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The Social Web

  1. Digital Enterprise Research Institute The Social Web Alexandre Passant DERI, NUI Galway DM110 Emerging Web Media 20th October 2009 ♥ Copyright 2008 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved. Chapter
  2. So far, in the previous lectures ... Digital Enterprise Research Institute   Using HTML and XHTML to generate Web pages   Time consuming   Setting-up a Content Management System   Requires some basic system administration skills   How to create content on the Web without high- level technical skills ?   Focus on the content rather than on the technical issues   How to use the Web as a medium to share data and get new relationships ?   The Web as a platform for social interactions
  3. Agenda Digital Enterprise Research Institute   General introduction to Social Media and Web 2.0   From the Web to a Social Web   Popular Social Media services   Blogs, Wikis, etc.   Media-sharing and Online Social Networking   Overview of various Web 2.0 services   Microblogging   The Twitter phenomenon   Licensing issues   Creative Commons   Web 1.0 / Web 2.0 / Semantic Web   Next steps for upcoming lectures
  4. From the Web to a “Social Web” •  The New Yorker, 1993 The New Yorker, 2005 “I had my own blog for a while, but •  “On the Internet, nobody I decided to go back to just knows you’re a dog.” pointless, incessant barking.” 4
  5. What is Social Media ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute    “Social media uses the ‘wisdom of crowds’ to connect information in a collaborative manner.”   “Social media can take many different forms, including message boards, weblogs, wikis, podcasts, pictures and video.”   Popular examples (details later)   Wikipedia, Flickr, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Upcoming, SecondLife, Digg,, 43things …   Related terms   Web 2.0, Social Web, social software,   Social networks, social bookmarking, user-generated content
  6. What is Web 2.0 ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute   A term made popular by Tim O’Reilly  2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html   “A set of principles and practices that tie together a veritable solar system of sites that demonstrate some or all of those principles, at a varying distance from that core.”   ... but also a copyrighted term for conferences
  7. Web 2.0 principles (O’Reilly) Digital Enterprise Research Institute   The Web as a platform   Harnessing collective intelligence   Data is the next “Intel Inside”   End of the software release cycle   Lightweight programming models   Software above the level of a single device   Rich user experiences   The long tail
  8. Web 2.0 meme map Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  9. Web 2.0 tagcloud Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  10. Social Media in simple terms Digital Enterprise Research Institute   Users   Users post content   Content   Users share content   Tags   Users tag content   Interactivity   Users comment content   Users browse content via tags   Users connect directly
  11. How many Web 2.0 services ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute   A lot !   See   Most of them will not survive
  12. Weblogs and weblogging Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  13. What is a blog ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute   A blog, or weblog (web log) is an online journal   “A web application which contains periodic time-stamped posts on a common (usually open-access) webpage”   Posts are often shown in reverse chronological order   Usually, blog posts can be commented by the readers   Generally features RSS feeds to syndicate latest news   A wide range of use-cases:   Individual diaries, group blogs on technical topics   Political campaigns, media programs and corporations (e.g. the Google Blog)   Grassroots journalism   Well-known bloggers may even blog as a daily-job
  14. Anatomy of a weblog (frontend) Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  15. Anatomy of a weblog (backend) Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  16. State of the blogosphere Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  17. Why ? Who ? How ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  18. How to create a blog ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute   Free online services , ...   Open-source tools   WordPress, B2Evolution ...   You will need you own hosting space on the Web, generally with ability to embeds PHP in webpages and MySQL for data storage   Some CMS also offer blogging capabilities   Drupal, Joomla ...   You may need to install a particular blogging module   If you already created your Drupal website   Simply activate the blog module, and you’ve got one !
  19. How to discover blogs / content Digital Enterprise Research Institute   Many people blog, but data is spread on the Web   By nature, the Web is distributed, so is weblogging   Anyone can create a weblog, but how to find it ?   Blogrolls and hyperlinks   Will help to find related blogs from a particular one   Dedicated search engines   Technorati -   Google Blogsearch -   Using those search engines, you can then use your RSS aggregators to follow interesting news   On-line aggregators, e.g. and desktop applications, e.g.
