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OSCAR FISH AND OTHER 
COMMON CICHLIDS 
MUHAMMED ANZEER F 
12.05.09
INTRODUCTION 
“Ornamental fishes usually mean attractive colourful fishes of 
various characteristics, which are kept as p...
Aquarium keeping is 2nd most popular of hobbies after 
photography. 
Largest market - European Union 
 Largest importer...
Exact figures on the value and trade of the ornamental 
fish industry do not exist, the total value of ornamental 
fishes...
Although most fish kept in aquariums are from 
freshwater, the acquisition of marine ornamental 
fish has greatly increas...
We have to recognize this amazing fact!!!!!!!!!! 
The retail value for 1kg of coral reef fish for the 
aquarium trade may...
Ornamental Species 
Approximate Number of 
Species 
Principal Geographic 
Regions 
Fresh-, Salt-, and 
Brackish-Water Fish...
kingdom Animalia 
phylum chordata 
class Actinopterygii 
order Perciformes 
family Cichlidae 
subfamily Astronotinae 
genu...
Astronotus - Marked with stars 
ocellatus - with eye spot on tail 
Commonname: Oscar 
Synonyms 
: Acaracompressus, Acarahy...
Taxonomy 
The species was originally described by Louis 
Agassiz in 1831 aslobotes ocellatus, as he mistakenly 
believed t...
Identification 
In general, cichlids (Cichlidae) are superficially 
similar to North American native sunfishes and black b...
Description 
 Maximmum size : 45 cm (18 in) 
 Weight : 1.6 kilograms (3.5 lb ) 
 Colour : darkly coloured with yellow-r...
Distribution and habitat
o A.ocellatus is native to Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, and 
French Guiana, 
o Amazon River basin (Amazonas, Içá, Negr...
Habitat : Benthopelagic, Freshwater - slow-moving, quiet 
shallow waters in mud-bottomed or sand-bottomed canals 
and pond...
Feeding 
Captive oscars - prepared fish food designed for large 
carnivorous fish, crayfish, worms, and insects (such as f...
Just about anything that falls into the water would be eaten 
by oscars 
These fish eat fruit in the wild, items such as m...
Mode of capture prey 
The species uses a suction mechanism to capture 
prey, and has been reported to exhibit "laying-on-s...
Territorial behavior 
Oscars will often lay claim to an area of the aquarium and will 
be very aggressive towards other fi...
BREEDING 
Sexual dimorphism 
sexually monomorphic, eventhough, males have been 
suggested to grow more quickly, and in som...
 The only reliable method is to observe a pair when they are 
breeding and the breeding tubes are extended. 
 The female...
Breeding Behavior 
 In captivity, pairs are known to select and clean 
generally flattened horizontal or vertical surface...
Between “digging ” they will go through liplocking, 
shaking, quivering and sometimes aggression towards each 
other. Thei...
Place the slate upright at the back of the tank and place 
an airstone in at the base to agitate the water in front of it....
After the eggs are laid, you should be able to see 
wigglers in the “fungus” within 2 to 3 days. Shut the 
tank lights off...
To further confuse things, two females may become 
aggressive towards each other while one, or the other, or 
both are lay...
Parental care 
A.ocellatus practices brood care, although the 
duration of brood care in the wild remains unknown. New 
pa...
The eggs might be there lunch or they might let the 
eggs hatch to the wiggler stage and then eat them. if there 
is any o...
Selective breeding 
A number of ornamental varieties of A. ocellatus have 
been developed for the aquarium industry. These...
The patterning of red pigment differs between 
individuals; in the United Kingdom, one A. 
ocellatus reportedly had markin...
AQUARIUM REARING 
Absolute minimum tank size for single one is 48" x 15" x 
12“ if it is a pair - 48" x 15" x 18”. You sho...
Oscar varieties 
Oscars are all the same species (Astronotus ocellatus), 
however, there are several color varieties and f...
Tiger Oscar (Dark base color with orange/red stripes) 
It is believed that Tiger Oscars are the result of selective 
breed...
Red Oscar (Dark base color with solid or mostly solid 
orange/red that does not form bold stripes.)
Red Oscars are a strain originally developed by 
Charoen Pattabonge, a Thai businessman, who noticed 
some oscars with abn...
Common Oscars (aka -Wildtype Oscar)(Dark base 
color with lighter stripes, generally yellow, grey, or 
pale green, and ver...
Albino Oscars 
True albinos are mostly white with potentially very vivid 
orange/red coloration. Most people call any osca...
Albino Tiger Oscar 
(White/light base color with red/orange stripes)
Albino Red Oscar 
(White/light base color with solid red/orange)
Lutino Oscars 
These look like “albino” oscars, but have some darker 
coloration, generally on the fins or the eye spot. T...
Lutino tiger 
(White/light base color with orange stripes and some 
brown/grey on the fins and/or body)
Lutino red 
(White/light base color with solid orange and some 
brown/grey on the fins.)
Rare Oscar Varities 
Sunshine Lemon Oscar
Bloody/Super Red Oscar 
(an extreme red oscar which is a very vibrant, solid 
red)
Dyed Oscars 
Oscars have also fallen victim to the process of 
dyeing.This is a horrible process which weakens the fish 
m...
