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Science - All About Animals

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This deck is created based on the Science Syllabus Primary 2014 (Singapore), which serves as a foundation for scientific studies at higher levels.

The illustrations provided can be used as a complementary material for teaching, as well as for reading by students who wish to expand their knowledge through additional self-effort.

And of course it is also meant for anyone who is interested in the topic itself and does it for leisure reading.

Feel free to drop me some comments or suggestions.

Subject: Science
Level: Lower Primary School, Singapore (Should be equivalent to Grade 3 - 4 for Western Countries)
Topic: Diversity of Living and Non-Living Things
Sub-topic: Animals

Published in: Science

Science - All About Animals

  1. 1. _ , » r i‘ ‘ . ~ V _ ' W - s . ‘ I‘ ; . ~ r . H’ - 1 ‘I ‘ F i F ‘ , —_ l ‘ . __ . , . . K . _ “, ' 7' ' ‘ ,1 ‘ . I ‘ C ‘ A . ‘. _ a F} , - 5 «. I Y J’ ¢ ' c - xi . ‘ ' BASED ON THE SCIENCE %1_LABUS(PRlMARYSClDOL)~ MINBTRYOF EDUC. A‘H% SINGAPOE - DIVERSITYOF LIVING AND NXLNMG THINGS
  2. 2. Produced b :33 ' Yang Ao WEI! idangaoweleovrlookcom
  3. 3. I. TheAnimalKingilnm 3. Amphibians 5. Fish . . . - About Amphibians About Fish 2- cla_Ssmcam" of - Characteristics - Characteristics Animals - types - types I Iaxonomy - Fmgsfliloads ° lawlessfish - Theillivisions ° Salamander: - “W . om - Caecilians ' “"'| '"’Y‘ - Herhivnres - . Jawlédfiin ' c3"‘lV°"35 Buds Cgiltyilalosinousfisli o flmniyores I . gamma - Characteristics - Vertelirates I types - invertebrates - fiyingliirds I Common - Flightless Birds Characteristics ' 3l"'5""‘5"i“l - TheliBasic Animal Groups BASED ON THE SCENCE §1_lABUS(PRlMARYSCI'DOL)~ MINBTRYOF EDUCATION SINGAPOE - DNERSITYOF LIVING AND N1-LNING THINGS
  4. 4. The study of animals is liiinwnas , /1. ii lfl iii r U lo 5;;
  5. 5. THE ANIMAL KINGDOM
  6. 6. . Animalsare the most ‘ a diverse forms of life on Earth and there are as many aslll million species of animals living on Earth, with more being discovered every year. smog : agmupoinrganisms math up of relatedindividuals that resemble one emitter and can breed or reprodum amirg themselves I: ‘iv? .- / V’!
  7. 7. . . /F Theyrangeinsizeirom0.05mm l/ ong ‘ ‘ "" microscopic organisms to gigantic whales as huge as 30 meterslong. mflfl I Illilg thirgs / _'.
  8. 8. ."/ Animalsare organismsthat@ '_ energy by eating other organisms as food. :, !:3_ 5 - kw“ . _: ; _‘; . _/7- , .—; _‘_: ;~* I _; /_‘ . §¢«“‘3‘V‘ multioellular : maib: up of sereralurmany cells miigetcracquire , .v gioytliestrergthandvitalityrieededtulireandgrcv p , " ‘
  9. 9. Animals are not the only multiccllular organisms in this world. V ‘ 5 * - ‘. "'. ‘~. r , . , In ' ‘ ')‘. '¥‘. ;~"«. ; S‘EAHORSE LADYBIRD MONKEY TURTLE
  10. 10. Animals are not the only multicellular organisms in this world. ~. sl ‘yr > . ‘V ‘. 2 i -‘ . » vb’ ' — 'r‘fj» ' " V fr) - . ~ -‘. .. ; . 1 ' meme 1.-A. !L<l}: ; SSl§f: :1J‘: ]g. Ii-:53 - ; l.. ::: i2«p“f57{lI Plantsand many Fungi also share this characteristic. . -l‘LriLi~uaimI»: :ii‘+, iliiia-ii»-IueilliIl. aIuiiiuiii:4ii: lmIiI1-rii;4is: ii. ,;1kiaa. :ivlmiuirimihim-Tifiiilii‘ii am '1 -lav-y-fl-r—_ . «re "F ‘-—r** *- ’ ‘ "'2 ‘v-3‘ »' . ‘ fix"! ,. .3 __»j I 9:, V -‘ "fa. “ A «An, *< ; ., ‘ ) - I ‘__ ? ,3 - A }‘» ' _, ’ I w 2 « . -_7,; ‘~;2;mo©@ ' _ -u . ‘." . y': .'; ‘ If -4 .1-'.3.. '1-. !«‘ 3. I _/ v'_ . o - . : ‘I“. ,‘: '_“'I, :)‘¢_r; -4 r I: v""‘§ I _ n- . / ~‘~- , - . / rs: /> laymen . - ~« _ ; _ - , / .1 ~- ‘ - V
  11. 11. But animals are different from plants and fungi in several important ways.
  12. 12. But animals are different from plants and fungi in several important ways. line of them is the way in which they obtain energy.
  13. 13. Plants obtain energy directly from the Sun through a process call “photosynthesis”, and they use this energy to “malie food” (build up organic matter). I _Ii1': /LIL-, ':i'~Il'»_'illIlillIIIli! 'Jfli~l! |lIIliiIllIlIlf4iiEiii~li
  14. 14. . I’ I , V55. . "r . §I’«"' , Q, ,. — ? :i 91‘ . r’''''’ F _ I , Q. / _ i . K — « I‘- _I I. » V : s “ ~ c i " x. I _ H . . “ ~~', i1'; ; -~/ ' ‘. ._— ‘ 3 / I - _ , ': ~/. I M; ‘ . ‘‘- __‘ | ' > , , "___> I Animals obtain energy by eating other organisms (plants, fungi, other animals, or a mixture of them). They then flgfl this food to release the energy that it contains. liinHiilIiillltit-bliliatli-fill? -likli| II! >1~liI
  15. 15. (F , ‘ my 9 , , Eungi also take in food, but quite the opposite way to that of animals. Animals digest food internally after ' ‘t but fungi first break down food before they abso ' . {K
  16. 16. And unlike plants or fungi, which are rooted in one place, animals always move about to escape from redators, to find food, as well as to find a mate.
