The Vietnam war<br />Alex Peng, Yeo Zhen Ning (2P4)<br />For educational purposes only.<br />
Content<br />Causes of the Vietnam War<br />Effects of the Vietnam War<br /> - Immediate effects<br /> - Long term effects<br />c) Literary works <br />
Causes of the War<br /> - Military conflict fought primarily in Southern Vietnam in the years between 1959 and 1975.<br /><ul><li> Revolved around the simple belief held by America that communism was threatening to expand all over south-east Asia. Americans feared the "domino theory" of expanding communist empires.
Result of North Vietnam and the Vietcong attempting to overthrow the South Vietnamese government.</li></li></ul><li>Causes of the War<br />- In 1945, Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam a free and independent country. However, the British and Chinese helped the French to return and the USA did nothing to stop them. <br />- In 1954, after a massive Viet Minh victory over the French at Dien Bien Phu, peace talks were held in Geneva and Vietnam was divided at the 38th parallel. Elections were planned for 1956 but the South Vietnamese leader, Ngo Dinh Diem, refused to hold these. <br />- Continuation of the first Indochina war, which was fought when the Vietnamese sought independence from France after World War II<br />
Effects of the War<br />Immediate effects<br /><ul><li>The Vietnam War was a very costly war.
It was an extremely costly war with over 58,000 Americans dead and over 150,000 wounded in battle </li></li></ul><li>Effects of the War<br />Long-term effects (Organization)<br /><ul><li>These veterans formed an organization known as Vietnam Veterans Against the War.
The organization had a purpose:</li></ul> “It was organized to voice the growing opposition among returning servicemen and women to the still-raging war in Indochina”<br />
Effects of the War<br />Long-term effects <br />(Organization)<br /><ul><li> Grew rapidly to a membership of over 30,000
Through ongoing actions and grassroots organization, VVAW exposed the ugly truth about US involvement in Southeast Asia</li></li></ul><li>Effects of the War<br />Long-term effects <br />(Health)<br /><ul><li>A chemical used by the United States, Agent Orange, also had adverse effects on veterans.</li></ul>“Approximately 20 million gallons of herbicides were used in Vietnam between 1962 and 1971 to remove unwanted plant life and leaves which otherwise provided cover for enemy forces during the Vietnam Conflict.”<br />
Effects of the War<br />Long-term effects <br />(Organization)<br />- 200 000 children are now the third generation of victims suffering from malformations and severe defects of the immune and the nervous system <br /><ul><li>Many veterans came home to America only to find out that they will live the remainder of their life with the fear of developing a disease. The Vietnam War affected these veterans in a very negative way
The Vietnam War is still today well known mainly due to the fact that it has affected so very many people throughout the years </li></li></ul><li>Effects of the War<br />Long-term effects <br />(Stereotypes)<br /><ul><li>Many veterans also suffered from negative stereotypes of Vietnam veterans following the Vietnam War. </li></ul>“There are persistent stereotypes about Vietnam veterans as psychologically devastated, bitter, homeless, drug-addicted people who had a hard time readjusting to society, primarily due to the uniquely divisive nature of the Vietnam War in the context of U.S. History.” <br />
Effects of the War<br />Long-term effects <br />(Narcotics)<br /> - Due to the Vietnam War an issue with narcotics also developed. <br /><ul><li> One form of narcotics causing a large amount of trouble was heroin. </li></ul> <br />- This of course was not a good thing and introduced a new drug into America which has now caused even more problems due to the sharing of syringes <br />
Effects of the War<br />Long-term effects <br />(Narcotics)<br />“The indisputable fact was that by late 1970 heroin use was emerging as a major health issue among U.S. servicemen, with some medics reporting that as many as 10% of GIs in some units were regular heroin users by the end of 1970.”<br />
Effects of the War<br />Long-term effects <br />(Narcotics)<br />“The penetration of cheap drugs into U.S. military in Vietnam also led to a rapid increase in drug importation into Australia, thanks in part to the thriving Rest and Recreation circuit, with some U.S. personnel sent to Sydney on R&R leave being used as drug "mules”.”<br />
Effects of the War<br />Long-term effects <br />(Government)<br /> - The Vietnam War also had dramatic effects on the people living in Vietnam, South Vietnam in particular. <br />- With North Vietnam the victor, South Vietnam was forced to submit to the communist rule of the North. <br />
Effects of the War<br />Long-term effects <br />(Government)<br /><ul><li>The new government promptly sent people connected to the South Vietnam regime to concentration camps for "reeducation", often for years at a time.
Others were sent to so-called "new economic zones" to develop the undeveloped land.
Furthermore, the victorious Communist government implemented land reforms in the south similar to those implemented in North Vietnam earlier. </li></li></ul><li>Effects of the War<br />Long-term effects <br />(Government)<br /><ul><li> Persecution and poverty prompted an additional two million people to flee Vietnam as boat people over the 20 years following unification.
In this way not only did the people of Vietnam suffer the most casualties, but if they lived in South Vietnam following the war they suffered for they had favored freedom over oppression. </li></li></ul><li>Literary works<br />- New literature which has emerged from it provides complex and multiple perspectives of humankind<br /><ul><li>Themes such as patriotism; loss of innocence in war; truth, lies, and deception from those in power; the short- and long-term psychological impacts of combat; the terrible nature of combat; and the efforts of healing. </li></li></ul><li>Literary works<br />Fall from innocence and grace <br />“ I had killed a man. I thought about how he looked, how I had felt. I remembered looking down at him, the M-16 in my hands, my forearms aching from the tension of holding it. I remembered looking down at him and feeling my own face torn apart.” – Fallen Angels Pg. 182<br />Secondary reading/ English language arts teachers are increasingly incorporating more literature dealing with the Vietnam War into their curriculum. <br />
Literary works<br />GOING AFTER CACCIATO<br />In Going After Cacciato, Vietnam veteran Tim<br />O’Brien tells the story of Paul Berlin, a newcomer to<br />Vietnam who fantasizes that his squad goes all the<br />way to Paris, France, in pursuit of an AWOL soldier.<br />
FALLEN ANGELS<br />Richie Perry, a 17-year-old Harlem youth, describes<br />his harrowing tour of duty in Vietnam in Walter Dean<br />Myers’s novel Fallen Angels.<br />A RUMOR OF WAR<br />In A Rumor of War, considered to be among the best nonfiction<br />accounts of the war, former marine Philip Caputo reflects on<br />his years as a soldier in Vietnam.<br />