Strawberry Oscar 
(“albino” or lutino red/tiger 
oscars dyed red/pink) 
These aren't as common as 
“blueberry” oscars. Als...
Oscar Oddities 
Along with the different color varieties, oscars have also 
been selectively bred for different body/fin s...
Short bodied/Balloon Oscar 
(Have a shorter, more compact 
body than normal) 
Come in all color varieties. These 
are rela...
Astronotus orbicularis 
Astronotus crassipinnis 
Other Species 
There are also 2 other species 
belonging to the genus 
As...
WATER QUALITY 
Water quality is of super importance. Do a 25% water 
change daily cleaning the bottom of the tank to remov...
As far as tank mates go, choose something as large as 
the Oscar itself. Despite their reputation Oscars will not be 
able...
I have seen a number of recommendations that 
armored catfish can be kept with a pair of Oscars, "to clean 
up the tank fl...
Decor for an Oscar tank should be kept at a 
minimum. A few rocks and maybe a piece of bogwood 
should be more than suffic...
It is not unknown for Oscars to attack aquarium 
equipment, particularly heaterstats. I don't really think the 
species ha...
Filtration, is one area where a number of otherwise perfect 
Oscar set-ups can fail. Oscars are extremely messy eaters 
an...
My own personal recommendation however, would 
be to use a large external power filter filled with sintered 
glass or even...
An internal power filter can also be added to 
provide mechanical filtration and help keep the water 
polished. Oscars nee...
One last thing that needs to be add to any Oscar tank is 
something for the fishes to play with. Oscars just love toys; a ...
Frozen and live river shrimps are readily accepted. 
One of the best Oscar foods are excess fry from other 
cichlid breedi...
Other common Cichlids 
The number of cichlid species identified in the wild is 
well over 1,000 and biologists think that ...
They can be quite fascinating and territorial, especially 
when they pair off and start to spawn. Some will tolerate tank ...
The water quality could be very poor, likely high in 
ammonia (and possibly nitrites) thereby causing them to 
appear more...
Description of Cichlids 
Cichlids are categorized as "secondary freshwater 
fish" - meaning their ancestors were marine fi...
Cichlids are found in Africa, Central and South 
America, and a few species from parts of Asia. Central and 
South America...
These and other large cichlids are popular food fish for the 
native people where they are found. Many of the smaller size...
The cichlid family is so vast that there many good aquarium 
inhabitants, but there are also many species that are not rea...
African Cichlids 
Perhaps the most popular cichlids are the Rift Lake 
Cichlids, which are some of the most colorful of al...
Like their South American counterparts, there are also 
some African Cichlids that reach an impressive size, making 
great...
Lake Malawi Cichlids 
The Malawi Cichlids are some of the most brilliantly 
colored fishes. It is estimated there are over...
Mbuna group 
The Mbuna group is endemic to Lake Malawi. They inhabit 
the rocky areas of the lake. 
o zebra cichlids-mbuna...
Haplochromis group 
The Haplochromis group is another popular African cichlid 
group that inhabit the more sandy areas and...
LakeTanganyikaCichlids 
Lake Tanganyika, the second deepest lake in the world, is 
inhabited with almost 250 different spe...
Goby Cichlids - The Goby Cichlids live close to the shore 
in shallow waters. Like others in this group, these fish are 
g...
Lake Victoria Cichlids -West Africa Dwarf Cichlids, West 
Africa Cichlids 
There are many wonderful African cichlids that ...
Lake Victoria Cichlids 
There are several hundred vibrantly beautiful species of 
cichlids found in Lake Victoria alone. O...
South American Cichlids The South American Cichlids are also 
known as New World cichlids, and include Central American 
C...
South American Cichlids and Central American Cichlids are 
attractive, personable, and are generally quite durable fish. T...
There are distinctive types of South American cichlids, 
including: 
Large Cichlids - Large South American Cichlids 
The l...
Dwarf Cichlids - South American Dwarf Cichlids 
The American Dwarf Cichlids are also called the New 
World Dwarf Cichlids....
Unique Cichlid Types - Unique South American Cichlids 
The Angelfish and Discus have some of the most 
unique body shapes,...
Archocentrusnigro fasciatus 
PseudotropheusDemasoni 
Thorichthys meeki 
Cichlasomaocto fasciatum
Cynotilapia afra 
Cyrtocara moorii 
Pterophyllum scalare 
Apsitogrammaca catuoides
Parachromis managuensis Hemichromis bimaculatus 
Labidochromisca eruleus Metriaclima lombardoi
Pelvicachromis pulcher Pseudotropheus sp. 
A hybrid Herose fasciatus
Microgeophagus ramirezi 
Pseudotropheus saulosi 
Protomelas taeniolatus Amphilophus labiatus
Pseudotropheus polit 
Neolamprologus multifasciatus
Economic importance 
an ornamental fish and rarely used as a food fish(South America). 
It costs more than 150 rupees pe...
CONCLUSIONS 
Astronotusocellatus is a species of fish from the cichlid 
family, originally described by Louis Agassiz in 1...
A popular aquarium fish, Astronotusocellatus has many 
common names, including oscar, tiger oscar, velvet cichlid, 
or mar...