  17. 17. Almost none of the animals can survive without oxygen, and they breathe this gas either from the air or from water.
  18. 18. A DESERT MOUNTAIN Animals live in a variety of habitats such as deserts, mountains, caves, forests, grasslands, wetlands, oceans, deep-sea floors, rivers, and even in the cities that we live in. WETLAND ‘
  19. 19. The life spans of animals vary from a matter of justl day in some insects to over IIIII years in giant tortoises.
  20. 20. Due to the harmful activities carried out by human beings, such as trophy hunting, poaching, clearing of forests and pollutions (which cause huge damage to the environment), many animals have become extinct. 'I“: ,f‘! l,I'i§'! —’! Ii? QttIfiI§fiI, 'l! |IIll§I§iIl%lllll§! Il| IiilIl5§_fi§IinllItGI'; EllIItfi| l|Il%l! .'GtlEIIitlliiifllllillltinlillllflssliittllfi ' j. H;itii1¢‘t: =»~I. I!lIeiti. =.I! iui. I.t: ii. 'II’l3riI biuersailsti ' " . _ ‘ F I‘ v-‘' . I- , if K 3 p ’ i f‘ I /9 I I - ‘I II III ‘I Irii ti" V ,1 P “‘ AIR POLLUTION ’ . p 5 "‘DEFO‘REST'ATlON
  21. 21. These are some animals that have become extinct: TASM ANIAN TIGER QUAGGA "°"° ""‘° LAST SEEN: 1936 LAST SEEN: LAST SEEN: ZANZIBAR LEOPARD '-A57 ‘FEW 1975 LAST SEEN: 1996
  22. 22. currently, thousands of animals are in the list of endangered species. endaml so’: organisms that are rim; to income extinct Ilecaose tiara areveryteuot tram btton Earth
  23. 23. currently, thousands of animals are , , - - - extinct lizcaosetlnreareve Ioltlnm Elton am: in the list of endangered species. ”'° Among them, the Amur leopards and lavan Rhinos are the most critically endangered, with less than 100 of them left in this world. 4. " , IAVAN RHINO AMUR LEOPARD: NUMBER LEFT: ABOUT 60 NUMBER LEFT: ABOUT 40
  24. 24. CLASSIFICATIUN 0F ANIMALS
  25. 25. In order for us to understand living organisms and how they are related, we arrange them into different groups.
  26. 26. There are quite a number of ways that we can group or classify animals.
  27. 27. Taxonomy, or the Scientific Classification, is a hierarchical system of classifying and identifying organisms, including animals. There are T divisions in the system. taxom: the branch of science conrzrrcd with tie classificatirnoforganisms hierarchical : arranged in an omerof ranlr
  28. 28. There are also more general ways to classify animals, such as: - according to what they eat - whether they have backbones - some common characteristics which they share
  29. 29. line of the simplest ways to classifyanimals is by their diets - the kind of rooos that they eat. There are 3 basic groups: Herbivores, carnivores and llmnivores.
  30. 30. _ —“""’ '-v ‘ | I ' .1 " «n . ..* . , iHHerbivores refer to _p| ant-eatinganimals. . . Tux . - . K-' . _ - .2 ' : , -, -'
  31. 31. .. ',§ ', ’ & - . /4 ~ . ~ .1v*, .: or»-‘kw, ’ g. , -» at '> g ‘ .25" ' , .£.7}; l'! .;. “ ‘ . II, ski 1’ I < ‘r rsn. @uav7mm. s E ‘ ’ 11: < A plant is made up of a number of parts and different animals will feed A j 4’ on the different parts of a plant. II! ‘S. , .a«. _ pt . Iv . t l ‘X. r '« “. 2 . . , L‘ ' ‘= £ftjvjl3o‘ri3€~ , a
  32. 32. These are some examples of herbivores: @@A§§| ]#J©l? @E[R / , 5 limo? @A‘fi’ElRl? lIl. fl,AlR s : ‘.'l. "s'(§'(('({I, I.'‘I@. *$, s -~<-. :- - *“‘ . r..1£ ' '5-Q'O~3')"'r
  33. 33. v. .. » eat other animals (meat-eating). ' lI_arnivores refer to animals that , .. ,- . 'r, q.‘I‘e. ., H '— _ ‘-. -">. T:; '?; ;h¥-‘%“ , / ~ I ta. -. .9» .1» V‘ . .
  34. 34. These are some examples of carnivores: Ir’ . .“ ‘Q . 3 ' la». I} w) ‘,3r 9 'A w@ne ‘CI iv’ "‘~ , I -D ’, . ‘II ' P. “ 0 I . V . ,1 . 2‘ '. ’ ’ , ‘ A -. - . , , '. ‘ . 4 '. r I . ’ ‘ @lR©@©@[ILE : f"‘_‘= ,a~—. ..”‘ '_— r‘< 4 . ‘ I . ‘i‘LsJ'. :‘ .2 ~'v-“'. '>'. .<_—‘ ~ ' "?5‘§- .3,/ _ .3’ . s ‘_ V . ... L‘ ’v‘A{‘9‘xv} v l v ‘ A A 9
  35. 35. llmnivores are animals that feed on both plants and other animals.
  36. 36. : BRA? . . ®’x©lP’l[}3ET? We/ A EAR
  37. 37. Another way to classifyanimals is according to whether they have backbones. There are 2 basic groups: Vertebrates (with backbones) and Invertebrates (without backbones). @hlI@hlE
  38. 38. // V I Vertebrate Vertebrates refer to all animals that have backbones, skulls, and inner skeletons. ‘
  39. 39. The skeleton is a strong frame that supports the body (giving the body its shape).
  40. 40. Groups of animals that are vertebrates include: l‘ It
  41. 41. r_j L J. " _ F‘ V . r‘. ‘ g ' . . 4#E“w5‘4,3 = " k re ee ra Invertebrates refer to animals that lack backbones. ‘ V W, ,~, "i x ‘_ __: . . . ’* . I I A9 i
  42. 42. Instead of skeletons and bones, an invertebrate has a hard outer case known as an exoskeleton that protects and supports its body.
