns, sharply pointed spires, intricate sculptures, ribbed vaults, and flying buttresses and ogival, or pointed arch. Gothic openings such as doorways, windows, covered passages and galleries have pointed arches. Characterized by availability of building materials,(Italy white, colored marbles ,France coursed grained stone ,German bricks) Climatic conditions: north-dull climate large sized windows, small windows in south, in south roofs were flat –less rainfall(south), high pitched roof – high rainfall (north)
Stability of structure depends upon the proper adjustment of thrust and counter thrust. Pointed arches lent themselves to elaborate intersecting shapes which developed within window spaces into complex Gothic tracery forming the structural support of the large windows that are characteristic of the style. Invented flying buttress which were placed at right angles to the length of the wall, took the collected pressure of the ribbed walls.
Hollow walls with multiplication of windows, reduced to thin layer only to enclose the structure. Advantages of structural system - Gothic vault constructed , increased the strength of groins. - Transverse arches and diagonal ribs constructed with strong support.
Abutments were given at points of strongestlateral thrusts, i.e. behind the springings of highvaults Tas-de-charge technique- the lower courses of ribs of a Gothic vault, are laid in horizontal courses and bonded into the wall, forming a solid mass; this helps bond the ribs, vault and walls together. They generally rise about one- third of the height of the vault, and as they project forwards they lessen the span to be vaulted over.
Invented stained color glass - Could contain brilliant transparent pictures. - Intrinsically rich material resembling pressure stone. - Its mysterious nature as it glowed without fire. - Was chief internal decoration, admitted more light to the interiors. Designed town halls , royal palaces, court houses and hospitals. Fortified cities and built castles to defend their land against invasion. Constructed bridges to facilitate transportation.
Churches were arranged for convenience rather than symmetry. Interiors were oblong covered with ‘rib and panel vaulting or with open timber roofs. Towers often crowned with spires. Introduction of tracery. In cloisters the openings are often filled-in with tracery. Cloister was the chief feature of monastery.
Doorways were proportional to the human scale. Large sized windows divided by vertical mullions and horizontal transoms were used to display of painted glass. Columns were used to support galleries and semi-circular arches. Mouldings were enriched with delicate carvings.
Projecting vertical buttresses casting deep shadows, lofty molding pinnacles, together with steep roofs, towers and spires exhibited verticality. Statues which were proportional to the human scale were an integral part of the buildings. Ornamentation was based on medieval mysticism and Christian subjects. The detailed sculptures were highly decorated with ethereal statues on the outside and beautiful rich painting on the inside. Both usually told Biblical stories, emphasizing visual typological allegories between Old Testament prophecy and the New Testament consisting of designs such as snarling stone gargoyles frozen in a sneer of ferocity.
NOTRE DAME, PARIS Finest monumental buildings of French gothic style. Started by Bishop Maurice desully. It has a wide nave, double aisles, transepts surrounded with chapels and western towers. Central nave divided into number of bays with cylindrical columns of Corinthian capitals carrying pointed arches. Main doorway has a central pillar with a statue of CHRIST.
The cathedral is crowned with a beautiful central wheel window of 10 m in diameter. Building with its impressive façade and imposing towers is one of the best cathedrals of gothic style.
THE LATE GOTHIC STYLE Characterized by geometrical, curvilinear ogee arches which framed the colored glass windows. Clerestory was made very large. Vaulting ribs became numerous and complex in design. Star-shaped patterns or stellar vaulting became main features.
Cornices were provided with carved foliage. Perpendicular style is characterised. Breadth taking height. Windows have mullions continued vertically. A fan vault was adopted. e.g. King’s college, Chapel. Palm vaulting and pendant vaulting were introduced. Delicacy was appreciated.
Way for german rococo. Combined influence of French Gothic and the decorative pattern of english gothic gave rise to the flamboyant style. Columns became more slender. Moulding consisted of two ogee mouldings with convex faces adjoining. Vine leaves, grape leaves were used as ornamentation. The ceilings were usually plastered. Attractive designs were provided in metal work, door-fittings, and grills, etc. Gothic styles were generally reserved for churches, schools, houses and universities.
Spains major tourist attractions. Alhambra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site , and the inspiration for many songs and stories. Moorish poets described it as "a pearl set in emeralds. built for the last Muslim Emirs in Spain and its court, of the Nasrid dynasty. complex was designed with the mountainous site in mind and many forms of technology were considered.
The park has a multitude of nightingales and is usually filled with the sound of running water from several fountains and cascades. The decoration consists, conventional foliage, Arabic inscriptions, and geometrical patterns wrought into arabesques. Painted tiles are largely used as panelling for the walls.
Its overall layout is not organized. plateau where the Alhambra sits measures about 740 metres (2,430 ft.) in length by 205 metres (670 ft.) at its greatest width. Alhambras most westerly feature is the alcazaba (citadel), a strongly fortified position. It has exterior walls with arches and towers.
The decorations within the palaces typified the remains of Moorish dominion within Spain and ushered in the last great period of Andalusian art in Granada.
COURT OF THE LIONS Court of the Lions is an oblong court, 116 ft (35 m) in length by 66 ft (20 m) in width, surrounded by a low gallery supported on 124 white marble columns.
A pavilion projects into the court at each extremity, with filigree walls and a light domed roof. The square is paved with coloured tiles and the colonnade with white marble, while the walls are covered 5 ft (1.5 m) up from the ground with blue and yellow tiles, with a border above and below of enamelled blue and gold. In the centre of the court is the Fountain of Lions, an alabaster basin supported by the figures of twelve lions in white marble, not designed with sculptural accuracy but as symbols of strength and courage
The present entrance to the Moorish palace, is by a small door from which a corridor connects to the Court of the Myrtles . The birka helped to cool the palace and acted as a symbol of power. This court is 42 m (140 ft) long by 22 m (74 ft) broad, and in the centre there is a large pond set in the marble pavement, full of goldfish, and with myrtles growing along its sides. There are galleries on the north and south sides. Underneath it, to the right, was the principal entrance, and over it are three windows with arches and miniature pillars.
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