Suction feeders,A. ocellatus are omnivorous, eating 
invertebrates such as flies, worms, crayfish, some small fish, 
fruit...
An aquarium enthusiast can easily become overwhelmed 
by the endless variety of fish, invertebrates (including corals, 
an...
To help promote resource sustainability, the potential 
aquarium owner should develop a basic understanding of 
the indust...
REFERENCES 
1. B. Nightingale Devia*, M. Krishnanb, R. Venugopalan and B.K. 
Mahapatrad, Agricultural Economics Research R...
Internet sources 
•http://www.indiamart.com/fishaquarium-home-gurgaon/ 
aquarium-fishes.html#oscar-fish 
•http://dir.india...
•http://www.aquariumfish.net/catalog_pages/cichlids_neotropical/o 
scars.htm 
•http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.as...
Thanks for your kind attention
Oscar Fish and Other Common Cichlids
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Oscar Fish and Other Common Cichlids

a detailed description of oscarfish and it's family

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Oscar Fish and Other Common Cichlids

  1. 1. OSCAR FISH AND OTHER COMMON CICHLIDS MUHAMMED ANZEER F 12.05.09
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION “Ornamental fishes usually mean attractive colourful fishes of various characteristics, which are kept as pets in confined space of an aquarium or a garden pool for fun and fancy”. Ornamental fishes are usually kept in glass aquarium and hence popularly known as ‘’Aquarium Fishes’’. Attractiveness not only bright colours but also peculiar characteristics such as body colour, morphology, mode of taking food ,territorial behaviour etc.
  3. 3. Aquarium keeping is 2nd most popular of hobbies after photography. Largest market - European Union  Largest importer - United States (US) (FAO 1996-2005; Chapman 20
  4. 4. Exact figures on the value and trade of the ornamental fish industry do not exist, the total value of ornamental fishes and invertebrates imported is $278 million US dollars (FAO 1996-2005). Pet industry surveys have estimated the aquarium industry worth over $1,000 million USD (e.g., Cato and Brown 2003; AAPMA 2005).
  5. 5. Although most fish kept in aquariums are from freshwater, the acquisition of marine ornamental fish has greatly increased, popularized by  Children's movies.  Recent advances in fish husbandry and  Aquarium equipment technology
  6. 6. We have to recognize this amazing fact!!!!!!!!!! The retail value for 1kg of coral reef fish for the aquarium trade may be worth $500 to $1,800 USD while a marine fish used for human consumption can be priced only in between $6 and $16.50 USD per kilogram (Cato and Brown 2003; Wabnitz et al. 2003)
  7. 7. Ornamental Species Approximate Number of Species Principal Geographic Regions Fresh-, Salt-, and Brackish-Water Fishes 1539 Southeast Asia, Americas, Africa, Indonesia Corals (hard and soft) 102 Indo-Pacific, Caribbean, the Red Sea Invertebrates, other (e.g., shrimps, crabs, snails, starfish) 293 Indo-Pacific, Caribbean, the Red Sea Reference: various sources; principal, Cato, J.C., and C. L. Brown. 2003. Marine Ornamental Species: Collection, Culture, and Conservation.
  8. 8. kingdom Animalia phylum chordata class Actinopterygii order Perciformes family Cichlidae subfamily Astronotinae genus Astronotus species ocellatus OSCAR FISH
  9. 9. Astronotus - Marked with stars ocellatus - with eye spot on tail Commonname: Oscar Synonyms : Acaracompressus, Acarahyposticta, Astronotus ocellatus zebra, and Astronotusorbiculatus. velvet cichlid, red oscar, marble cichlid etc.
  10. 10. Taxonomy The species was originally described by Louis Agassiz in 1831 aslobotes ocellatus, as he mistakenly believed the species was marine; later work assigned the species to the genus Astronotus.
  11. 11. Identification In general, cichlids (Cichlidae) are superficially similar to North American native sunfishes and black basses (Lepomis and Micropterus; family Centrarchidae). Cichlids can be distinguished from centrarchids by a single nostril opening on each side of the head (vs. two openings in centrarchids) and the presence of a discontinuous or two-part lateral line (continuous in centrarchids). Kullander (1986) and Page and Burr (1991).
  12. 12. Description  Maximmum size : 45 cm (18 in)  Weight : 1.6 kilograms (3.5 lb )  Colour : darkly coloured with yellow-ringed spots (wild-caught forms )  Able to rapidly alter its colouration. Juvenile oscars have a different colouration from adults, and are striped with white and orange wavy bands and have spotted heads.  An ocelli on the caudal peduncle and on the Dorsal fin (to function to limit fin-nipping by piranha(serrasalmus spp.), which co-occur with A. ocellatus in its natural environment.
  13. 13. Distribution and habitat
  14. 14. o A.ocellatus is native to Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, and French Guiana, o Amazon River basin (Amazonas, Içá, Negro, Solimões, and Ucayali River systems). o Approuague and Oyapock River (drainages). o China, northern Australia, and Florida, USA - as a byproduct of the ornamental fish trade o Limited in its distribution by its intolerance of cooler water temperatures; the lower lethal limit - 12.9°C (55.2°F).