  43. 43. [troops of animals that are invertebrates include: AI71J$@IIr{IIR‘Ifl@§ / kA? ?IRI1&l? >©@§
  44. 44. Also, animals can be classified based on some common characteristics that they share. For example: W AYtS‘THEY ' REPRODU(E 4 I» fi~, i‘s. ;<e. 'e; .>. W,‘. ‘.. ‘.i'i" g(g). v4‘Er. z1iN; cS_, § Amfl -
  45. 45. Based on similar characteristics, we can classify animals into THE 8 BASIC ANIMAL GRIIIIPS: AMPHBIANS MAMMALS BBDS INSECTS REPTII. ES
  46. 46. And that's what you’re about to learn here.
  47. 47. AAIIPAHHHANS
  48. 48. ABIIUT AMPHIBIANS
  49. 49. ABOUT AMPI-IIBIANS -r . 3' . r"/ -A/ hr k, ‘ _ 9‘ skin through which water can pass in and out. Q51: damp, orslibtly Int i: <ri3.@. @,'§. semi é; fl.Al: ‘4l@ . I’ ‘I I? C’ ' I - . ' , _: : I / ' ‘ “Ii }‘ I ‘ DI‘ ' _" , z. ‘f-3, ‘- ' . ' I ‘I '‘£"’3:" ‘L’. I -7» . ~~ V‘? I 2 . “,§; :_~. '5.. .r ' '/ ' P. ‘ ‘ Lt . If 333- ¥Il"5.’- A‘ - &/ I »'. ' % Amphibians are animals with moist, hairless ‘ "‘‘§‘:5'»’-’'/ ‘-r , / C
  50. 50. II “zit, There are about 0,000 species of living amphibians today, making up the 3 basic groups of frogs and toads, salamanders, as well as the caecilians. 3 , _ - / ‘ if’ I‘ , ’ ,1 I "l~“. " v . —’i A ; .__ ~V‘3.. ' N? ‘ -I 1 tr ‘ . _' w ' . ‘ r ‘ T _; ‘)1 (f g. ,._ - H ‘Ix’? ' -~‘-T . t ‘ . "> “. . _. , '. / . , z y ‘S. -_ 'v k‘ §AI1.A/ ,>£AIi‘‘l@I§IR -' ‘ T‘ F . Wu J @éSE@I]lI]AlR‘I
  51. 51. II “zit, ‘V / .11 -' : :;. ‘.. _._C. ..' , — I an ' ‘-~. . “v 2-—’ fl '; *: ‘ L ‘z ‘ ‘ 9 . “‘ . ( , I ‘. ’« j ‘:3 é_ 7% _'_ TV» Nearly all amphibians live the earlier (young) part of their lives in water and the later (adult) part on land.
  52. 52. ABOUT AMPA-AIBIANS When the time comes for them to breed, they will go back to the bid : mate and pmiluce youig {SJ I . - . . _ ) '‘'''-9.; -,'%‘ water to lay their eggs.
  53. 53. ABOUT AMPHIBIANS The largest living amphibian is the Chinese giant salamander, with a length of close to 2 meters.
  54. 54. ' ABOUT AMPHIBIA NS The smallest amphibian is a type of frog known as Paeilopliryne amanuensis. It has a length of just 7.7 mm.
  55. 55. CHARACTERISTICS 0F AMPHIBIANS
  56. 56. Cold-Blooded V Live On Land And In Water . :, ."£5é'—. _ ; _. 15. s. Moist Skin 1. Eggs ate _.
  57. 57. % L’ i- 2 z 1 i- U 4 in 4 : I: U H S U T D. % , av, Amphibians are cold-blooded animals, meaning are to produce their own body heat and rely on the Sun for warmth.
  58. 58. CTERISTICS . .3 Hi. ‘°°‘. "_‘§ ‘I - E :6 J L < They can breathe both on land (lungs) and in the water < ’ (skin), giving them the ability to live in both these places. in-II. —.. :. __, ..‘9_T‘x_§‘" . .. " I . 3- .4. . , . : __. :”_. ._o o, ", SPECIAL (CH IIIAI
  59. 59. ‘o . ' ; ' — _ V1 . . A _ K‘ ‘ V ‘n - . . A_ . . ‘ p O 0 - - Their skin acts as a surface for respiration to take .0, 1 ‘I ' . " place, and for this reason it, must stay moist. I “:3; . ‘ " k v ’ . . ‘u . u _ I " I‘ I c-pl" -- "V “ - ~" / A. , . ' . . . ,_ *. I I . ‘ ‘ ' H‘ , ‘ -’L1. - I‘ I- "1" ’- 3: ‘ -I 2 ‘ . , ' '3-an. ' D‘o6‘”_ up-4. . _, ,,wA{#«; v9,ap_, ; .6,’ . are . ,.M_ SPECIAL CI-IARACTERISTICS
  60. 60. hlost amphibians reproduce by laying eggs. The eggs consist jelly-like substances which must remain moist to survive. That explainsthe need to lay theireggsin the water or dampplaces. I " . ... - . I. . ~ 3 _ g‘ g - ’ . _ . I , ._, »‘ ‘ ~~ L; ‘ 7 _ ‘ n - ' . ‘ ‘ ' , "N . g. » §I«. @»2a"<5 craps ' er‘ l ‘ . ‘-2-' ( _ . ~ _; . ~ 7,;
  61. 61. J . . , ; e‘1“: _=l_r«'1_s; 'fl_r; ;: :1_"* ‘E -11 .1 @AE@[ll. [lAlr‘‘l§ & ‘F‘[H] T? @QDh‘‘l@ saczsomsc % , A 1’ / Some exceptions, such as the Alphine salamander, and most species of caecilians give birth instead of laying eggs.
  62. 62. TYPES 0F AMPHIBIANS
  63. 63. Frogs and Toads TYPES O AMPHIBINS: Salamanders Caecilians
  64. 64. Frogs and toads are the greatest in number within the amphibians group. They make up almost 90% of the group which consists of more than 4,300 species. FROGS AND TOADS vx Z S E I O. 3 4 II. C 3 D. )- I-
  65. 65. Types or AMPHIBIANS» FROGS AND TOADS '~_r~; '. ' 2*)’; ., ?._. )._, ,l ,3” , .-z. : .0 ' “T ‘c . ‘. ..~ '1-c, ‘.-, _ . . 44455 g‘ gs'. u«. ‘ Frogs . "'? ’,h"'.2in2ev '~‘5—‘7-0"’ (34% » 1 :56 -$ £1. *1 v. ~_'V= db ; 5' rm, -,-v. ..-. :.~ . ._~ ailless, have squatbodies, large es and long, powerful hind legs. . ~—-'- -. ~s_; _.T ‘>1 -7 '3 3"‘ '4 O" ' v‘. .. ‘
  66. 66. TYPES OF AMPHIBIANS FROGS AND TOADS Most frogs feed on insects while some larger frogs eat other smallerirogs, mice, birds and even snakes.