  20. RSS Syndication (1) Digital Enterprise Research Institute   RSS feeds can be used for direct interaction between producers and consumers   Even without any web-based application
  21. RSS Syndication (2) Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  22. RSS Syndication (3) Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  23. Tagging blog posts Digital Enterprise Research Institute   A simple method for user-generated classification   Anyone can use his own term   No need to learn a predefined vocabulary   Evolves among time, thanks to users themselves   Tagging   A tripartite relationship between a User, a Resource, a Tag   Folksonomy   The result of tagging actions in a given platform   Tagclouds allow visual representation of folksonomies   As we will see later, many media-sharing platform also extensively use tagging
  24. Serendipity through tagging Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  25. Wikis Digital Enterprise Research Institute    A wiki is a page or collection of Web pages designed to enable anyone who accesses it to contribute or modify content, using a simplified markup language.[1][2] Wikis are often used to create collaborative websites and to power community websites.   WikiWikiWeb ( was the first site to be called a wiki. Ward Cunningham started developing WikiWikiWeb in 1994,
  26. Wiki principles Digital Enterprise Research Institute   A wiki is an informational resource, like a reference manual, encyclopedia, or handbook   The most famous is Wikipedia, a highly used, online, free- access encyclopedia   It consists in a group of web pages that allows users to add content and also allows others to edit the content:   It relies on cooperation, checks and balances of its members, and a belief in sharing of ideas   Contrary to weblogs, wikis focus on community agreement rather than on personal views of a topic   This creates a community effort in resource and information management, disseminating the 'voice' amongst many instead of concentrating it upon few
  27. What are wikis used for ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute   Lots of various use-cases   online encyclopaedias   free dictionaries   book repositories   event management   software development   writing research papers   project proposals   But be careful   What is said in a wiki is not   necessary the truth !   Always check other information sources
  28. Anatomy of Wikipedia Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  29. Wiki editing and auto-regulation Digital Enterprise Research Institute   In a Wiki, anyone can edit exiting content, create new pages, and delete existing content   WikiWords are used to create new pages and a simple syntax allows to write pages without HTML   A versioning mechanism allows to browse and retrieve older versions to avoid vandalism (+IP blacklisting, protecting some pages, etc.)   Auto-regulation   People voluntary maintain the wiki to avoid vandalism   Let’s try ! –  Choose a Wikipedia page regarding a topic that you like –  Edit the page and add a personal comment –  Let’s come back in a few minutes ...
  30. Media Sharing and OSN Digital Enterprise Research Institute   Many Web 2.0 websites allow to upload and share data:   Pictures, Videos, Slides, Events, Playlists, Bookmarks, ...   Tag content so that it can be discovered   Most of them include an online social-networking (OSN) component   Meet people because you share the same interests   Object-centric social networking   While some websites are pure OSN   Meet people through others   Various purposes: dating, friendship, business contacts
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  37. use-case Digital Enterprise Research Institute   Create an account    Share your musical tastes   Plug-ins for iTunes and iPod   Discover new content   Based on what you’re listening to   Find people you may like   Because you’re listening to the same bands   And create your social network   Announce concerts, subscribe to events   Chat with people online and enhance your social network
  38. Connecting things ... and people Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  39. Online Social Networking Digital Enterprise Research Institute   While the previous websites feature social- networking components, this is not their main purpose   You can use them only to publish / discover data   Some websites are pure Social Networking:   Friendships and relationships   Offline meetings   Curiosity about others   Business opportunities and hob hunting   They allow a user to create and maintain an online network of close friends or business associates for social and professional reasons
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  45. Popularity of OSN Digital Enterprise Research Institute •  The 10 most popular Alexa rankings: domains ~= 40% percent of all page #5: MySpace views on the Web (Compete, November #6: Facebook 2006) #8: hi5 –  Nearly half of those views #10: orkut were from the social networking services #18: Friendster MySpace and Facebook – #119: Bebo wow! #212: LinkedIn –  And that’s just in the top 10…
  46. Microblogging ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute   Short updates of your activity lifestream   Publish from various devices and share it to anyone, at anytime, from anywhere   A new form of agile communication    The most famous microblogging website, +1 billion tweets !!   140 characters max per update   Let’s try   Go to and create an account   Start publishing some data that will be available on your public timeline   Find people that you want to follow
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  48. Twitter, RT, @followers and #tags Digital Enterprise Research Institute   By default twitter does not provide a way to “retweet”, reply to people and add tags   But these features have been added by the community   Some of them are now integrated in Twitter   Retweet   Republishing of Twitter post, generally beginning with RT   Answering someone   Using @username (+ direct private messages)   Tag content   Hashtags – #tag   Hashtag of the lectures - #DM110
  49. Twitter and third-party applications Digital Enterprise Research Institute   Based on the Twitter API, lots of services emerged   Twittervision, TwitPic, TwitterFeed, etc.
