Presentation chapter 5


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chapter 5 of MARPOL by teresita s. oblefias

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Presentation chapter 5

  2. 2. Chapter 5 Preventing Marine Pollution from Ship Operations Outcome: • Identify various ship operations generating pollution • Distinguish tank operations resulting in pollution • State the hazards involved in handling petroleum; and • Explain safety measures in handling petroleum cargo.
  3. 3. Introduction In order to avoid marine pollution from ships, activities on board vessels should be taken with extreme care. Lack of safety measures increases the chance of spilling oil or harmful substances. This chapter deals with ship’s operational activities that generate marine pollution. Emphasis on standard safety operating procedures in the handling of petroleum cargo is given in this chapter
  4. 4. SHIPS OPERATIONS GENERATING POLLUTION The common causes of pollution from routine shipboard operations are as follows: • Ships taking in or transferring bunkers or disposing of or transferring fuel, fuel residues and oily bilge water • Tanker operations such as cargo loading/discharging, tank cleaning, ballasting operations • Discharge of hold bilges or ballast water on vessels other than tankers • Washing of decks covered with cargo remnants or hydraulic oil which has leaked from deck machinery • Discharge of sewage • Disposal of galley and other garbage
  5. 5. BUNKERING -the operation of taking on board fuel. - in most cases, bunkering is a major cause of operational oil spills for all types of vessels. The ship’s officer-in-charge of monitoring this task has to be alert and experienced in this field. The areas of safety concern are as follows: • The position of overflow and air pipes • Overflow tank and sounding pipes • Depth indicators of all fuel tanks • Overflow alarm system
  6. 6. MEASURES TO PREVENT OIL SPILL DURING OPERATIONS a. Fitting of scupper plugs and checking that drain plugs of bunker, manifold and fuel tank air pipe containment “save- alls” are in place b. Establishing communication with supply control position and agreeing on maximum pumping rate and pressure. Ensure that any signals to be used are thoroughly understood c. Checking the conditions of hoses and couplings before and during bunkering. d. Checking blanks available and hose string of sufficient length to allow for normal for normal movement of vessel. e. Checking all valves in required position and tank vent pipes free from obstruction before bunkering commences. f. Taking accurate sounding of all tanks before and on completion of bunkering in oreder to verify the amount of fuel delivered.
  7. 7. g) Barge/ shore tank sounding and/or meter readings should also be checked before and after bunkering to help resolve any problem concerning quantity. h) Taking frequent sounding during bunkering and rate of delivery slowed down during topping of. i) Ample warning should be given to supplier of need to reduce delivery rate and the final shutting off. j) Vessel should be upright and even keel throughout the bunkering operations.
  8. 8. TRANSFERRING OF FUEL -Transferring is done either within the ship or from ship-to-ship transfer operations. Ship-to-ship > transfer or lightening may occur either in a port area or at sea If transfer is from one ship to another ship, risk is also considerable. Safety measures should be undertaken to prevent the release of oil into the water. The measures are as follows: a. Fenders are properly placed when a vessel is to be positioned alongside the damaged vessel for the transfer of oil (in case of salvage operations) b. Before transfer begins, a lightening plan must be detailed so that vessel shall stay at even keel. c. Clear languages or communication instructions and signals must be adopted by both ships.
  9. 9. d) All pieces of equipment must be in good condition, this includes the hoses, couplings, etc. e) Experienced personnel who have the skills in the delicate operations must be deployed. f) Emergency procedures must be adopted by both vessels. BILGE WATER DISCHARGE OPERATIONS AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS >Bilge water discharge should be done to shore facilities. However in order to discharge water from bilges at sea, a series of conditions are provided by technical Annex I of MARPOL 73/78. For the purpose of monitoring discharge of oily ballast water or tank washings from cargo tanks, installations of an oil discharge monitoring and control system is required together with fitting of oil/water interface detector.
  10. 10. For the purpose of monitoring discharge of oily bilge water and oily ballast water from fuel tanks, installation of oil filtering equipment is required. Different equipment should be attached to oil-filtering equipment depending on the gross registered tonnage of the ship. Regulation 14 of the revised Technical Annex I reuires that any ship off 400 GT and above but less than 10,000 GT shall be fitted with oil filtering euipment, which design is approved by the administration. It should be noted before the revision of technical Annex I of MARPOL 73/78, the oil filtering equipment requirement was within Regulation 16 of Technical Annex I
  11. 11. The equipment requirements for oil-water separating equipment and oil filtering equipment are as follows: a) Oil-water separating equipment – It may include any combination of a separator, filter, or coalescer and also a single unit designed to produce an effluent with oil content of less than 100ppm. b) Oil filtering Equipment- It includes any combintaion of a separator, filter or coalescer and also a single unit designed to produce an effluent with oil content no exceeding 15ppm. It is intended to use equipment attached to oily-water separating equipment certified for an effluent of less than 100ppm The following are the regulations relative to fitting the filtering equipment: • When the level of effluents discharge more than the required 15ppm, the bilge alarm system activates. • The oil filtering equipment should be strongly suited for