  67. 67. TYPES OF AMPHIBIANS FROGS AND TOADS hlany frogs have webbed feet (on their hind legs) which they use to swim while they are in the water.
  68. 68. Toads are actually species of frog but they are slightly different from frogs. W Z 3 E I n. 2 4 1 O 3 A. P‘ I-
  69. 69. TYPES OF AMPHIBIANS FROGS AND TOADS fir . . . . I _‘ , -n. ‘ - _/ . ‘ N? ‘ n‘ ‘ _. Toads dryer ‘most them A A spend more t‘? we on dry land than in the water. 0' __ _ V fl_T_t12|lITdllll§| l lumps‘ '“
  70. 70. - l}l; {I, |}lv. : _"' 1 , . , . 1 . _ I w’ ’ mat‘- , _ I (, . ,/5‘ (:39 , . 4’; ,. ‘ H L L . . K. ){~"]“. ‘. 4‘ . 7:J. : .9‘) 1‘ “A. 1 10 ‘4ry, ‘x'y ‘T-‘ ; I‘*§L ‘ 4L» ‘. ' A ‘) ‘Lv'-'. ‘. ‘ 7‘ 9 . ‘ l . wvtwo '_ ‘ x-, '.J ‘ (Y K To in}: - _rL hlso, toads lay their eggs in strings I while frogs lay their eggs in clusters. 0
  71. 71. Frogs and Toads Saanders Caecilians
  72. 72. There are about 400 known species in the salamandergroup, 3‘ which includes Newts and Axolotls. 5: és23©Il. ©'1Tfl. SALAMANDERS W Z 3 E I A. 3 4 1 O 3 A. )' I-
  73. 73. It I There are about 400 known species in the salamandergroup, K. .. which includes Newts and Axolotls. ,2/,1 A>33©| l.©Tfl. Members of this group have long, §AlLAmAN slender bodies ending in tails. SALAMANDERS % Z 3 E I A. 3 4 % O E A. )' I'-
  74. 74. There are about 400 known species in the salamander group, which includes Newts and Axolotls. as/ iv. A$@©| l-. ©‘T"fl. Members of this group have long, exeamo slender bodies ending in tails. Some salamanderslive entirely on land, whereas others never leave the water, and still, ‘ others live part of their lives in water and part on land. SALAMANDERS % Z 3 E I A. 3 4 1 O E A. )' I-
  75. 75. TYPES OF AMPHIBIANS SALAMANDERS . .. ; ';fi Salamanders generally resemble lizards, but y S‘ c T ‘ have smooth, moist skin instead of dry scales. ,_
  76. 76. TYPES OF AMPHIBIANS SALAMANDERS Many species of salamanders have poison gm in their skin which help to protect them against predators. gm : organs which prndum and discharge particular chemicalsuhstances
  77. 77. Vi Z 3 2.. £5 D 2: <2 LL4 02' ’ll III A. )- I- Most salamanders are carnivorous, feeding on tadpoles, worms, snails, insects, small fish and some even eat their own kinds (usuallythe smaller ones).
  78. 78. TYPES OF AM PHIBIA NS SALAMANDERS Newts belong to the family of, and
  79. 79. Q" ‘ i I ' "FARM ' N. V. " b | ‘ / y ‘VJ- W | "‘ xx. _,15'/ z M I , . / . 4 § 01%’ ” t ‘‘b', &-. !-‘ — n ‘ ’ . V . «in S z 1 r ' -. A / - < 2 ’ I7’ IIID’ :30 Q - ’r J -5 3 «‘ u! ’ . ‘ ¥; :-< 4 . ' X . ‘~» % m ! E V. ‘ 9' g ‘ ‘ . - V '«: : )- _fl' , . . I- They are usually smallerthan salamanders, have a flat tail rather than a round one, and their skin is slightly rougher.
  80. 80. The axolotl is also known as the“5water monster”, “walking fish” (although it is NOT a fish) or Mexican salamander. . ‘ ‘ u‘ I .1 . - tr‘ ‘ - --. ,., >1’ 7,“ "~“<A‘ " I '. ’ , “T1; O-1'. ‘ I 2:‘ . '1; . - 3’ . . . ._. :o, A ‘ "4“~ ‘pf “ -x’r. ;’V: I. J" : _ ' " 4 , ’ - 1 «-2- 7 — * V 4 . L _ - -- - -- -"_«« j—'r ‘ ' ' r(- 7‘-. : . . "" .5 E ‘ I’ , ?
  81. 81. TYPES OF AMPHIBIANS SALAMANDERS , , These creatures are unusual in that they reach adulthood withou_t undergoing metamorphosis. netannrplnst : On an insectur amphilian) the pmcess of translormatirn lmm an immature formtn an adultform in twoor nnredistinct stqes.
  82. 82. - l)l, :;l, l,=1_. .1-*2-' '. _. z:1J£-‘.1; ljikfg‘ l, :ail: :+‘Lrl: =1rxe‘: v.r; :v'_it, ~ : Tl; IE‘-; '- ‘t The adults remain aquatic and breathe using external ” 0 gills instead of developing ( ' ’ lungs and takingto land. im: nnlL$TlI. 'Fli.4l
  83. 83. Frogs and ‘roads TYPES or APHIBIANS: ‘.3 V 0.1.‘ Salamanders Caecilins A V N A
  84. 84. cA£cIuAr»gs caecilians are wormlike (larger ones look like snakes) amphibians that have no legs. % Z 3 E I A. 3 < 1 O 3 A. )' I-
  85. 85. 4 l}l; ‘;| ,l_i‘l_. : gt! -‘ hllost of them live their lives under the ground, making them less known and understood. a
  86. 86. 4 V‘ J} L"lJvl4H_: ‘A _‘J: -' ‘ ‘ € / / About 200 species of different caecilians have been identified so far.
