Historical Geography


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Historical Geography

  1. 1. Historical Geography Developed and Developing Countries
  2. 2. Developed vs. Developing <ul><li>What is a “developed” country? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What is a “developing” country? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Latin America </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southeast and South Asia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Middle East </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>African nations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Why aren’t some countries developed? </li></ul>
  3. 3. New York City, USA
  4. 4. Rural village in India or Pakistan
  5. 5. Historical Geography <ul><li>Until 1300AD large empires ruled in various regions of the world </li></ul><ul><li>After 1300, Europeans took control of the oceans and most of the known world </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialism : a period in history when many countries were ruled by a few powerful nations from about 1500-?? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Periods of History <ul><li>Major Periods in World History </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renaissance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Independence of developing countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Cold War </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modernization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What Caused Imperialism? <ul><li>The Emergence of Europe as a World Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advances in Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Renaissance (~1350-1600) encouraged inventions like the compass and better weapons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money Economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start using paper and coin money with the goal of making a profit (beginnings of capitalism) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need for cheap resources, cheap labor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New systems of production (machines and electricity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe began to compete for control of natural resources in other regions </li></ul></ul>What Caused Imperialism?
  9. 9. What Caused Imperialism? <ul><li>How did the Renaissance and Industrial Revolution make Europe a world power? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization : growth of cities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reformers forced gov’ts. to become more democratic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better transportation and communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Europe used its weapons and wealth to gain influence all over the world </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Westernization : adoption of western culture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Nationalism <ul><li>Nationalism : pride and loyalty to one’s country </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism led to rivalries, which were part of the fighting that caused WWI in 1914 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism rose out of imperialism in many regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After WWII, nationalist movements in imperialized countries led to independence </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. The Cold War <ul><li>A political and economic struggle between the democratic nations of the West, led by the U.S., and the Communist bloc, led by the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stockpiling of weapons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competing for influence all over the world (a second age of imperialism?) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Developing Countries <ul><li>After imperial countries left, those regions remained dependent on Europe and the United States for money and resources </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receive loans for transportation and communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Debt crisis : countries cannot pay back high interest loans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Often, countries have to depend on cash crops or one profitable industry to pay back loans </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Indonesia– clothing, Colombia– illegal drugs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Global Issues <ul><li>Refugees leaving poor nations </li></ul>
  14. 15. Global Issues <ul><li>Illegal Drug Trade </li></ul>
  15. 16. Global Issues <ul><li>Terrorism : using bombings, hijackings, etc. to publicize a cause and achieve goals </li></ul>
  16. 17. Global Issues <ul><li>The Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pollution, industrial accidents, population pressure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Global Issues <ul><li>Human Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Stopping genocide in Darfur (Sudan) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Global Issues <ul><li>Economic Interdependency </li></ul>
  19. 20. Review <ul><ul><li>The Renaissance and Industrial Revolution contributed to the rise of Europe as a major world power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age of Imperialism begins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism leads to independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cold War begins a mini-Age of Imperialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Former imperialized countries continue to depend on the “West” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DEBT CRISIS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major global issues </li></ul></ul>