  15. 15. Habitat : Benthopelagic, Freshwater - slow-moving, quiet shallow waters in mud-bottomed or sand-bottomed canals and ponds sheltering under submerged branches.  pH range: 6.0 - 8.0;  DH range: 5 - 19.  Tropical; 22°C - 25°C ;
  16. 16. Feeding Captive oscars - prepared fish food designed for large carnivorous fish, crayfish, worms, and insects (such as flies, crickets and grasshoppers). Feeding live foods - increase the rate of growth but may cause endoparasites. Live feeder fish can be given, Most fish eaten by A. ocellatus in the wild are relatively sedentary catfish, including Bunocephalus, Rineloricaria, and Ochmacanthus species but fish such as goldfish and rosy red feeder minnows should not be fed. These contain an enzyme (thiaminase) which binds vitamin B1- deficiency.
  17. 17. Just about anything that falls into the water would be eaten by oscars These fish eat fruit in the wild, items such as melons, oranges, and other fruits. The species also has an absolute requirement for vitamin C, and develops health problems in its absence. Poultry and/or mammalian flesh, including beef heart, should not be fed long term as these fatty foods will contribute to fatty liver disease.
  18. 18. Mode of capture prey The species uses a suction mechanism to capture prey, and has been reported to exhibit "laying-on-side" death mimicry in asimilar fashion to Parachromisfriedrichsthalii and Nimbochromislivingsto nii.
  19. 19. Territorial behavior Oscars will often lay claim to an area of the aquarium and will be very aggressive towards other fish encroaching on their newly established territory inside the aquarium or lake. The size varies depending on the size and aggressiveness of the fish based on its surroundings. Once the oscar establishes a territory, it will vigorously defend it by chasing away other fish.
  20. 20. BREEDING Sexual dimorphism sexually monomorphic, eventhough, males have been suggested to grow more quickly, and in some strains(wild) males are with dark blotches on the base of their dorsal fins. sexual maturity - around one year of age, will reproduce for 9-10 years.(time and frequency depend upon rain) A. ocellatus fish are biparental, substrate spawners (aquarium condition), (in wild it is disputable.)
  21. 21.  The only reliable method is to observe a pair when they are breeding and the breeding tubes are extended.  The female's tube bigger & rounded at the end,  while the male's tube smaller & pointed at the end. obviously, the female is the one with all the eggs coming out of her.
  22. 22. Breeding Behavior  In captivity, pairs are known to select and clean generally flattened horizontal or vertical surfaces (no egg will be on top of another one), on which to lay their 1,000 to 3,000 eggs. (ciclids)  In aquariums, A flat rock like slate is ideal, or they have been known to clear the gravel and lay on the bare bottom of the tank. They will work for days picking up the gravel building mountains in the corners.
  23. 23. Between “digging ” they will go through liplocking, shaking, quivering and sometimes aggression towards each other. Their color variances also intensify during this period. This is all normal but the twist of this is….The female may lay eggs regardless of whether there is another fish in the tank or not. It is also possible to have two females and have one or the other lay eggs.
  24. 24. Place the slate upright at the back of the tank and place an airstone in at the base to agitate the water in front of it. This will mimic the fanning that the parents do. Within a few days you might see a thickening or a fungus growing ontop of the eggs. This thickens as the eggs hatch. You could use use product called Meythlene blue to prevent the spread of this ” fungus.
  25. 25. After the eggs are laid, you should be able to see wigglers in the “fungus” within 2 to 3 days. Shut the tank lights off and use a flashlight to look around at different angles. If you don't see wigglers the eggs were not fertile, fungus killed them or they have moved off the slate into there hiding spot. There might be times that you think the fry are dead or have been eaten but they are in fact hiding in the gravel pits, underneath the gravel or behind the slate.
  26. 26. To further confuse things, two females may become aggressive towards each other while one, or the other, or both are laying eggs. To the untrained, or even the trained eye, this sometimes looks like mating behavior between a male and female. o unfertilized eggs – white o Fertilized eggs - amber (yellow).
  27. 27. Parental care A.ocellatus practices brood care, although the duration of brood care in the wild remains unknown. New parents might raise the fry right away but unlikely. They teach the fry to come to the front of the tank for feedings and if the fry stray too far away they will suck them in to there mouths and place them in the “pits”.
  28. 28. The eggs might be there lunch or they might let the eggs hatch to the wiggler stage and then eat them. if there is any other fish in the tank, they might just get a midnight snack, If you think or know that you have a breeding pair and you want them to raise their fry, the best thing to do is keep them in a tank by themselves with no other fish.
  29. 29. Selective breeding A number of ornamental varieties of A. ocellatus have been developed for the aquarium industry. These include forms with greater intensity and quantities of red marbling across the body, albino, leucistic, and xanthistic forms. A. ocellatus with marbled patches of red pigmentation are sold as red tiger oscars, while those strains with mainly red colouration of the flanks are frequently sold under the trade name of red oscars.
  30. 30. The patterning of red pigment differs between individuals; in the United Kingdom, one A. ocellatus reportedly had markings that resembled the Arabic word for "Allah". In recent years long-finned varieties have also been developed. The species is also occasionally artificially coloured by a process known as painting.