  87. 87. EA£EIi. IANs TYPE} or AMP}_-EIBIA N5 ldost species have lungs that enable them to take in oxygen from the surrounding air, although they also absorb additional oxyg_en through their mouth and skin; e -V, ‘ I ;4 , ', '_; i
  88. 88. u
  89. 89. ABOUT BIRDS
  90. 90. ABOUT BIRDS ‘ . ‘ ' ‘V . / 0 The number of living bird species vanes somewhere from 9,700 to 10,050 and are divided into more than 30 groups.
  91. 91. ABOUT BIRDS Most birds have lightweight but strong skeletons which are made up of hollow bones. /.04-. .
  92. 92. Many birds are important sources of eggs, meat and feathers to us. . — »~. :_. ’- / L s‘ 7). “) « ' ,5 , — u--- ‘I: ’ a, AN‘ 1 J , ., ( [AG .1 / I . .r A_ ' . ;_«(‘H‘-‘ a 4‘ 1 ( T N ". ~.’. :-K TB’ . 7:"; R ‘ ‘ «J? 7 ~ ‘. /' u. ;. a#, -', .=’'''_u_. _ ( " “ . ts . )f~. _‘ _: _ ': ” * ‘ ‘ L -3 3.7.x" 3‘ ‘F-‘V “' ‘_/ ‘: V an :3’. S r
  93. 93. 3' The largest bird is the ostrich, which can reach a height of 2.8 meters and weighs over 150 kg.
  94. 94. The smallest bird is the bee hummingbird, with a length of 5 cm - and weighs about l.8 grams.
  95. 95. CHARACTERISTICS BF BIRDS
  96. 96. Warm-Blooded vfi-lave Beak , ,i, ‘_‘ cHARA_§f['l§lil: STIc$ an Bums: 1/ 9 IT, /_- ‘ I’ “’ -A ‘ ‘“ ‘ - . , // /’j/ 7 A‘ __ " “um ‘T"v'/ VV‘. / #. "X, ''T " Have Feathers Have A Pair 0E Wmgs £3 Legs
  97. 97. SPEQAI. CT-'AARA{TERAS'A'T£S Birds are warm-blooded, meaning that they produce their own body heat from the food (or energy) that they consumed. mnsumed zate, drank or alrsorlnrl
  98. 98. The beak (also known as bill), is the mouthpart of a bird which is used for eating, and for grooming, killing re , fighting, probing for food, and feeding the young. t"‘l"“. "". “"'""¥""""F“ my: an animal that is lulled by amllnr animal for food 10 L’ I- 2 K HI I- u < K 4 I v i S v III A. W
  99. 99. / SPEQIAI. CT-'§ARA£TTERASTA£S ‘I’: J‘; 5.? efat dfnr§a? e“ine only animals that ha . 7 , .'«. I . 3-. .- - _ .3-. his, 1 which they use for f_ligm, to keep themselves ’ " splay and courtship. I . . _~" '-n -—. . . . . ’ . ;, s. .. 5 . - j I warm, as well as for di ‘. ‘ ‘ . '- '~ ‘. . 'x'_‘‘‘ . . -’ C. - _- hroighair V _ _ 's §. acthnofllyiig t >. E~C~'. ' "_. , ,
  100. 100. % ~_= I- 2 K III I'- U ; ‘ Whether a bird flies or not, it has a pair of wings. < I V J 3 hi 9. %
  101. 101. Whether a bird flies or not, it has a pair of wings. It also has a pair of legs that it uses to walk, and for some, to swim. % L’ I- 2 K HI I- v < K 4 I v H S v III A. %
  102. 102. TYPES DF BIRDS
  103. 103. -fr - : TYPES OF BIRDS: Flightless Birds Birds That Swim
  104. 104. BYPES OF BIRDS FLYING BIRDS -(HI T" V’/ /I ' ‘ IIIIIl‘I§§; >I’ IV ”‘; ’‘'''-—I I, I I / 1 / I 1‘ Flight is the main method that most birds use to move around besides walking or hopping.
  105. 105. BYPES OF BIRDS FLYING BIRDS , I / I ‘> : _ / . __ . k - J. ‘ ‘Tag, ’ ~. ‘ ' ; ".lX__ ' "= -.. 0 ‘ ‘er’, __ . p1’. _-_'. -3-'. _v‘° . -; :_‘. - L . I ‘ '. 'i -33:’. _. , Birds use flight tohunt forprey, search for food mid to migrate between the seasons. mtrate me lmm are haliitatto IIIIIIBT in respiiseto seasiinal chaiggs and IariatiiiiTnfundsuiTply
  106. 106. TYPES OF BIRDS FLYING amps They fly by flapping their wings, and steer using theirtails.
  107. 107. TYPES OF BIRDS To fly efficiently, birds have developed adaptations like streamlined bodies (to overcome air-resistance), hollow bones (to reduce weight) and feathers (to hold and deflect air). :li": ;'3.". ..': ... IFEATFDDEIRS
  108. 108. 13 There are more than 300 species of ‘ pigeons and doves in the world.
  109. 109. ‘_', m‘-I - t ‘ _ i 7. r 133' _, .- J». I I -" T . » ‘ -- ~ . - x I 5 ‘K . , '. ‘ 1? I ' 3 '~', .'. . T ', A '. ' I5n'*a' v ‘ ' I 3-HI’ '4 ( . Z)‘ I‘ e species that is most commonly seen and , , ii , . . . . . . Q? * familiarto us is the feral pigeons. These birds have ,1 " D adapted to livingaround humansand can be found »__ . . . ..; . in almost any cities and towns over the world. “a ' I If A 7 if V ': ’:,7 _ ~ ‘. r . "‘ . . = « ‘‘ -- ‘. -‘re. .. . I. L I 4 I ’_ TYPES OF BIRDS ' I I ‘ I _ P "1 ‘ K; . I V ' -0"’ ’ . _.. -—u
  110. 110. TYPES OF BIRDS FLYING amps They are considered as pest by many these days because their droppings are not only unsightly, but can cause damage to the finish of buildings, cars, monuments, etc.
  111. 111. TYPES OF BIRDS 0w| s belong to a group of birds that includes about 205 species.
