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Frames of Negative Presidential Campaign Television Ads 1984 – 2008  Jenna Litchfield & Autumn Oster
What is a negative ad? <ul><li>Comparing the two candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing policy decisions </li></ul><ul><li...
Framing Analysis <ul><li>“ Frames were defined as mental orientation that organize perception and interpretation” </li></u...
1984 Ronald Reagan (R) vs. Walter Mondale (D) <ul><li>Tax breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>“ Leadership ...
1988 George H. Bush (R) vs. Michael Dukakis (D) <ul><li>Inconsistent </li></ul><ul><li>Retaliated too late </li></ul><ul><...
1992 William “Bill” Clinton (D) vs. George H. Bush (R) <ul><li>Indecisive </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Taxes </li></ul><ul><li...
1996 William “Bill” Clinton (D) vs. Robert “Bob” Dole (R) <ul><li>Clinton’s character </li></ul><ul><li>Clinton’s intellig...
2000 George W. Bush (R) vs. Al Gore (D) <ul><li>Tax breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the middle class </li></ul><ul><li>G...
2004 George W. Bush (R) vs. John Kerry (D) <ul><li>War in Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Military strength </li></ul><ul><li>War i...
2008 Barack Obama (D) vs. John McCain (R) <ul><li>Obama’s inexperience </li></ul><ul><li>Obama’s a celebrity not a leader ...
Evidence <ul><li>Did the ads work?  </li></ul><ul><li>How did they effect the public? </li></ul><ul><li>Have campaigns run...
Frames of 1984 – 2008 Elections
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Comparing Political Ads

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A presentation created for Political communication, Spring 2009. This compares the major themes found in the ads from Presidential Campaigns1984-2008

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Comparing Political Ads

  1. 1. Frames of Negative Presidential Campaign Television Ads 1984 – 2008 Jenna Litchfield & Autumn Oster
  2. 2. What is a negative ad? <ul><li>Comparing the two candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing policy decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Content in ad </li></ul>
  3. 3. Framing Analysis <ul><li>“ Frames were defined as mental orientation that organize perception and interpretation” </li></ul><ul><li>“ They are based on past experiences of what worked in given situations and on cultural templates of appropriate behavior.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Frames are used to blur distinctions between frames and the other factors such as values, norms, identity, solidarity and grievances.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hank Johnston, Social Movements and Culture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 1984 Ronald Reagan (R) vs. Walter Mondale (D) <ul><li>Tax breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>“ Leadership that’s working” </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of 1980 and 1984 </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1988 George H. Bush (R) vs. Michael Dukakis (D) <ul><li>Inconsistent </li></ul><ul><li>Retaliated too late </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t rely on him to get work done </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1992 William “Bill” Clinton (D) vs. George H. Bush (R) <ul><li>Indecisive </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Arkansas </li></ul><ul><li>Tax increases </li></ul><ul><li>Healthcare increases </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1996 William “Bill” Clinton (D) vs. Robert “Bob” Dole (R) <ul><li>Clinton’s character </li></ul><ul><li>Clinton’s intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting children </li></ul><ul><li>Doles “desperate negative attacks” </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2000 George W. Bush (R) vs. Al Gore (D) <ul><li>Tax breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Gore will spend too much money </li></ul><ul><li>Focus needs to be on America </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2004 George W. Bush (R) vs. John Kerry (D) <ul><li>War in Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Military strength </li></ul><ul><li>War in Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Kerry’s lack of decision and lies </li></ul>
  10. 10. 2008 Barack Obama (D) vs. John McCain (R) <ul><li>Obama’s inexperience </li></ul><ul><li>Obama’s a celebrity not a leader </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>McCain mirrors Bush </li></ul>
  11. 11. Evidence <ul><li>Did the ads work? </li></ul><ul><li>How did they effect the public? </li></ul><ul><li>Have campaigns run more negative ads over time? </li></ul><ul><li>How did we come to these conclusions? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Frames of 1984 – 2008 Elections

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