  31. 31. AQUARIUM REARING Absolute minimum tank size for single one is 48" x 15" x 12“ if it is a pair - 48" x 15" x 18”. You should bear in mind that a small 4" fish will only take 12 months be be a massive 9" fish and so if you cannot provide a big enough tank to start with then don't buy Oscars. Promises that you will get a bigger tank later never seem to become a reality. Besides, you will need that bigger tank in less than a year, so it is best to wait until you can afford it and get the Oscars then.
  32. 32. Oscar varieties Oscars are all the same species (Astronotus ocellatus), however, there are several color varieties and forms available. There are no differences in care for any species, with the exception of Albino Oscars, which may require decreased lighting due to a potential sensitivity to bright lights common in albinos of any species. The most common varieties are those Oscars we normally see at most fish stores. They include Tiger Oscars, Red Oscars, and Common Oscars.
  33. 33. Tiger Oscar (Dark base color with orange/red stripes) It is believed that Tiger Oscars are the result of selective breeding of Red Oscars back to Common Oscars and "fixing" the resulting strain.
  34. 34. Red Oscar (Dark base color with solid or mostly solid orange/red that does not form bold stripes.)
  35. 35. Red Oscars are a strain originally developed by Charoen Pattabonge, a Thai businessman, who noticed some oscars with abnormally high red coloration in a recent shipment and was subsequently able to fix a strain we know today as the "Red Oscar". This strain starting becoming prevalent in the hobby in 1969. One of the distinquishing characteristics of the Red Oscar is that it does not have an eyespot on the tail.
  36. 36. Common Oscars (aka -Wildtype Oscar)(Dark base color with lighter stripes, generally yellow, grey, or pale green, and very little to no orange. This is the color of wild oscars)
  37. 37. Albino Oscars True albinos are mostly white with potentially very vivid orange/red coloration. Most people call any oscar with a light base color and no dark pigment “albinos” even though they are not true ablinos. The key indicator as to if your Oscar is an Albino Oscar is the eyes and fins. If the eyes are pink (or possibly orange) and there is no dark coloration on the fins, it is an Albino. Otherwise, it is a lutino.“Albino” oscars come in red & tiger patterns.
  38. 38. Albino Tiger Oscar (White/light base color with red/orange stripes)
  39. 39. Albino Red Oscar (White/light base color with solid red/orange)
  40. 40. Lutino Oscars These look like “albino” oscars, but have some darker coloration, generally on the fins or the eye spot. They also come in red & tiger patterns. If you have an Oscar displaying any black coloration, in the eyes or fins, but otherwise looks like an Albino, it is a Lutino. Albino's cannot produce black, brown, or green pigments
  41. 41. Lutino tiger (White/light base color with orange stripes and some brown/grey on the fins and/or body)
  42. 42. Lutino red (White/light base color with solid orange and some brown/grey on the fins.)
  43. 43. Rare Oscar Varities Sunshine Lemon Oscar
  44. 44. Bloody/Super Red Oscar (an extreme red oscar which is a very vibrant, solid red)
  45. 45. Dyed Oscars Oscars have also fallen victim to the process of dyeing.This is a horrible process which weakens the fish making it much more susceptibe to illnesses and shortens its lifespan. Plus the color eventually fades so you're left with an expensive, sickly, “albino”/lutino.
  46. 46. Strawberry Oscar (“albino” or lutino red/tiger oscars dyed red/pink) These aren't as common as “blueberry” oscars. Also, some albino/lutinooscars naturally have a pink/peach base color, but on a dyed oscar, it won't look as solid or evenly distributed.)
  47. 47. Oscar Oddities Along with the different color varieties, oscars have also been selectively bred for different body/fin shapes Veiltail Oscar (Have longer than normal fins & tails. Come in all common color varieties)
  48. 48. Short bodied/Balloon Oscar (Have a shorter, more compact body than normal) Come in all color varieties. These are relatively rare and in many cases, oscars with shorter than normal bodies are actually stunted and horribly deformed from being kept in poor conditions rather than selectively bred to be that way so be Leary about buying short bodied Oscars.
  49. 49. Astronotus orbicularis Astronotus crassipinnis Other Species There are also 2 other species belonging to the genus Astronotus. These are not oscars, but they are closely related and look somewhat similar. They are also pretty rare to find in LFS's. There is some debate as to if these are two different species or one.
  50. 50. WATER QUALITY Water quality is of super importance. Do a 25% water change daily cleaning the bottom of the tank to remove all food residue. The best way is to use an airline to suck it out into a cup, bowl or pitcher. Then siphon the babies that you pick up back into the tank. It is almost impossible to clean the tank bottom without sucking up a few of the wigglers. When you refill the tank, be sure that the water you put in is the same temp or maybe just a little warmer than the tank. Siphon it in with an airline slowly to minimize the effects of any variances in water temperature.
  51. 51. As far as tank mates go, choose something as large as the Oscar itself. Despite their reputation Oscars will not be able to cope with large territorial Cichlasoma. South American cichlids like the larger Geophagines are milder in temperament and can be kept successfully with a single Oscar. If you intend to keep a pair, they will need a tank to themselves; if they decide to breed then all tank mates will be seen as a threat.