  112. 112. TYPES OF BIRDS FLYING amps These species are sorted into 2 basic groups: AIRN @R$§7IL§ TIRELDE @W ES
  113. 113. BARN 0WlS have a _ V y 1/ heart-shaped face, long I ' legs and powerful tadfl. Most species have darker, orange-brown plflge on their head and back, and paler feathers on their face and belly. mm: claws, especially ones lnlirgiig to a bird of prey (a carnivorous bird that burns and kills other animals for food) TYPES OF BIRDS phr_mqr_a : a birds leatlers collectively
  114. 114. TRUE UWLS are mostly coloured with a mottled pattern of brown, red, gray and black spots and streaks.
  115. 115. WYPES OF BIRDS FLYING BIRDS llwls are mainly nocturnal hunters and are rarely seen during the day. @'na| :ar: tireatn'ght
  116. 116. They feed on small hirds, and small mammalsincluding squirrels, mice, rabbits and moles. tn-. .._r
  117. 117. VI in $3 ‘rs LLB °2 “>- 2:. - >- I- , .* ~41 Brows, ravens and jays together form the crow family which contains more than 120 species.
  118. 118. Brows have demonstrated the ability to distinguish individual humans by recognizing facial features, and are regarded as amongst the most intelligent animals.
  119. 119. 'b'YPES OF BIRDS FLYING BIRDS ~‘‘, , -« Recent research has also found some crow species capable of not only tool use but also tool construction. 4-
  120. 120. 'b'YPES OF BIRDS FLYING BIRDS . 4 . 1’-.5‘: . ,7_, /.~fir. ~A° , . J‘ . - V , - V 5 p* In « , ' ’ ‘, V9, ‘~ I, «?', '.» I . :. -' . ., § . ;.-. . .« 1 v V “ . u 1" ’ . ., .r g . , 2 . r C. BII * . 4 , . I l . ‘ 1°‘ 4» : . ’ .4 y, / . "5 I . . I’ N A . ~ 2,7 I v - J ‘ V ‘*7. I : V ‘. - w ‘ . _ _, V‘; ., . . - . .7 VIN ‘ I '7.‘ » = _ . H -: .. »- . ,_ S ‘ , I. 4 ‘ ' . ‘I , . . 4 ‘ I I
  121. 121. Flying Birds I htless Birds Birds That Swim
  122. 122. {It ‘A. .. . like all birds, flightless birds have wings too. But their wings are smaller (when compared to the size of their own bodies), and less developed than the birds which fly.
  123. 123. ~. ’i. w; = l.LU. ' ‘ L1‘ As they do not fly, these birds develop stronger legs for running or have leathers that can help them to camouflage so that they can escape from predators. l 3Jnu1u‘lL§l; ::nl7’4l,1dT4ll»llr-J, fin‘nillil+1llrollliIfllr11~lIlr'I>l:1lr-l~Irlr- §“. :.‘l'. ?T"’_"‘~‘? " / *~ , 33 795" 5.-»‘*. ‘+ ( » ‘ ac ' . - 3 ‘ » ‘x H . I . ,. §. " l . / ( 5 4 3. ; € _, --‘g, :a~, ... .l }Il. w" ‘ prf ' 4 xx” * ‘I“: ',~~. “ / V/r‘ 4. / ‘.‘ I ; ’¥ A'. ;.». ‘_, .:. _‘. i‘‘ I‘ w. _ " '1‘ , 7.‘ v, ); TV, _ A I: -; "’: ‘<A"’. '.: «{ g. ___g‘ . - . ;. «§'i? vrnv4-sz: s<2>rv! §.<-LRwlreia2n§n§ . —* t : .- ; , -.1 . ‘:; «~‘: ‘;7 “S .
  124. 124. Some birds are often regarded as flightless birds even though they can fly because they can only fly over very short distances and are not capable of sustained flight. in 23 3% | .LIId cg E: ). E I- I PEACOCK
  125. 125. TYPES OF BIRDS FLIGHTLESS BIRDS r R“ l, These birds walk using their legs most the time and fly (usually to trees) only to escape from predators.
  126. 126. R I ‘ @@@: ei@ There are 5 species of these gigantic birds.
  127. 127. They are superb runners and can §yrri_nt at speeds ’ TYPES OF BIRDS Fllcl-ITLESS amps
  128. 128. They possess the largest eye of 2 any living terrestrial vertebrate, r= |.rar-r_'rLI: ss B
  129. 129. TYPES OF BIRDS FLIGHTLESS BIRDS are the larges eggs produced by any living bird. which weigh about l.3g and measure about i .7. l I. I / J.~n. _4._ fl
  130. 130. Experts disagree on the & exact number of species of this group of birds. ' Some suggest that there are 3 species - brown kiwi, great spotted kiwi andlittle spotted kiwi.
  131. 131. IA 23 —: as “V OE I- as 9-: )-u. I- Kiwis are nocturnal birds that fo_rage on the forest floor using their long, narrow bill to probe the soil for small animals such as grubs and earthworms.
  132. 132. l IIKIFK _ . ts, ‘ 4‘I. 'f§{§» 1 qr-. . er» ‘ 5. . ‘- ‘t ‘ ‘a Re» * Q‘ lfl lI"I<: 'ljl l1I~1»‘ : a “""‘v 1 c « I '“ ‘ -. _: .-' q I . r E" J . V g ~ ‘ . ,/E’ . :7! ’ I / , ~. '. / . _. ‘,7-, .. p , .. 2 ’ A_. _,'_; '.: _I'j; / ":1, ' ’ / /1" .1 : They1h4ave'cioarse br wn riimage that resembl ‘érlirimoré V, ’ than feathers (although it is indeed feathers, notfur). 3‘ * T317 _ r . —'- 7'—I7%- O-* * ** O i *% _ , ‘I g 1 V . e . .4 / “V , -4 ' f - r ‘ . I" ‘ ‘~. .(", .A ‘I — I , , ' ’ ~‘ V. ’ '1 vi"- 151-, _" . _ , 4' 4 ' ‘ _ . _ _. ..-. I1 , -:.
  133. 133. TYPES OF BIRDS There are only 3 species of cassowaries - the southern cassowary, the dwarf cassowary and the northern cassowary Casso
  134. 134. TYPES OF BIRDS FLIGHTLESS amps They are shy birds but when provoked, they are capable of causing injuries (occasionally fzmlto dogs and people.
