Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Effects of Climate Change oN N2O Emissions <br />Presented By: <br />Aditya Parmar <br />Zoiab Hassan <br />Bernard <br />
CONTENTS<br />
CLIMATE CHANGE<br />Definition:<br />      Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be ident...
CLIMATE CHANGE<br />Source: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report<br />
CLIMATE CHANGE<br />Source: Climate Change Global Risk, Challenges and Decisions COPENHAGEN 2009: Synthesis Report<br />
N2O<br />Source: Climate Change Global Risk, Challenges and Decisions COPENHAGEN 2009: Synthesis Report<br />Source: Wikip...
N2O<br />Source: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report<br />
Emissions<br />Nitrification: <br />Aerobic process in which ammonium (NH4) is oxidised to nitrate (NO3) (Davidson et al.,...
 FINDINGS - temperature<br />The global temperature will rise upbetween 1.5 and 4.5°C, especially in the northern altitude...
FINDINGS - Temperature<br />The Pearson rank correlation demonstrates that at nine sites soil temperature has a<br />posit...
FINDINGS - Temperature<br />Another interesting  study was done by using simulated technology and market relationships gov...
FINDINGS – Soil Moisture <br />The precipitation during summer will rise in thenorthern higher latitudes of Europe in comp...
FINDINGS – SOIL MOISTURE<br />We observed  a positive correlation of N2O  with  soil moisture for 11 from 13 sites. The me...
FINDINGS – soil moisture<br />Source: Effects of an experimental drought on soil emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nit...
FINDINGS – soil moisture<br />For N2O, the annual emissions from the exclusion<br />plot were about half those of the cont...
Findings – Soil Moisture <br />The relationship between volumetric water content of the top 30cm soil with surface fluxes ...
conclusion<br />
Thanks <br />
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Effects of climate change on the emmission of n2o

1,800 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Effects of climate change on the emmission of n2o