  52. 52. I have seen a number of recommendations that armored catfish can be kept with a pair of Oscars, "to clean up the tank floor". While this is undoubtedly true, I can't personally recommend it. Cichlids have very poor night vision and will be unable to defend their eggs and fry against the nocturnal predations of a catfish, unless ofcourse a light is left on. Proper aquarium maintenance is, in my opinion, a far better way to keep the aquarium clean.
  53. 53. Decor for an Oscar tank should be kept at a minimum. A few rocks and maybe a piece of bogwood should be more than sufficient. A pair of Oscars will also need a couple of large flat stones on which to lay their eggs. A piece of slate is best. Make sure that these are at least 8" x 10" as Oscars produce an enormous number of eggs. Heaters should be either protected by a heater guard or hidden where the fish cannot get to them.
  54. 54. It is not unknown for Oscars to attack aquarium equipment, particularly heaterstats. I don't really think the species have anything against heaters generally but most of these are reflective and I think that the fish is attacking its own reflection in the mistaken belief that it is another fish. Plants are best avoided; Oscars will treat them as expensive toys and constantly rip them up.
  55. 55. Filtration, is one area where a number of otherwise perfect Oscar set-ups can fail. Oscars are extremely messy eaters and so good filtration is essential. While many prefer under-gravel filters, it needs to be remembered that Oscars are great diggers and should you adopt this method then a gravel tidy is a must.
  56. 56. My own personal recommendation however, would be to use a large external power filter filled with sintered glass or even better, Siporax, while expensive, has the distinct advantage that it will eventually develop some ability at de-nitrification and help reduce the ever present nitrate problem inherent in a tank without live plants. For the same reason, a good activated carbon or nitrate absorbing resin should also be added to the filter.
  57. 57. An internal power filter can also be added to provide mechanical filtration and help keep the water polished. Oscars need plenty of oxygen so set these filters so that they create a disturbance at the water's surface or add some aeration. Despite their Amazon origins Oscars can be kept in hard as well as soft water providing it is kept clean. Temperature should be in the range 26°- 30°C. Weekly 20% water changes will help keep your water quality good.
  58. 58. One last thing that needs to be add to any Oscar tank is something for the fishes to play with. Oscars just love toys; a ping-pong ball floated on the surface will provide the fish, and you, with many hours of enjoyment. When considering what to feed an Oscar it is very important to remember that Oscars can get hooked on one food and just refuse to eat anything else. Because of this feed Oscars something different everyday. Cichlid pellets and frozen foods such as lance fish and whitebait are very good.
  59. 59. Frozen and live river shrimps are readily accepted. One of the best Oscar foods are excess fry from other cichlid breedings and of course the good old earthworm. I have heard a number of people suggest the raising of guppies/mollies/goldfish etc. to feed their Oscars. In my experience however, the effort required to breed these fish, in both sufficient size and number is far in excess of any benefit gained.
  60. 60. Other common Cichlids The number of cichlid species identified in the wild is well over 1,000 and biologists think that many more are waiting to be discovered. Cichlids are found in many locations throughout the world and include such favorites as the freshwater angelfish, the tiger oscar fish and the jack dempsey cichlid.
  61. 61. They can be quite fascinating and territorial, especially when they pair off and start to spawn. Some will tolerate tank mates and some can only be kept as lone individuals or in very aggressive species only tanks. Some retailers and breeders tend to keep them overcrowded in display tanks to try and limit the aggression and indeed it does seem to work. However, there could be many factors at play in this scenario.
  62. 62. The water quality could be very poor, likely high in ammonia (and possibly nitrites) thereby causing them to appear more docile. theory is that a crowding situation prevents a lone fish from becoming dominant over a few. There are just too many other fish to dominate in a crowded tank. Once you get a few of them acclimated and at home in your aquarium the situation could be completely different.Use caution when selecting tank mates and due your research before getting any of these cichlids to make sure you can meet their requirements.
  63. 63. Description of Cichlids Cichlids are categorized as "secondary freshwater fish" - meaning their ancestors were marine fish. It is believed that cichlids moved to freshwaters from the marine environment, and they have features relating to a number of marine species including the wrasses, parrotfish, damsels, and surfperches.
  64. 64. Cichlids are found in Africa, Central and South America, and a few species from parts of Asia. Central and South America comprises a huge geographic area with greatly diverse habitats ranging from savannas to rain forests. Other types of cichlids are from the great rift lakes of Africa, as well as other lakes, rivers and streams. Consequently cichlids are found in a wide variety of conditions.
  65. 65. These and other large cichlids are popular food fish for the native people where they are found. Many of the smaller sized cichlids species, vast in number, from the great African Lakes are also considered a tasty snack to those native peoples. The actual number of cichlid species is unknown but are generally estimated somewhere between 2000 to 5000, with at least 1300 species scientifically described. African Cichlids are conservatively estimated at about 1300 species, while South American Cichlids and Central American Cichlids are estimated at about 570 species.
  66. 66. The cichlid family is so vast that there many good aquarium inhabitants, but there are also many species that are not really suitable for the home aquarium due to size. For example, theBoulengerochromismicrolepis from Africa, which reaches up to 36" (90 cm) is really too large for most hobbyists. Some large South American cichlids that are occasionally available in the hobby are the Peacock BassCichlaocellaris, which grows to a length of 30" (75 cm), and the Wolf Cichlid Parachromisdovii, which can reach a length of 24" (60 cm). Both of these will require at least 250 gallons (946 L) with larger being better.