  135. 135. TYPES OF BIRDS r= r.rcH1'r. r:s_s reruns I . ,. , g‘ 11.17 ‘T I — . ."": E ~ These birds are native to the tropical forests of New . Guinea, nearby i_slands, _and northeastern Australia. m : originatirg or occurrirg naturally in a partEular plam l ’ s / I ‘ ’ F ,1 , fur rm? +~r1v: l I A ‘ I’ . . I‘ I/ vfl-( ; _z , ,:, ,V‘, _ ' kl. ” , .1 Elm ‘ -r‘ I V 3 I ‘I ' . es‘ , I I . 1 s‘ ,1 I
  136. 136. More examples of flightless birds: SA 23 3% 3% I- as 9-: )-u. I- lRl}flEé§
  137. 137. Flying Birds Flightless Birds Birds That Swinn
  138. 138. TYPES OF BIRDS amps THAT SWIM —~<'-n ‘’ ‘ .4 ’ Mast of the birds that i‘ on the surlace of the water) . .. rely on their legs and wehh feet to themselves. , « umgI: mnnmrpI| shlnrInnl ‘ ‘_. .7.e. - _ - I , i;, " ¥ V ‘ ’; :;. :,. n t. :2 ,
  139. 139. 'h'YPES OF BIRDS BIRDS THAT SWIM Some other birds are % capable of diving deeper into the water and submerge iforlonger periods o_f_time. I subrremg : tngn vnrbrtlesurlam nliiater *
  140. 140. ' ' '? l:'. ‘ ‘IE : {|{ _: They usually dive into the water to catch preys and they will either use their feet, wings, or a combination of the two to propel themselves.
  141. 141. -é: — There are 18 species of these _. _—. :,. - f I flightless seabirds, widely found in cooler waters and ii: ‘ alongcoastlinesinthe ‘ ‘T ‘'Southern Hemisphere. 5:3, , ~. » . . '§ *~ .1» *4 --1-. .~_. .' l I‘ ll! ‘ ll‘ ‘ll'l TYPES OF BIRDS BIRDS THAT SWIM
  142. 142. ‘TYPES OF BIRDS BIRDS THAT SWIM They are shilled swimmers with streamlined, barrel- like bodies that reduce drag in the water.
  143. 143. ‘TYPES OF BIRDS BIRDS THAT SWIM They are shilled swimmers with streamlined, barrel- like bodies that reduce ~’ drag in the water. I W I‘ ‘ Their wings, modified to form thin, stiff I I flippers, provide propulsion while swimming.
  144. 144. TYPES OF BIRDS BIRDS THAT SWIM Unlike the bones of other birds, penguin bones are solid and not hollow. This gives them the weight to remain submerged underwater.
  145. 145. TYPES OF BIRDS BIRDS THAT SWIM There are more than 140 species of ducks that are widely distributed all over the world.
  146. 146. TYPES OF BIRDS BIRDS THAT SWIM P r ‘ i. ‘:l ‘ I, ,r; ’~. . 11"‘! . . _. neerai, aeducks are brighterin color and more boldly patterned than female ducks (whereas in geese and swans, both sexes lookalike).
  147. 147. TYPES OF BIRDS BIRDS THAT SWIM Ducks swim, feed, rest, and sometimes build nests in water.
  148. 148. TYPES OF BIRDS BIRDS THAT SWIM Ducks swim, feed, rest, and sometimes build nests in water. They-areexcellent swimmers and move about better in water than on land.
  149. 149. TYPES OF BIRDS BIRDS THAT SWIM‘ _ _ fiuunw . ':. iTi: rek1lom; a;:1l; : i, lI. ii: ::. <.r lo: I. l.lfrl*-. l.i ‘-. .l. I.lii gig; . in : «e. r-. p lhé-nju flu iui: :lyeJul: _uor; ;. gnawed and leptlry human: I
  150. 150. TYPES OF BIRDS BIRDS THAT SWIM Geese belong to the same family of waterfowl (known as lmatidae) as ducks and swans.
  151. 151. They spend more time on land than either ducks or swans because they feed largely on land plants. '4 .4‘. II II . . . LA EL. .4 1‘! Y 4 .2 . _.: .. . . ..2.. ... ,.
  152. 152. TYPES OF BIRDS BIRDS THAT SWIM 3'. Most geese are migratory, and they migrate in spring to nesting grounds at the far north. In autumn, they fly south to warmer wintering grounds. I
  153. 153. 'A ' .4 ‘ T V 4 I W’ .4 ,3 l 3 I ‘.7 I ".1 Il fr‘ 1 I . 15 I‘ r: I _ . '_" TI ‘ 1 hi‘ . . :1 - More examples of birds that swim: @©[R&A©lRAlR’l't_J’ AA‘T[l2©§§ [f3[IR’l@lI= ’l}§GflE1R ,5‘ SWAIHJ
  154. 154. ABUUT FISH
  155. 155. ABOUT FISH Fish are a diverse group comprising more than 30,000 species.
  156. 156. ABOUT FISH They live and breathe in water and most have fins for swimming, scales for protection, and a streamlined body for moving easily through the water. / '-I /4 ‘ / i ": ‘r"- :1 [,1 ''. ‘:'s—-. _,_‘‘‘( . -3., ‘ ‘-‘I : "*’~ / ’ y _ 7 ‘NO _ . ",_~'. ‘-r. ’ S ’; . / / I . " 1; ‘ ‘ v I. ' ' I ‘~. . . 7 /
  157. 157. They are found in nearly all aquatic environment - streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, reserviours, swamps, seas, oceans and also man-made farms and aquariums.
  158. 158. ABQ-ufr FISH ‘I§. j / A 1 , , S53’ 7‘? , They are an important resource for humans all over the world, especially as food. '9’
  159. 159. . . ‘ —. , The largest fish is which can grow up to a length of more than 12 meters long.
  160. 160. ABOUT FISH The smallest fish is Paedocypris, measuring only 7.9 mm long. : —""' -- K —s. -—; -; ~---- — - » Ag: -. -. ‘ 4. ‘“ ‘ z, / -': .;; ,». . . ,-; .- (3, . - —. .=é .4-‘i‘. I~'i‘ €11 . —.. '*r‘». ':. = , ‘Q"'
  161. 161. CHARACTERISTICS CF FISH
  162. 162. . I'- . .l Cold-Blooded Breaths With Gills -, ..-. i" i is . ‘%''V‘ . CHARACTERISTICS Cy‘ FISH: ‘J . ’ . ‘ ‘ ‘ '1" Vt‘ f ‘F’ ’ V‘ I —‘«_ '. . ' »_'_. - ' ' . ‘H _' 1' _ ‘. _ . ' _. ‘- , . . _ _ . . . - f . -M ave Sca
  163. 163. file- F1} 2- Fish are cold-blooded a/ iid cannt rduce their own body heat. That also means that their body temperature varies to that of the jg environment they are in, as well as the surrounding temperature. - SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS
  164. 164. SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS Sys/ ORDFISH ‘HR’ . V ) "s‘:1-r There are exceptions. Swordfish, tunas, and a few species of sharks are aetuallywarm-blooded.
