1EFFECTIVETEACHING STYLESIN ASYNCHRONOUS ONLINE CLASSROOMSAre teachers with certain teaching styles more likely to do well teaching online? Tiffany Wang MSTU 4081: Online Schools and Online Schooling for K-12
Outline2• Overview• iNacol Standards• SREB Standards for Quality Online Teaching• What is teaching style?• Grasha’s ﬁve teaching style• Effective online teaching strategies• Research• Assessment and teacher evaluation• Interview with Ellyn• Conclusion
Overview3• F2F and online courses are often seen and studied as two separate environment which requires different pedagogy, communication, and pacing to be successful• Alot of research has been done in F2F teaching, but relatively little about teaching in online classroom• Issues such as teaching styles and which style/strategies work best for certain teaching objectives aren’t well understood• Standards exist, but can be met in many different ways
Overview 4• A teacher who understands the possibilities and limits of his or her teaching style, or which teaching style works best for speciﬁc objectives will allow the teacher to examine how particular characteristics affect students and their subsequent ability to learn.• Since there is limited research on online teaching style, here we will focus on the transfer of more successful aspects of F2F pedagogy and learning styles and adapt them to online classroom.
iNacol Standards 5• The teacher plans, designs and incorporates strategies to encourage active learning, interaction, participation and collaboration in the online environment • Facilitates and monitors appropriate interaction among students • Builds and maintains a community of learners by creating a relationship of trust, demonstrating effective facilitation skills, establishing consistent and reliable expectations, and supporting and encouraging independence • Technologically capable and have a robust technology infrastructure
SREB Standards 6• The SREB Standards for Quality Online Teaching, examines what qualiﬁcations are needed to be a quality online teacher and outlines speciﬁc standards for academic preparation, content knowledge, online skills and delivery, and more.• The goal this reﬂects is that every student is taught by qualiﬁed teachers. For a complete list of criteria for quality online teaching, please see the Southern Regional Education Board’s (SREB) Standards of Quality for Online Teaching (link in reference in section).
What is teaching style? 7• Instructors develop a teaching style based on their beliefs about what constitutes good teaching, personal preferences, their abilities, and the norms of the particular discipline.• Grasha (1996) deﬁnes teaching style as a particular pattern of needs, beliefs, and behaviors that teachers display in the classroom. • Some believe classes should be teacher-centered, where the teacher is expert and authority in presenting information. • Others take a learner-centered approach, viewing their role as more of a facilitator of student learning.
Grasha’s ﬁve teaching styles8• According to Grasha (1996), teaching style will affect how teachers present information, interact with students, supervise coursework, and ultimately student’s success.• He identiﬁed the following ﬁve teaching styles: 1. Expert (transmitter of information) 2. Formal authority (sets standards) 3. Personal model (teaches by direct examples) 4. Facilitator (guides by asking questions, exploring options) 5. Delegator (develop students ability to function autonomously) Source: Grasha, A. (1996)
Grasha’s ﬁve teaching styles: Expert 9• Possesses knowledge and expertise that students need.• Strives to maintain status as an expert among students by displaying detailed knowledge and by challenging students to enhance their competence.• Advantage: The information, knowledge such individuals possess.• Disadvantage: If overused, the display of knowledge can be intimidating to less experienced students. Source: Grasha, A. (1996)
Grasha’s ﬁve teaching styles: Formal authority10• Possesses status among students because of knowledge and role as a faculty member.• Concerned with the standard ways to do things and with providing students with the structure they need to learn.• Advantage: The focus on clear expectations and acceptable ways of doing things.• Disadvantages: A strong investment in this style can lead to rigid and standardized ways of managing students. Source: Grasha, A. (1996)
Grasha’s ﬁve teaching styles: Personal model 11• Believes in "teaching by personal example" and establishes a prototype for how to think and behave.• Advantage: An emphasis on direct observation and following a role model.• Disadvantage: Some teachers may believe their approach is the best way leading some students to feel inadequate if they cannot live up to such expectations and standards. Source: Grasha, A. (1996)
Grasha’s ﬁve teaching styles: Facilitator12• Emphasizes the personal nature of teacher-student interactions.• Overall goal is to develop in students the capacity for independent action, initiative, and responsibility.• Advantage: The personal ﬂexibility, the focus on students needs and goals, and the willingness to explore options and alternative courses of action.• Disadvantage: often time consuming and is sometimes employed in a positive and afﬁrming manner. Source: Grasha, A. (1996)
Grasha’s ﬁve teaching styles: Delegator13 • Concerned with developing students capacity to function in an autonomous fashion. • Students work independently on projects or as part of autonomous teams. • Advantage: Helps students to perceive themselves as independent learners. • Disadvantage: May misread students readiness for independent work. Source: Grasha, A. (1996)
Is one style better than another?14• Each style has its own unique advantages/disadvantages and speciﬁc learning objectives• Hoyt and Lee’s (2002) research has shown that there is not one style that is effective for all objectives/discipline• Although individuals have a dominant, preferred teaching style, they will often mix in some elements of other styles.• According to Garsha (1996), almost all teachers possess a blend of each ﬁve teaching styles to varying degrees.