  67. 67. African Cichlids Perhaps the most popular cichlids are the Rift Lake Cichlids, which are some of the most colorful of all freshwater fishes. Besides the many colorful cichlids from the African lakes, there are others highly prized for patterning and other unique characteristics. These includeas seen in the popular Tropheus genus, featherfins, goby cichlids, sarding cichlids, and shelldwellers to name a few.
  68. 68. Like their South American counterparts, there are also some African Cichlids that reach an impressive size, making great specimens for a large show tank. Yet here too there are a few species are not really suitable for the home aquarium due to size. The Boulengerochromis microlepis, which reaches up to 36" (90 cm), is a good example of too big. Most African Cichlids available in the hobby have a mix of fascinating characteristics and are a delight to keep.
  69. 69. Lake Malawi Cichlids The Malawi Cichlids are some of the most brilliantly colored fishes. It is estimated there are over 800 species of Malawi cichlids but with only about 300 currently described by ichthyologists. They fall into two ecological groups, the Mbuna group and the Haplochromis group. Do not mix the two groups in the aquarium, as they are mostly incompatible. Only combining the Utaka from the Haplochromis group with Mbuna is possible if there is plenty of space.
  70. 70. Mbuna group The Mbuna group is endemic to Lake Malawi. They inhabit the rocky areas of the lake. o zebra cichlids-mbuna cichlids- This group contains 12 genera of rock dwelling Mbuna Cichlids, including the well-known Zebra Cichlids. This is a popular group of very active and aggressive personalities, often colored in blues with black bars, and yellows.
  71. 71. Haplochromis group The Haplochromis group is another popular African cichlid group that inhabit the more sandy areas and open waters. oPeacock cichlids - Peacock Cichlids are some of the most intensely colored of all the cichlid varieties. These are generally somewhat larger and more peaceful than the Zebra (mbuna) cichlids. o Other malavi cichlids- These include Utaka Cichlids which tend to live in open waters.
  72. 72. LakeTanganyikaCichlids Lake Tanganyika, the second deepest lake in the world, is inhabited with almost 250 different species of cichlids and over 150 species of other fish. It is renown for having two record-breaking inhabitants, the world's largest cichlid at 31" (80 cm) and the world's smallest cichlid at 1.4" (3.5 cm). Lake Tanganyika Cichlids Many Tanganyika cichlids are unique in both body shape and in habitat. These include such varieties as the featherfins, gobies, julies, sardines, and shelldwellers.
  73. 73. Goby Cichlids - The Goby Cichlids live close to the shore in shallow waters. Like others in this group, these fish are generally more peaceful and a bit larger than the Zebra Cichlids Tropheus Cichlids These are popular Tanganyika cichlids that inhabit the more sandy areas and open waters. They are generally somewhat larger and more peaceful than the Zebra (mbuna) cichlids.The popular Tropheusspecies are endemic to Lake Tanganyika. They are widely distributed along the coastal fringes of the lake and have many geographic variations. Many have not yet been described.
  74. 74. Lake Victoria Cichlids -West Africa Dwarf Cichlids, West Africa Cichlids There are many wonderful African cichlids that you may run across besides the highly popular species found in Lake Malawi or Lake Tanganyika. African cichlids also include a number of fish from West Africa, outlying islands including Madagascar, and cichlids from Lake Victoria.
  75. 75. Lake Victoria Cichlids There are several hundred vibrantly beautiful species of cichlids found in Lake Victoria alone. Other types of East African Cichlids include Victoria Cichlids found in lakes surrounding Lake Victoria. Others are native to African rivers and streams, and live in a wide variety of habitats Dwarf Cichlids -West African Cichlids Many West African cichlids are native to African rivers and streams, living a wide variety of habitats. These include the interesting and beautiful African Dwarf Cichlids such as the popular Kribensis.
  76. 76. South American Cichlids The South American Cichlids are also known as New World cichlids, and include Central American Cichlids and American Dwarf Cichlids. They are found primarily in Central and South America, with the Texas Cichlid found in the southern part of North America. This is a vast geographic area with greatly diverse habitats ranging from savannas to rain forests, consequently cichlids are found in a wide variety of conditions. The Amazon River contains a huge number of fish, one fifth of all freshwater fish species. Its waters are acidic and extremely soft, and much of it has detritus covered sandy type substrate.
  77. 77. South American Cichlids and Central American Cichlids are attractive, personable, and are generally quite durable fish. They come in a range of sizes and with some very beautiful colorations, making them favorite aquarium fish for many hobbyists. Many also reach an impressive size and are great for a large show tank.
  78. 78. There are distinctive types of South American cichlids, including: Large Cichlids - Large South American Cichlids The large American cichlids, with their personalities, temperaments, and size, are great specimens for an awesome show tank. Because these fish get large, a 75 gallon aquarium is the standard suggested size for these fish.
