The average speed
of a vehicle in London
during rush hour
is about 11 km/h.
The speed is exactly the same as a hundred years ago with horses.
Have we ended up the transport
system nobody wants?
- traffic jams
- uneconomical performance, low
Changing values, attitudes and behaviour
In welfare societies people
take surviving for granted
> Increased pursuit of life satisfaction and meaning
Buying things make people worry
Nothing material is intrinsically valuable
Every purchase will go down in price over time
Salonen, A. & Åhlberg, M. (2013). Towards sustainable society – From materialism to post-materialism. International Journal of Sustainable Society 5(4), 374-393.
Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R. (2010). Agency, Values, and Well-Being: A Human Development Model. Social Indicators Research 97(1), 3-63.
Inglehart, R. (2008). ChangingValues among Western Publics from 1970 to 2006. West European Politics, 31(1-2), 130-146.
and good availability
Coal Gas Oil
Number of current fossil fuel reserves that should not
be used before 2050 if global warming is to stay below
McGlade, C., & Ekins, P. (2015).The geographical distribution of fossil fuels unused when limiting global warming to 2 °C. Nature 517, 187–190.
Hawkins, t., Singh, B., Majeau-Bettez, G., Hammer Strømman, A. (2013). Comparative Environmental Life Cycle Assessment
of Conventional and ElectricVehicles. Journal of Industrial Ecology 17(1), 53–64
Need of life-cycle-thinking
Electric vehicles pollute more than
conventional vehicles if electricity is
primarily produced from coal.
Liu, J., Han,Y.,Tang, X., Zhu, J., & Zhu,T. (2016). Estimating adult mortality attributable to PM2.5 exposure in China with assimilated PM2.5
concentrations based on a ground monitoring network. Science ofTheTotal Environment, 568, 1253–1262
1.37 million premature mortalities
due to air pollutants in China 2013
> ischemic heart disease
> lung cancer
> chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
UITP (2017). PublicTransportTrends. Brussels: International Association of PublicTransport
1.2 million people around
the world die each year in
90 percent accidents are due to
human errors but would you
allow a self-driving car to take
your child to school?
Passengers’ (n = 197) experiences on safety
and security in the robot bus compared to
the conventional bus
0 % 20 % 40 % 60 % 80 % 100 %
Salonen et al. (forthcoming). Passengers´ assessments about safety and security in the driverless robot bus.
Human well-being and good living
conditions of future generations can be
increased by the multi-modal mobility
collective transport (run by government and
private companies), including self-driving
A deep shift towards multi-modal
mobility services in society
is possible when people recognise
that their own, personal benefits
can be combined with the
ecological and social benefits.
Value based approach
to the mobility services
Salonen, A., Fredriksson, L., Järvinen, S., Korteniemi, P. & Danielsson, J. (2014).
Sustainable consumption in Finland – the phenomenon, consumer profiles and future scenarios.
International Journal of Marketing Studies 6(4), 59-82.
Salonen, A., Danielsson, J. Fredriksson, L., Järvinen, S., Korteniemi, P., Soininen, H. & Toivola, T. (2015).
Seuraamustietoinen kuluttaminen arvoteoreettisessa tarkastelussa. Kulutustutkimus.Nyt 9(1), 3-29.
Please see www.theinformedconsumer.fi for additional information
Dr.Arto O Salonen