  12. 12. The equipment requirements for oil-water separating equipment and oil filtering equipment are as follows: shipboard operation. • It is fitted in areas where flammable atmosphere may be present • Electrical support attachment should be equipped with safety equipment and installed in the safe areas. • The equipment is designed to function automatically but manual control is also provided in case of emergency. • The system should be able to operate at least 24 hours of normal duty without attention. • The bilge alarm has an oil content meter. The meter can withstand corrosion arising from saltwater. The meter is fitted with an alarm device, which is set automatically to alert crew of the ship. The alarm activates when the effluent exceeds 15ppm. The alarm also operates automatically when the meter fails to function during a warm up period or de-energized.
  13. 13. TANKER OPERATIONS Tankers carry a variety of petroleum products. Tankers are considered as the single largest contributor of marine pollution. The introduction of supertankers created public concerns in both developing and advanced countries. Oil pollution from tankers originate from two principal sources. These are as follows: 1. Various types of tanker accidents. 2. Normal tanker operations(i.e. tank cleaning, ballasting, and other operational activities involving discharge of oil overboard) Aside from the tanker accidents and normal tanker operations, the dry-docking activities of these types of ships also add to the oil pollution. However, the normal tanker operation is considered as the main source of marine pollution from tankers.
  14. 14. In this regard, it is extremely important that all loading and unloading operations are done with all the necessary precautions. This practice reduces the risk of unnecessary oil release into the water that pollutes the sea but also ascertains that lives and properties are not endangered.
  15. 15. STANDARD SAFETY PROCEDURES FOR TANKER OPERATIONS The standard safety proceduresin the following tanker operations are normally followed to avoid accidents that may entail marine pollution: A. Pre-loading Operations i. Before loading, a communication and signaling system should be agreed upon between the ship and shore personnel. For a standard ship, a shore safety checklist is used and the items on it are checked. ii. A loading plan is drawn between the ship and the shore wherein loading sequence, stoppages, etc. are stated. The ullage is calculated to which the cargo is to be loaded
  16. 16. iii. Fire fighting equipment and gears are placed close to the manifold and ready for immediate use. Measures are taken to prevent oil from flowing overboard in case of leakage of hose couplings, etc. the tank lids are closed gastight and the tank vent risers are put in loading position. iv. The ullage meters are lowered to their lowest position. The ships cargo lines are set right as in the case with tank valves. If only one product is to be loaded, the valves in the main and the crossover lines may all be kept open. The suction and discharge valves of all pumps are shut. v. The cargo line valves in the pump room are to be set right. The terminal will connect their lines to the ship’s manifold by means of hoses or steel pipes. After all the checking, the ship can indicate to terminal that their valve/s now may be opened and loading can start. The time the ship is ready to load is noted on time sheet. Inert gas installation should be
  17. 17. v. …installation should be shut off. The gases in the tanks are blown out during loading and dislodged by cargoes. B. During Loading Operations i. Loading should start slowly to check if connections are oil tight and also to avoid static accumulation. Checks should be made if oil flows overboard via the seachests in the pump room and the cargo in indeed flowing into the tanks. ii. The speed of loading may rise gradually to an agreed speed or allowable hose or chicksan pressure. Soon after loading has begun, the terminal and ship will take samples of the tanks that are being loaded to check the temperature of the product. iii. During loading,rounds are made regularly to check the moorings, emergency, towing wire, etc. the loading speed is checked. The calculated ullage is checked if nearly reached. The tank valve is closed. The regular intervals are checked
  18. 18. iii. if sheer forces and bending moments reach the maximum. If so, steps are to be taken to reduce them. Near the end of loading, speed must be reduced to diminish the chance of an overflow from the tank, as this may entail a heavy fine on ship. C. POST LOADING OPERATIONS i. After completion of loading, the ship’s manifld valves are only to be closed after the shore valves have been closed. The tank valve is to be closed last. After completion of loading, the hoses or loading arms should be emptied into a drip tray prior to disconnecting. ii. After disconnecting the hose and loading arms, blind flanges are to be connected to the manifold valves. All main and crossovers valves are shut.
  19. 19. iii. All openings of the tanks are closed gas tight, except P/V breakers. The whessoe gauges are to be raised up to the stored position D. DISCHARGING OPERATIONS i. Of every cargo tank,
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