Grasha’s (1996) teaching style cluster15 • Grasha (1996) discusses four blends or clusters of teaching style and its preferred teaching method: • Cluster 1: Expert/formal authority • Cluster 2: Demonstrator/personal model • Cluster 3: Facilitator/personal model/expert • Cluster 4: Delegator/facilitator/expert Source: Grasha, A. (1996)
Example of online classes that differ by teaching style16
What is your teaching style?17 • To get an indication of what your main teaching style is, take a Grasha-Riechmann teaching style survey to reﬂect on your teaching style. http://longleaf.net/teachingstyle.html
Effective online teaching strategies18 • Preliminary research indicates ﬁve key behaviors as being related to effective online teaching performance: • Provide timely and meaningful feedback • Create learning activities that engage students • Keep students interested and motivated • Get students to interact with each other • Encourage students to be critical and reﬂective Source: Kearsley & Blomeyer (2003)
Guide on the Side19Rossman (1999) describes successful facilitation techniques forasynchronous discussions• Present a personal introduction to on the ﬁrst week.• Make every effort to keep learners up to speed with the discussions progress. It is the facilitators responsibility to monitor the quality and regularity of learner postings.• Keep all comments positive in the forum— discuss negative feedback privately and not on the discussion board.• Keep the discussion moving and focused on assigned topic.• Invite selected learners to facilitate a discussion on a special topic related to an assigned reading. Source: Rossman (1999)
Anderson et al. (2001): examples of facilitating discussion20 Source: Anderson et al. (2001)
The conversational roles21Brookﬁeld (1999) offers useful method to encourage active participation andleadership during course discussions. The teacher can assign students differentfacilitating roles, such as the following:• Reﬂective analyst: a member keeps a record of the conversation’s development, shared concerns and emerging common themes.• Devil’s advocate: a member listens carefully for any emerging consensus and then expresses a contrary view. This keeps group-think in check and helps participants explore a range of alternative interpretations.• Problem poser: a member has the task of introducing the topic of conversation, drawing on personal ideas and experiences as a way to help others into conversation about the theme.It has been documented in student’s course evaluations thatalmost all students enjoyed discussions when they played arole of a facilitator, although many were reluctant to do soin the beginning. Source: Brookﬁeld (1999)
Assessment and teacher evaluation22• Course evaluations provides meaningful evaluation not only for faculty improvement but it also is an important way of providing learners with a forum to express concerns, raise course-related issues and to provide other feedback.• Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2006. Online teaching evaluation tool.• Roblyer & Wiencke (2003) propose a rubric to used to assess interactivity in an online class.•
Interview with Ellyn at FVHS 23• When you teach in the classes, how do you facilitate interaction between the students?• “Its very important to make sure students feel like they are in a community. In the beginning of a course, I’ll upload an introduction of myself and have my students to the same so they get to know each other and become more comfortable expressing their opinions to one another. Throughout the semester, I break the big groups down into smaller group to facilitate learning and so students have the chance to have more in depth discussions and learn from each other.”• What is your teaching style?• “I think teachers all develop their own unique styles, either from previous F2F experience or their own teaching beliefs and philosophies. I started with being more entertaining and enthusiastic in lectures, and now since its harder to be sure if the kids are understanding without the personal connection, I have shifted my pedagogical approach to more facilitation.”• Are teachers with certain teaching styles more likely to do well teaching online?• “Not speciﬁcally. However, there are certainly a few competencies that online teachers must have in order to do well online. We need to work extra hard to be creative to engage our students, provide more timely feedback to help students improve, and create questions that would inspire substantive responses that drive discussions to push students to explain and improve their understanding.”
Conclusion24 • There is no clear consensus about the most effective teaching styles that is the most effective in online classroom. • In fact, research has concluded that no one style is effective for all objectives/discipline. • Teachers often mix different elements of styles • Major differences exist depending upon academic discipline, learner style, and on individual instructor preferences. • A teacher who understands his or her teaching style (as well as student’s learning style) and which personal qualities and behaviors that are shared by other successful teachers would impact student’s success in learning.
References25 • Anderson, T., Rourke, L., Garrison, D. R., Archer, W. (2001, Sept). Assessing teacher presence in a computer conferencing context. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5(2) • Brookﬁeld, S. (1999). Discussion as a way of teaching: Tools and techniques for democratic classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. • Davis, N., Rose, R., & NACOL Research Committee and Working Group (2007). Professional development for virtual schooling and online learning. • Hoyt, D, & Lee, E.J, "Teaching ‘Styles’ and Learning Outcomes", IDEA Papers Research Reports, 4 (Nov. 2002). • Kearsley, G., & Blomeyer, R. (2003). Preparing K-12 teachers to teach online. • Grasha, A.F. (1996). Teaching With Style. Pittsburgh: PA: Alliance Publishers. • Grasha-Riechmann teaching style survey. Available at http://longleaf.net/teachingstyle.html • Roblyer, M.D., & Wiencke, W. (2003). Design and use of a rubric to assess and encourage interactive qualities in distance courses. American Journal of Distance Education, 17(2). • Rossman, M. (1999, Nov). Successful online teaching using an asynchronous learner discussion forum. Asynchronous Learning Networks, 4(2). • Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2006. Online teaching evaluation tool.