Africa Today


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Africa Today

  1. 1. Africa Today Economic Dependence, Urbanization, South Africa
  2. 2. Ending Economic Dependence <ul><li>Colonial legacies left African nations dependent on western countries </li></ul><ul><li>How to become economically independent? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ending Economic Dependence <ul><li>Develop agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No cash crops </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ending Economic Dependence <ul><li>Limit imports </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goal is to export more than you import </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sell more than you buy </li></ul></ul></ul>Food exports
  5. 5. Ending Economic Dependence <ul><li>Dealing with a population explosion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Birth rates are increasing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better health care = lower death rate </li></ul></ul></ul>Life expectancy
  6. 6. Ending Economic Dependence <ul><li>Dealing with a population explosion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need schools, houses, and jobs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must provide family planning to slow the birth rate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Economic Growth Fastest growing African economies in 1999 Source:
  8. 8. Economic Growth Fastest contracting African economies in 1999
  9. 9. Economic Growth African world exports of foodstuffs in 1980 and 1996
  10. 10. Economic Growth <ul><li>According to the United Nations in 2003, </li></ul><ul><li>26 out of 50 of the Least Developed Countries in the world are African. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Urbanization <ul><li>Growth of African cities </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The percent of Africans living in cities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1990: ~25% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2003: 38% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By 2025: 54% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Percent of U.S. population in cities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1990: ~75% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2003: 80% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Westernization <ul><li>Western culture and technology is everywhere in African cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why might that be? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using western technology to develop, technology loaned from the West, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movies, magazines, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Some Africans have begun to oppose westernization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islamic groups with ties to the Middle East are against western influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They believe it glorifies individual desires and material goods </li></ul></ul></ul>Westernization The movie “Black Hawk Down” was based on true events in which African Islamic fundamentalists with ties to Osama Bin Laden attacked American helicopters in Somalia
  14. 14. Case Study: South Africa <ul><li>South Africa has had trouble modernizing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After WWII (1948), the white Nationalist party enforced racial segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apartheid : rigid separation of races </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonwhites could not vote </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could only hold certain jobs and live in certain areas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Apartheid continued through the 1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestors began fighting back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They gained the attention of the world </li></ul></ul></ul>Case Study: South Africa
  16. 16. <ul><li>The world began putting pressure on South Africa to stop apartheid </li></ul><ul><li>Nelson Mandela, a famous black African leader, was captured and imprisoned in 1964 </li></ul>Case Study: South Africa
  17. 17. <ul><li>Mandela was released from prison in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>When the first inter-racial elections were held, he was elected as President of the new South African government </li></ul>Case Study: South Africa
  18. 18. Case Study: South Africa Mandela is still revered as a hero of civil rights among South Africans.
  19. 19. Arts and Literature <ul><li>Art, music, and storytelling continue to play a large part in African culture since prehistoric times </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Griot : traditional African storyteller </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most African art focuses on the rich cultural heritage of different regions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Arts and Literature
  21. 21. Arts and Literature