Mastery Learning: Defined Mastery Learning is an instructional strategy based onthe principle that all students can attain lesson andunit objectives with the appropriate instruction andsufficient time to learn. Combines techniques of tutoring and individualizedinstruction placed in a group-learning format to bringlearning strategies of successful students to nearly allthe students of a given group
Mastery Learning: RootsJohn B. Carroll introduced concepts on which masterylearning is based determining two factors that affectthe rate of learning:1) Student perseverance (student controlled)2) Opportunities to learn (controlled by the teacher)
Mastery Learning: RootsBenjamin Bloom fully developed the conceptsconcluding:1) Nearly all students are able to learn given sufficienttime and quality of instruction2) Bloom’s expansion: 95% of all students are capableof learning the same amount of material to the samelevel of difficulty at the same rate and with the sameattitude toward learning.
Planning for Mastery LearningClearly state the objectives of the unitDivide each unit objective into lessons, eachincluding an objective and assessmentIdentify the most effective combination of learningmaterials and instructional strategies for each lesson
Teaching for MasteryLearningBegin the unit or lesson with a brief diagnostic test or formativeassessment of what students do and do not know about a topicUse the results of the diagnostic test to provide instruction andcorrective activities in an order of review, presentcontent, practice, and provide feedback that can also beindividualized with the use of curriculum-related computersoftwareUse this cycle first with the whole class and then repeat asneeded with the whole class or individuals. No student shouldproceed to new material until basic material has been mastered.
Bloom’s Quality InstructionCues about what is to be learned Encouragement of student participation Reinforcement of learningFeedback about correct and incorrect responses
Use this cycle first with the whole class and then repeatas needed with the whole class or individuals.Nostudent should proceed to new material until basicmaterial has been mastered!Mastery Learning: A Cycle
Assessment’s RoleThe success of Mastery Learning in the classroom is stronglyrelated to formative assessment. Teacher’s must: Provide effective feedback to students Adjust teaching to take into account the results ofassessment Ensure students assess themselves and understand how toimprove Assessment in the mastery learning is not used as ameasure of accountability but rather as a source of evidenceto guide future instruction
Mastery Learning:Approach to individual differences Students enter school with different skills, and that thereexist great differences in achievement between differentschool systems, schools, and classes. Children may need to learn in different ways, but that doesnot have to result in different levels, rates, or attitudestoward learning. What looks like a difference among students in rate oflearning is usually really a difference in proportion of timespent on task. People have different personalities, preferences, values,perspectives, strengths, and problems, and that these arehealthful differences
Mastery Learning: Findings Properly implemented, mastery learning strategies havebeen useful in increasing the level of achievement ofstudents who meet the minimum standards ofparticipation. Using mastery learning techniques, the learner tends tobecome more interested in the content being learned andfeels more competent as a learner. The student tends to have more control over his/herlearning and becomes more self-reliant in the processing ofinstruction.
References The Mastery Learning Handbook. Retrieved fromhttp://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/johns-hopkins-center-for-prevention-and-early-intervention/Publications/mlm.pdf Mastery Learning Printout. Retrieved from:http://learn.midsouthcc.edu/learningObjects/masteryLearning/printout.pdf Borich, Gary D.,2011. Effective Teaching MethodsResearch- Based Practice. Pearson Education.