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Imperialism To Today


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Imperialism To Today

  1. 1. The Middle East Western Influence, Development, and Today
  2. 2. End of the Ottomans <ul><li>Challenges to the Ottoman Empire: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>European imperialism began to play a strong role in the break up of the Ottoman Empire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ottoman rulers began acting more Western than Middle Eastern </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ottoman-ruled regions began nationalist movements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. European Imperialism <ul><li>The empire began breaking into numerous independent states around the 19 th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those states were then put under the control of European countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Egypt- Great Britain </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Egypt & Imperialism <ul><li>Britain and France fought to gain control of Egypt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They wanted control of the Suez Canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Links the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The French initially controlled the canal in the mid-1800s </li></ul><ul><li>The British gained protection of it as a “neutral zone” during an Egyptian civil war before WWI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave Egypt “self rule” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After WWII, the British agreed to leave Egypt and left the canal in the hands of the Egyptian government </li></ul>Egypt & Imperialism
  6. 6. <ul><li>One of Egypt’s great rulers during British imperialism was Muhammad Ali </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He promoted: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modernization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of cash crops </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Western reforms </li></ul></ul></ul>Egypt and Imperialism
  7. 7. <ul><li>Ottomans attempted to reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modernized the government and army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created secular schools to teach western ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This plan backfired… </li></ul>Ottoman Reforms
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Young Turks (ca 1909) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab nationalist group that wanted to end western influence in the empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took over the empire and ruled harshly </li></ul></ul>Nationalism
  9. 9. <ul><li>The empire was officially dissolved after WWI (1919), when its ally, Germany, was defeated </li></ul>End of the Ottomans
  10. 10. End of the Ottomans Ottoman Empire at its height
  11. 11. End of the Ottomans
  12. 12. Republic of Turkey <ul><li>Turkey became independent, however its new ruler was “western” through and through </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ataturk : Became President of Turkey in the 1920s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted policies of westernization and modernization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Western style clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of church and state </li></ul><ul><li>Secular public schools </li></ul>Republic of Turkey Even language reform. Turkey Video
  14. 14. Arab Nationalism <ul><li>After the break up of the Ottoman Empire, Britain and France got control of many Arab lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab nationalists demanded self-rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of oil made Europeans reluctant to leave the Middle East </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Conflict Over Palestine <ul><li>Zionism : movement in the 1920s and 1930s to reestablish a Jewish nation in Palestine </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jews had been expelled by Romans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palestinian Arabs promoted anti-Semitism as the Jewish people migrated back into the region </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Conflict Over Palestine Zionists
  17. 17. Conflict Over Palestine <ul><li>The problem with Zionism… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green = Arab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red = Jewish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arab nationalism begins to make it a cultural conflict, rather than a political one </li></ul>
  18. 18. Arab-Israeli Conflict <ul><li>Palestine is divided in 1947 to include a Jewish state and an Arab state </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blue = Jewish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tan= Arab </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>White= Neutral (Jerusalem) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1948, war erupts </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>In 1967, Israel captures and occupies the Arab lands of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank </li></ul>Arab-Israeli Conflict
  20. 20. <ul><li>Palestinian refugees flee to Lebanon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They set up the Palestinian Liberation Organization in order to attack Israel </li></ul></ul>Arab-Israeli Conflict
  21. 21. <ul><li>In 1982, Israel heads off a PLO attack by invading Lebanon </li></ul>Arab-Israeli Conflict
  22. 22. Peace Efforts <ul><li>Many Arab nations refuse to recognize Israel as a nation and support terrorist activities against it </li></ul><ul><li>Israel won’t allow a Palestinian state to be created </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous world leaders have tried to bring an agreement to the table </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Latest Updates: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israel ended its occupation of the Gaza Strip in 2005 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recent tensions between Israel and other Arab countries like Lebanon and Iran have caused skirmishes amongst the Arabs and Israelis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Israel Video </li></ul></ul></ul>Peace Efforts
  24. 24. <ul><li>Iran and modernization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Its goal is to make itself “comparable to the most developed countries in the world.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Today we have nuclear issues with Iran </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Development in the Rest of the Middle East
  25. 25. <ul><li>The Cold War (1950s-1980s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. and Russia rivalry in the Middle East </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M.E. countries accepted aid from both nations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia invaded Afghanistan in 1979 </li></ul></ul>Development in the Rest of the Middle East
  26. 26. <ul><li>The Cold War (1950s-1980s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia was attempting to support a communist government in Afghanistan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. fought Russia by supplying Afghan rebels with weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of the rebels was Osama Bin Laden </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When Russia withdrew, many of the U.S. and recovered Soviet weapons were used by the organization known as Al-Qaeda </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video: Osama Bin Laden </li></ul></ul></ul>Development in the Rest of the Middle East
  27. 27. <ul><li>Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tensions between Iraq and Iran regarding the border </li></ul></ul>Development in the Rest of the Middle East <ul><li>Saddam Hussein invaded Iran </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Want to control the oil market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S. aided Iraq, but secretly sent weapons to Iran </li></ul><ul><li>A UN ceasefire was needed to end the war </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Persian Gulf War (1991) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, claiming it belonged to Iraq </li></ul></ul>Development in the Rest of the Middle East <ul><li>The U.S. and UN fought the Iraqis until Iraq was forced to surrender </li></ul><ul><li>The UN left weapons inspectors in Iraq to make sure no chemical or biological weapons were being made </li></ul>
  29. 29. Development in the Rest of the Middle East
  30. 30. Development in the Rest of the Middle East <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Governments have promoted industry, especially oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil has made some nations very wealthy, while others are in need of economic support </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Development in the Rest of the Middle East
  32. 32. <ul><li>In 1960, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was created </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela were the original members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls major oil reserves and prices </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affects the global economy </li></ul></ul></ul>Development in the Rest of the Middle East
  33. 33. <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The growth of cities has created conflict among young generations and older traditional parents </li></ul></ul>Development in the Rest of the Middle East A photo from a video series that promotes career development for young Arab women. An older woman in traditional Arabic dress.
  34. 34. Islamic Fundamentalism <ul><li>A “cultural knee jerk” </li></ul><ul><li>It is a movement that sees westernization as a force undermining Islamic society </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Goals of Islamic Fundamentalists : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Shariah as law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shariah : Islamic law derived from the Koran </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give all political power to religious leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return to the values of the Koran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete separation of men and women in public </li></ul></ul>Islamic Fundamentalism
  36. 36. <ul><li>Islamic Fundamentalism and Terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The War on Terror is still only a political war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We are fighting against a group of terrorists who associate themselves with this religious sect of Islam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “Battle for Islam” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>HOWEVER, don’t get the two mixed up: </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Fundamentalism, Feared and Misunderstood </li></ul>Islamic Fundamentalism
  37. 37. Review <ul><li>End of the Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialism, Failed Reforms, Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egypt as an Imperial Case Study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Republic of Turkey after the Ottomans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab Nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arab-Israeli Conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran and Modernization </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cold War and Osama Bin Laden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saddam Hussein: Iran-Iraq War and Persian Gulf War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional vs. Modernization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Islamic Fundamentalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a part of Arab nationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its role (or lack there of) in terrorism </li></ul></ul>Review