  50. Social Aggregators Digital Enterprise Research Institute   How to let people browse my social data from a single entry point   Social aggregators can help, Eg: FriendFeed   We will see in a next lecture how the Semantic Web can provide alternatives, but thanks to open standards and process   Privacy issues   What do you want to publish ?   Who can access it ? –  Do you really want your lecturer to see your latest party pictures from Facebook ?   Work still must be done in that direction !
  51. Other Web 2.0 services Digital Enterprise Research Institute   Blogs, wikis, OSN and media sharing are the most popular form of Social Media websites   But many other services are available on the Web   Videoblogging, Podcasting ...   In addition, mash-ups allow to combine data from various Web 2.0 services to create your own   Most of the Web 2.0 service provide an API to access their data –   Eg: Display upcoming concerts on a GoogleMap –  Topic of a future lectures
  52. Licensing issues Digital Enterprise Research Institute   When you publish content online, you may allow people to reuse it, but you want to keep some kind of ownership   So that your work can be recognized   Licensing does not unallow to give your work ‘for free’ –  E.g.: Free-source software licenses (GPL ...)   Creative Commons -   Share, Remix, Reuse — Legally   Decide what people can do with your content: –  6 different contracts   Some bands put their songs using a CC-licence –
  53. Creative Commons Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  54. Find, identify and re-use CC content Digital Enterprise Research Institute
  55. Web 1.0 / Web 2.0 Digital Enterprise Research Institute Platforms Netscape, Internet Explorer Google Services, AJAX, Flock Web Pages Personal Websites Blogs Portals Content Management Systems Wikis Encyclopediæ Britannica Online Wikipedia Talk Netmeeting Skype, Asterisk Knowledge Directories, Taxonomies Tagging, Folksonomies Referencing Stickiness Syndication Content Akamai BitTorrent, P2P Events Evite (updated from O’Reilly)
  56. ... 2.0 or 0.1 ? Digital Enterprise Research Institute   “Web 2.0” is not far from the initial idea of the Web   “The idea was that anybody who used the web would have a space where they could write and so the first browser was an editor, it was a writer as well as a reader. Every person who used the web had the ability to write something. [...] When you write a blog, you don't write complicated hypertext, you just write text, so I'm very, very happy to see that now it's gone in the direction of becoming more of a creative medium” - Tim Berners-Lee - Interview with the BBC (2005) -   We’ll see in a next lecture that the Social Semantic Web is even more near from the initial vision of the Web !
  57. Assignment Digital Enterprise Research Institute   Choose a particular project / interest that you have   Describe and implement your Social Media strategy to promote it to a worldwide audience !   Define and argue which tools you will use (blogs, OSN ...)   Then create some account(s) and publish content ... keep it alive if you can, and you might be able to create a community around it !   Finally, provide a single entry point so that people can discover all your Social Media regarding to that topic content from a single entry point –  Using your Drupal website   mailto: before 1st Nov.
  58. Credits Digital Enterprise Research Institute   Some slides based on:   Former lectures by John Breslin   Social Semantic Web tutorials –  WWW2008 –  RWSS2008 –  DERI Tutorial 2009   CC-Pictures:  Image:HNL_Wiki_Wiki_Bus.jpg  