A General Introduction To Computer Assisted Language Learning Revised


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summary of the text by Hubbard, P., 2009

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A General Introduction To Computer Assisted Language Learning Revised

  1. 1. A General Introduction to Computer Assisted Language Learning Philip Hubbard, Stanford University In P. Hubbard (Ed.) (2009) Computer Assisted Language Learning: Critical Concepts in Linguistics. Volume I – Foundations of CALL. New York: Routledge, pp. 1-20.
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Any process in which a learner uses a computer and, as a result, improves his or her language” (Beatty, 2003: 7). </li></ul>Any process in which a learner uses a computer and, as a result, improves his or her language” (Beatty, 2003: 7).
  3. 4. CALL also improves: <ul><li>Teacher’s productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Material development </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s education </li></ul>ANOTHER DEFINITION: Any use of computer technology in the domain of language learning
  4. 5. “… educators do not need a discrete theory of CALL to understand the role of technology in the classroom; a clear theory of SLA and its implications for the learning environment serves this goal” (Egbert & Hanson-Smith, 2007: 3)
  5. 6. Different approaches: interacionist and sociocultural Quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method studies
  6. 7. <ul><li>Initial criticism : CALL was overly technology-driven </li></ul><ul><li>Two recent influential views: </li></ul><ul><li>Chapelle (2001): CALL design & principles of the interactionist perspective SLA </li></ul><ul><li>Bax (2003): integration: technology & language teaching. Technology is no longer special or unusual . </li></ul>
  7. 8. Felix (1999) afirma que a tecnologia está deixando de ocupar uma posição central nas discussões pedagógicas para se tornar o pano de fundo. A autora acrescenta, ainda, que o fascínio inicial pelos recursos tecnológicos está dando lugar a uma pedagogia focada no aluno, não no que a tecnologia pode fazer por ele, mas no que ele pode fazer com a tecnologia.
  8. 9. <ul><li>1980s </li></ul><ul><li>Academic projects (designers, programmers and language teachers) </li></ul><ul><li>The CALL interest section of TESOL </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of Laser videodisc </li></ul><ul><li>MIT’s Athena Language Learning Project </li></ul><ul><li>Some commercial software projects (Auralog and Fairfield Language Technologies) </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>CHECKLISTS - to determine whether or not to use a given program in their classes, </li></ul><ul><li>METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS – to describe the key elements involved in making the checklists </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATIONS OF SLA PRINCIPLES : Chapelle (2001) identifies six research-based criteria for the evaluation of CALL tasks that can be used for both judgmental and empirical evaluation. </li></ul>
  10. 16. ‘ Just the word’ An example of collocations of the chunk ‘wide range’ in a concordancer
  11. 20. <ul><li>Synchronous - chat, instant messaging, and MOOs (multi-user domain, object oriented) in the text mode and VOIP </li></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous - email, bulletin or discussion boards and voice boards in the audio mode </li></ul>Blogs allowing posted comments and SMS text messaging on mobile phones
  12. 21. A MOO setting is a virtual environment which differs from chat in that the interaction is embedded in a context, where the participants describe through text where they are and what they are doing along with the dialogue
  13. 22. <ul><li>E-mails </li></ul><ul><li>Keypals </li></ul><ul><li>Tandem language learning </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion boards / blog postings (development of writing skills) </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed CMC (projects involving discussion board applications,chats and emails). Ex: Blackboard and WebCT </li></ul>
  14. 23. <ul><li>Online learning </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-based assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher and learner training </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent CALL (ICALL) </li></ul><ul><li>Future directions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>web 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile language learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual worlds </li></ul></ul>
  15. 24. <ul><li>independent learning through the Internet, </li></ul><ul><li>materials delivered online with or without CMC linkage to instructional assistance, </li></ul><ul><li>one-to-one synchronous tutorials, </li></ul><ul><li>the same class taught face-to-face to some but remotely to others, </li></ul><ul><li>classes taught partly face-to-face and partly online (hybrid or blended learning), </li></ul><ul><li>classes taught synchronously to an online group, </li></ul><ul><li>any combination of the preceding </li></ul>
  16. 26. <ul><li>Adaptive testing : items are presented to the student at a targeted level of challenge, becoming easier or harder depending on the answers to preceding questions </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinate’s SET-10 : an oral proficiency exam that is taken over the phone and is entirely machine scored using automatic speech recognition (ASR)techniques </li></ul>control of time, greater security, automatic scoring and reporting
  17. 27. A need for CALL learner training to foster autonomy 2002 - a special issue of Language Learning & Technology entirely devoted to this topic. 2005 - a special interest group for teacher education: CALICO (Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium) 2007 - compilation of articles to provide research and practice 2008 - EuroCALL conference
  18. 28. “ The computer takes on more of the role of the teacher” <ul><li>Abilities of ICALL: </li></ul><ul><li>identify errors in student input and provide customized feedback </li></ul><ul><li>manage a student’s learning based on building a model of the student’s achieved proficiency and providing customized materials and tasks </li></ul><ul><li>interact with the student through conversational agents that simulate the linguistic facility of a human </li></ul>
  19. 29. <ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 (collaboration and democratization) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>participation in wikis and social networks, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>publications of texts and videos </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile language learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual worlds – learners’ ‘avatars’ explore, create, and interact in the target language. </li></ul></ul>