  165. 165. SPECIAL CHARACTERESTECS I‘-. . / ' - Fish/ breathe in the water u‘sing%gills #1 , in open which can take in dissolved oxygen. , , iesmiilvmmehflrhiinlirriilmrl I
  166. 166. SPECIAL CHARACTERESTECS . __‘ V 2' w. ‘ .4 H. " A -S. ‘ '- ~. - I V , u. _, _= -.‘ 4 __L you " -~. ._ x. .1 x -. -. . . >‘ . --o ‘Vs . . ‘ Theouterhodyoim stfrshrscoveredwrth; . scales, which protects the body from damage. ‘
  167. 167. SPECIAL CHARACTERESTECS SEA LAMPREY ‘J . _‘ , CATFISH Some exceptions like the puffer fish, catfish, and Iampreys do not have scales.
  168. 168. Most fish reproduce by laying eggs and the female fish usually lay hundreds of eggs at one time.
  169. 169. SPECIAL CHARACTERESTEECS S BLACK - M ouv ‘ , _. _~l'-. PLATY , ;,’/ /;.3 3 '_. r:'; “l/ __§‘, h_“. ‘A _‘_ CUP‘P'Y - ~ A. “-‘ ‘Q V. ‘ . __‘V A’ . ‘ _, .§. s“t — V *. r ~23‘- fl : .92.: _L‘ 2 / ’?’«. '.(/ I s; > ' s . 25-4“ SWORDTAIL Afew, like mollies, platies, guppies and swordtails give birth to their young ratherthan laying eggs.
  170. 170. TYPES 0|-' FISH
  171. 171. Hagiish Lampreys Bony Fish Cartilaginous Fish
  172. 172. TYPES OF FISH JAWLESS FISH - HACFISH There are about 50 species of these eel-like, parasiticfish which are boneless and can grow up to almostl meter long. parasitic: Iivirg in crop amther lnstorganism. usually cavsirg it harm
  173. 173. TYPES OF FISH JAWLESS FISH - HACFISH They are almost blind, have a single large nostril, and a circular mouth that lacksjaws and is surrounded by tentacles. oerrtacg: hrg fbxihb organs around the moth orheadol soneanimals, used in lnlrlhg graspirg, feelirg, or moving
  174. 174. TYPES OF FISH JAWLESS FISI-I - I-IACFISH ‘ 1‘ The roof of the mouth contains a single tooth; the muscular tongue has two rows of strong, pointed, ‘ horny teeth. ‘Q’, ‘I
  175. 175. Lampreys Bony Fish Cartilaginous Fish
  176. 176. l; l_! L1; jg l_= l_= l_l»I_#_ l_____‘, , / *_‘_, . Lampreys, which include about 40 species, arejawless, without scales and have a round mouth that contains rows of horny teeth.
  177. 177. TYPES OF FISH lln each side of a | amprey’s body is a row ofT external gill slits (respiratory openings) through which the lamprey breathes.
  178. 178. TYPES OF FISH Parasitic Iampreys feed on blood. They attach themselves to fish (mostly) with their sucker like mouth and use their sharp teth to tear through the fish's flesh to access the blood flow. , '5:--‘ ' ‘C3-a; .'_. , - »
  179. 179. I-Iagfish Lampreys was I: FISH: Cartilaginous Fish
  180. 180. TYPES OF FISH ' * » ~ u. 'Hl/ ' ~ 2 7 , v --'-“-: , , _ H‘: ' ‘ T‘ .1 / Bony Fish Bony fish are fish which have skeletons made of rigid and true bones. H
  181. 181. This group, is by far the largest diversity of fish, with more than 29,000 species inhibiting every body of water on the Earth. I 2 IL LL 0 vs In O- )- I-
  182. 182. - BONY FISH I vs I LL 0 v in Q. )- I- They share common characteristics of their skeletal structure such as the pattern of their cranial (skull) bones, the structure of their lowerjaw, the bones supporting their eyeballs, and the composition of their pectoral girdles. IA W ED FISH
  183. 183. Hagiish Lamp: -eys TYPES OF FISH: "7~{‘jt”7—’ii. ’.37"“' E? ’ El E3 { Bony Fish Cartilaginous Fish
  184. 184. TYPES OF FISH JAWED FISH - CARTILAGINOUS FISH v I ‘vim I - I ‘ . ,C. AiR'T'J[LTA; €jET ’, ’ ‘ H ‘k‘~Tiss‘}_'J§, .« . . . JV 0‘ Bartilaginousfish "" . /, / are fish which have skeletons made of elastic, rubbery cartilage. cartilge : firm, lbxibke mnrectivetissic found in Iariius frirrns and in different parts of the Indy
  185. 185. 7U/ ./ / nF/ / . ., / I , // // / // , / . . ,/ 1/ / z X / I / / /// , 1/ , , . . / // . / / // 2,, .. ,, / / / / r. //. ,// ,/ I/ «. / //, r / , / / . /. . //. /T. , . , / //. , / , / .. . I/ /, , They also have tough skin that is covered with small tooth- like scales known as placoid scales or dermal denticles. , / , , c , / /. T/ , . 7 . //2 , / :2“. u: oz_v<. _.. .._<v . :2“. 53¢. :2”. no muA>. _.
  186. 186. TYPES OF FISH IAWED FISH - CARTILAGINOUS FISH There are almost 1,000 species in this group, including rays, sharks and chimaeras. IRA; Y SHARK C1HlM. A ER A
  187. 187. Click on the below to open the link to the 2nd part of this series. "Not W E W W H M W W W I'. AI(D 0-4 I re: ac zrx z 1-YLu. Iws1I'n ', -u<. ArvoIIr — om nu. -rv or Lrvuc mo NON Lrvnc. I

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