  79. 79. Dwarf Cichlids - South American Dwarf Cichlids The American Dwarf Cichlids are also called the New World Dwarf Cichlids. These fish consist of small cichlids that only reach up to about 4 inches (10 cm) or so. They have attractive color patterns, and many species can be obtained in a variety of color morphs. Many will be content in an aquarium as small as 20 gallons. Dwarf Cichlids tend to be shy and somewhat delicate, so they are recommended for a bit more seasoned aquarist rather than a beginning cichlid keeper.
  80. 80. Unique Cichlid Types - Unique South American Cichlids The Angelfish and Discus have some of the most unique body shapes, and some of the most beautiful and varied color patterns. These cichlids end to be more amiable than others cichlids and each variety will make a great show specimen. Some of the most unique in appearance are hybrids such as the Blood Parrot and the Flower Horn Cichlid.
  81. 81. Archocentrusnigro fasciatus PseudotropheusDemasoni Thorichthys meeki Cichlasomaocto fasciatum
  82. 82. Cynotilapia afra Cyrtocara moorii Pterophyllum scalare Apsitogrammaca catuoides
  83. 83. Parachromis managuensis Hemichromis bimaculatus Labidochromisca eruleus Metriaclima lombardoi
  84. 84. Pelvicachromis pulcher Pseudotropheus sp. A hybrid Herose fasciatus
  85. 85. Microgeophagus ramirezi Pseudotropheus saulosi Protomelas taeniolatus Amphilophus labiatus
  86. 86. Pseudotropheus polit Neolamprologus multifasciatus
  87. 87. Economic importance an ornamental fish and rarely used as a food fish(South America). It costs more than 150 rupees per piece for an average sized fish in the Indian market. International market value will differ in accordance with the abundance, colour pattern , size and ofcourse the demand of the fish. used by biologists in numerous studies ( behaviour, eye sight , auditory systems and swim bladders). as a game fish popular with aquarists but not for aquaculturists,( slow growth - Maximum length 40 cm. A highly esteemed food fish in
  88. 88. CONCLUSIONS Astronotusocellatus is a species of fish from the cichlid family, originally described by Louis Agassiz in 1831, although he mistakenly classified it in the marine genus Lobotes. The largest of the new world cichlids, they can live 10-20 years and reach up to a maximum length of 45cm (18 inches) long, although they are most commonly found 25-30 cm (10-12 inches) in length and 1.6 kilograms (3.5 lb) in weight.
  89. 89. A popular aquarium fish, Astronotusocellatus has many common names, including oscar, tiger oscar, velvet cichlid, or marble cichlid, which reflect a number of bred ornamental varieties, including long-finned varieties and various color morphs. Oscars are native to the Amazon river basin, especially shallow, quiet floodplains and swamps. Native oscars usually show characteristic orange ringed, bilateral ocelli (eyespots) at the base of their tail which have been shown to dissuade predators and also function in sexual selection, as these fish are very visually oriented
  90. 90. Suction feeders,A. ocellatus are omnivorous, eating invertebrates such as flies, worms, crayfish, some small fish, fruit that falls into water, and large oscars will even eat small vertebrates, such as mice. Oscars are an esteemed food species in South America, although not commonly eaten elsewhere, as they grow too slowly for aquaculture. Escaped ornamentals and individuals purposely introduced into waterways have established wild populations in Asia, China and North America.
  91. 91. An aquarium enthusiast can easily become overwhelmed by the endless variety of fish, invertebrates (including corals, anemones, mollusks) plants, and live rock available, and ultimately forget to consider their source and method of collection. Although many species in the hobby have been domesticated and are produced on farms, it is important to remember that many species are also collected from the wild and are not in limitless supply.
  92. 92. To help promote resource sustainability, the potential aquarium owner should develop a basic understanding of the industry.A conscientious and well-informed consumer can greatly help protect wild species and safeguard the natural environment. Sustainability of a wild fisheries resource is critical to maintenance of a healthy industry.
  93. 93. REFERENCES 1. B. Nightingale Devia*, M. Krishnanb, R. Venugopalan and B.K. Mahapatrad, Agricultural Economics Research Review,Vol. 26(No.1) January-June 2013 pp 83-90,”Artificial Neural Network Model for Synergy Analysis of Input Markets in Ornamental Fish Trade in Mumbai”. 2. United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre,(2007),“DRAFT CONSULTATION PAPER:InternationalTrade in Aquatic Ornamental SpeciesBackground document”SRG 42/8/a, European Commission Directorate General E -Environment ENV.E.2. – Development and Environment.
  94. 94. Internet sources •http://www.indiamart.com/fishaquarium-home-gurgaon/ aquarium-fishes.html#oscar-fish •http://dir.indiamart.com/impcat/oscar-fish.html •http://animal-world.com/encyclo/fresh/cichlid/cichlids.htm •http://www.fishlore.com/profiles-cichlids.htm •http://www.aquariumfish.net/indexes/cichlids.htm •http://eol.org/pages/218741/details •http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oscar_(fish)
  95. 95. •http://www.aquariumfish.net/catalog_pages/cichlids_neotropical/o scars.htm •http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=436 •http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Astronotus-ocellatus.html •http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TS N&search_value=169772 •http://www.aquariumfish.net/catalog_pages/cichlids_neotropical/ci chlids_neotropical_table.htm#other
  96. 96. Thanks for your kind attention

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