World History - Chapter 5


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World History - Chapter 5

  1. 1. Classical Greece Chapter 5
  2. 2. What comes to mind when you think of ancient Greece?
  3. 3. Geography <ul><li>Seas influenced Greece </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks became skilled sailors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trade for natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mountainous land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cover 3/4 Greece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>small, independent communities developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>land transportation was difficult </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Geography <ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mild temperatures support outdoor life </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Mycenae <ul><li>Mycenaeans : Group of Indo-Europeans that settled in southern Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with Minoans </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adapted Minoan writing system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minoan designs on vases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>forms base of Greek culture </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mycenae <ul><li>Trojan Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mycenaeans (Greeks) fought a 10 year war against the city-state of Troy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recent archaeological finds suggest it could be a true story </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Mycenae <ul><li>Mycenaeans replaced by Dorians </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no written records exist from 1150-750bc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>we know little about the Dorians </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Mycenae <ul><li>Spoken stories became popular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homer : Greek storyteller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wrote epics : narrative poems that celebrate heroes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Mycenae <ul><li>Greek myths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sought to understand the mysteries of nature and power of human passion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>live on Mt. Olympus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zeus : ruler of the gods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Athena : goddess of wisdom and guardian of cities (Athens) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Section 2 Review <ul><li>City-states of Greece </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acropolis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristocracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oligarchy </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Section 2 Review <ul><li>Athens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>limited or more accepting at different times depending on ruler </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Section 2 Review <ul><li>Sparta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Military state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Values of pride, bravery, strength </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Section 2 Review <ul><li>Persian Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phalanx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Thermopylae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle of Salamis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delian League </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Golden Age of Athens
  15. 15. The Golden Age <ul><li>Pericles and Athens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three goals: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen democracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hold/strengthen empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glorify Athens </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Golden Age <ul><li>Strengthen democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid more public officials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased number of citizens serving in govt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct democracy : citizens rule directly </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Golden Age <ul><li>2. Strengthen empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Took over Delian League </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used the League’s money to strengthen Athens’ navy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated other members </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. The Golden Age <ul><li>3. Glorify Athens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used League money to buy gold, ivory, marble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid artists/architects to create sculptures and buildings </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Art and Drama <ul><li>Classical art : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graceful, beautiful, strong, perfect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek values in art: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harmony </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proportion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>idealistic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Art and Drama <ul><li>Drama </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greek built the first theaters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tragedy : serious drama about love, hate, war, betrayal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heroes have a tragic flaw </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Darth Vader </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comedy : crude humor and slapstick </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>made fun of politics and Athenians </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SNL </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Modern Examples of Greek Stories and Epics
  22. 22. Art and Drama <ul><li>Historians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herodotus : wrote first book of history on Persian Wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thucydides : wrote works on basis that history repeats itself </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Athens vs. Sparta <ul><li>Peloponnesian War: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparta declared war on Athens </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Greek Philosophers <ul><li>Beliefs of the philosophers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The universe is orderly, made up of unchanging laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We can understand the universe by using logic and reason </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Greek Philosophers <ul><li>Sophists </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Question traditional beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Socrates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Question yourself, your values and actions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Plato </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Republic : philosopher-kings rule over a perfect society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basis of scientific method for questioning the world and human belief </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Alexander the Great <ul><li>King Philip II of Macedonia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macedonians thought they were Greek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeks did not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philip II invaded Greece and ended Greek independence forever </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Alexander the Great <ul><li>Philip II murdered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander, his son, declared himself the new king </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes known as “Alexander the Great” for his accomplishments </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Alexander the Great <ul><li>Defeating Persia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taught by Aristotle, inspired by the Iliad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander first proved he could defeat the Persians in the battle of Granicus River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 144 </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Alexander the Great <ul><li>Moving South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persian King Darius III was scared </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Offered Alexander all Persian lands west of Euphrates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alexander refused peace and marched into Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Founded Alexandria </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Alexander the Great <ul><li>Moving East </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near ancient Nineveh, Alexander used the phalanx formation to cause Darius III to flee the battle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marked the end of the Persian Empire </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Alexander the Great <ul><li>Alexander’s Defeat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursued Darius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found him dead near the Caspian Sea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuing east, armies experienced hardship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once defeating an army in the Indus Valley, Alexander agreed to return home </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Alexander the Great <ul><li>Alexander’s Defeat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At Babylon, Alexander died from illness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Legacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empire split into three kingdoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antigonus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ptolemy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seleucus </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Alexander the Great <ul><li>The Legacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hellenistic culture : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blending of Persian, Egyptian, Indian, and Greek cultures </li></ul></ul></ul>