  1. 1. Effects of Climate Change oN N2O Emissions <br />Presented By: <br />Aditya Parmar <br />Zoiab Hassan <br />Bernard <br />
  2. 2. CONTENTS<br />
  3. 3. CLIMATE CHANGE<br />Definition:<br /> Climate change refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified (e.g. using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. It refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity.<br />This usage differs from that in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), where climate change refers to a change of climate that is attributed directly or indirectly by human activity.<br />Source: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report<br />
  4. 4. CLIMATE CHANGE<br />Source: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report<br />
  5. 5. CLIMATE CHANGE<br />Source: Climate Change Global Risk, Challenges and Decisions COPENHAGEN 2009: Synthesis Report<br />
  6. 6. N2O<br />Source: Climate Change Global Risk, Challenges and Decisions COPENHAGEN 2009: Synthesis Report<br />Source: Wikipedia<br />Source: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change<br />
  7. 7. N2O<br />Source: Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report<br />
  8. 8. Emissions<br />Nitrification: <br />Aerobic process in which ammonium (NH4) is oxidised to nitrate (NO3) (Davidson et al., 1993). Some of the NH4 is channelled into production of NO and N2O (Poth and Focht, 1985).<br />2. Denitrification: <br /> It is the anaerobic reduction of NO3 to N2O and N2 (Davidson and A., 1993), through a wide range of bacteria, which are able to denitrify. The largest rates of N2O emission tend to be associated with denitrification (Skiba and Smith, 2000).<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. FINDINGS - temperature<br />The global temperature will rise upbetween 1.5 and 4.5°C, especially in the northern altitudes in comparison to the restof Europe (IPCC, 2007).<br />A laboratory investigation was performed to measure N2O fluxes from 13 Northern European soils with different land use types (cropland, forest, grassland and wetland).<br />Most Sites emission increased under increasing temperature conditions. <br />Source: Climate Change effects on greenhouse gas emissions from Northern European soils - Universität Wien 2009, <br />
  11. 11. FINDINGS - Temperature<br />The Pearson rank correlation demonstrates that at nine sites soil temperature has a<br />positive influence on N2O emissions with an r ranging from 0.15 to 0.45 at BE-Vie<br />and DK-RisOnly the two sites IE-Dri and RU-Fyo soil temperature has a<br />negative influence on the N2O fluxes. At the two forest sites FI-Sod and UK-Gri no<br />significant effect could be seen.<br />Statistical Correlation Test was conducted : Pearson or Spearman : correlation factors (r),significance level (p),and number of observations (n), between N2O fluxes and the independent factor soil temperature (Temp. [°C ] from 5-20°C) <br />Anincrease in temperature leads to an increase in the size of anaerobic zones and thus<br />leads to an increase in the rate of denitrification (Smith et al., 2003).<br />Source: Climate Change effects on greenhouse gas emissions from Northern European soils - Universität Wien 2009, <br />
  12. 12. FINDINGS - Temperature<br />Another interesting study was done by using simulated technology and market relationships governing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from US agriculture for the purpose of conducting policy-sensitive emissions modelling of this greenhouse gas. <br />Source: Future N2O from US agriculture: projecting effects of changing land use, agricultural technology, and climate on N2O emissions 2002<br />
  13. 13. FINDINGS – Soil Moisture <br />The precipitation during summer will rise in thenorthern higher latitudes of Europe in comparison to the rest of the Europe (IPCC, 2007).<br />The same study of the 13 sites of Northern Europe was extended to the change in WFPS ( water filled pore space )<br />For most of the sites emission increased with the increase in WFPS<br />Source: Climate Change effects on greenhouse gas emissions from Northern European soils - Universität Wien 2009, <br />
  14. 14. FINDINGS – SOIL MOISTURE<br />We observed a positive correlation of N2O with soil moisture for 11 from 13 sites. The mean correlation factor for N2O emissions ranged from 0.15, at NLCab,up to 0.46, at DK-LVa site, (Table 7). One arable soil (BE-Lon) and one forestsite (BE-Bra) showed nosignificant correlation between N2O increase andincreasing soil moisture.<br />Assoil WFPS increases, diffusion of O2 into soil aggregates will decrease and henceClimate Change effects on greenhouse gas emissions from Northern European soilsmuch of the soil will become anaerobic. This causes increased N2O emissions bydenitrification (Dobbie and Smith, 2001). <br />Source: Climate Change effects on greenhouse gas emissions from Northern European soils - Universität Wien 2009, <br />
  15. 15. FINDINGS – soil moisture<br />Source: Effects of an experimental drought on soil emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide in a moist tropical forest<br />E R IC A. DAV IDSON et al. <br />Another interesting study was done in Amazon Basin. Where the climate change predictions are that regional climate may become drier as a result of less recirculation of water between the deforested biosphere and the atmosphere (Shukla et al., 1990; Nobre et al., 1991; Costa & Foley, 2000;Werth & Avisar, 2002).<br />The shaded regions show the periods when thethroughfall exclusion panels were in place. <br />Monthly precipitation at the study site for 1999–2002 <br />
  16. 16. FINDINGS – soil moisture<br />For N2O, the annual emissions from the exclusion<br />plot were about half those of the control plot, and this isa statistically significant effect of the treatment. <br />Source: Effects of an experimental drought on soil emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide in a moist tropical forest<br />E R IC A. DAV IDSON et al. <br />
  17. 17. Findings – Soil Moisture <br />The relationship between volumetric water content of the top 30cm soil with surface fluxes <br />N2O fluxes were positively correlated with VWC. The ratio of N2O:NO fluxes was also positivelycorrelated with VWC. Similar results have been shownfor many sites, where wet conditions favour the morereduced gas, N2O, and dry conditions favour the moreoxidized gas, NO (Firestone & Davidson, 1989; Davidsonet al., 2000a; Davidson & Verchot, 2000).<br />Source: Effects of an experimental drought on soil emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide in a moist tropical forest<br />E R IC A. DAV IDSON et al. <br />
  18. 18. conclusion<br />
  19. 19. Thanks <br />

×