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Ni escmid-esgni-kayseri 2015

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Economic analysis of NIs..

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Ni escmid-esgni-kayseri 2015

  1. 1. Prof. Dr. Ata Nevzat Yalçın, MDProf. Dr. Ata Nevzat Yalçın, MD Akdeniz University, Medicine FacultyAkdeniz University, Medicine Faculty Dept. Infectious Dis. and Clinical MicrobiologyDept. Infectious Dis. and Clinical Microbiology Antalya-TURKEYAntalya-TURKEY Economical analysis of nosocomial infections: How can we do it?
  2. 2. 2 • NosocomialNosocomial infections (infections (NNI) represent anI) represent an important public health problem in developingimportant public health problem in developing countries as in developed ones today as acountries as in developed ones today as a major cause of high morbidity, mortality andmajor cause of high morbidity, mortality and economic consequences in hospitalizedeconomic consequences in hospitalized patients.patients. Nosocomial infectionsNosocomial infections Jarvis WR.Jarvis WR. Infect Control Hosp EpidemiolInfect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17: 552-71996;17: 552-7
  3. 3. 3 Importance of NosocomialImportance of Nosocomial infectionsinfections  The burden of Nosocomial infectionsThe burden of Nosocomial infections ((NIs) isNIs) is substantial in developed countries, where it affectssubstantial in developed countries, where it affects from 5% to 15% of hospitalized patients in regularfrom 5% to 15% of hospitalized patients in regular wards, and as many as 50% or more of patients inwards, and as many as 50% or more of patients in intensive care units (ICUs).intensive care units (ICUs).  The incidence of NIs is between 25% and 40% inThe incidence of NIs is between 25% and 40% in developing countries.developing countries.  NIsNIs increase length of stay in hospital.increase length of stay in hospital.  NIsNIs increase costs.increase costs.  NIsNIs increase mortality.increase mortality.
  4. 4. 4 Points of This TalkPoints of This Talk  Incidence of NI and costIncidence of NI and cost  Pharmacoeconomical analysisPharmacoeconomical analysis  Excess costExcess cost  Excess cost in NIExcess cost in NI  Cost of antibioticsCost of antibiotics  Extra length of stayExtra length of stay  Extra mortalityExtra mortality
  5. 5. 5 Nosocomial infectionsNosocomial infections  GermanyGermany →→ 525.000-800.000 cases525.000-800.000 cases ~ 20.000- 40.000 deaths~ 20.000- 40.000 deaths  UKUK →→ 500.000-1.000.000 cases500.000-1.000.000 cases ~ 5.000 deaths~ 5.000 deaths  USAUSA →→ 2.220.000 cases2.220.000 cases ~ 115.000 deaths~ 115.000 deaths  EUEU →→ 4.500.000 cases4.500.000 cases ~ 111.000 deaths~ 111.000 deaths
  6. 6. 6 Excess Cost of NosocomialExcess Cost of Nosocomial InfectionsInfections  NorwayNorway → →→ → 132 Million Dollars132 Million Dollars  ScotlandScotland → →→ → 168 Million Pounds168 Million Pounds  EnglandEngland → →→ → 1,7 Billion Dollars1,7 Billion Dollars  FranceFrance → →→ → 3-5 Billion Franks3-5 Billion Franks  USAUSA → →→ → 37-45 Billion Dollars37-45 Billion Dollars  EUEU → →→ → 7 Billion Euros7 Billion Euros  TurkeyTurkey → →→ → 1-1,5 Billion Dollars ???1-1,5 Billion Dollars ??? Andersen BM, et al.Andersen BM, et al. Infect Control Hosp EpidemiolInfect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1998;19: 805-71998;19: 805-7 Astagneau P, et al.Astagneau P, et al. J Hosp InfectJ Hosp Infect 1999; 42 : 303-121999; 42 : 303-12 Plowman R, et al.Plowman R, et al. J Hosp InfectJ Hosp Infect 2001;47: 198-2072001;47: 198-207 Graves N.Graves N. Emerg Infect DisEmerg Infect Dis 2004;10: 561-62004;10: 561-6 ECDC Annual Report 2008: 16-38ECDC Annual Report 2008: 16-38 Dickema DJ, et al.Dickema DJ, et al. JAMAJAMA 2008;299:1190-22008;299:1190-2 Hassan M, et al.Hassan M, et al. Hospital TopicsHospital Topics 2010;88:82-92010;88:82-9 Zimlichman E, et al.Zimlichman E, et al. JAMAJAMA Intern MedIntern Med 20132013 Marchetti A. et al.Marchetti A. et al. J Med EconomicsJ Med Economics 2013:1-62013:1-6 Magill SS, et al.Magill SS, et al. NEJMNEJM,2014;370:1198-1208,2014;370:1198-1208
  7. 7. Zimlichman E, et al.Zimlichman E, et al. JAMA Intern MedJAMA Intern Med 2013; 173:2039-462013; 173:2039-46
  8. 8. 8 • Pneumonias → → 35,967Pneumonias → → 35,967 • Bloodstream inf. → → 30,655Bloodstream inf. → → 30,655 • Urinary tract inf. → → 8,225Urinary tract inf. → → 8,225 • Surgical site inf. → →13,088Surgical site inf. → →13,088 • Others → →12,085Others → →12,085 • TOTAL → →100,000TOTAL → →100,000 Nosocomial Infections andNosocomial Infections and mortalitymortality (US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS-2009)(US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS-2009) Stone PW.Stone PW. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes ResExpert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res 2009;9:417-222009;9:417-22
  9. 9. 9 Calculating costsCalculating costs (Methodological subjects-1)(Methodological subjects-1)  Study designStudy design  Patient group (incidence,prevalence,epidemics)Patient group (incidence,prevalence,epidemics)  Location (hospital, follow-up after discharge)Location (hospital, follow-up after discharge)  Dimension of the study (hospital, country,Dimension of the study (hospital, country, developing countries, pathogens, interventions)developing countries, pathogens, interventions) Wilcox MH, et al.Wilcox MH, et al. J Hosp InfectJ Hosp Infect 2000;45:81-42000;45:81-4
  10. 10. 10 Calculating costsCalculating costs (Methodological subjects-2)(Methodological subjects-2)  Extra cost and design of length of stayExtra cost and design of length of stay  Costs (hospital charges, deaths, antibioticsCosts (hospital charges, deaths, antibiotics utilisation, antibiotic resistance, environmentalutilisation, antibiotic resistance, environmental damage)damage)  Conclusion statistics (mean, median, percent, total)Conclusion statistics (mean, median, percent, total)  Design of analysisDesign of analysis Wilcox MH, et al.Wilcox MH, et al. J Hosp InfectJ Hosp Infect 2000;45:81-42000;45:81-4
  11. 11. 11 Costs 1. Well described costs associated with nosocomial infections 2. Poorly described costs associated with nosocomial infections
  12. 12. 12 Well described costsWell described costs associated with NIassociated with NI  Drug (antibiotics) acquisitionDrug (antibiotics) acquisition  Increased hospital stayIncreased hospital stay Wilcox MH, et al.Wilcox MH, et al. J Hosp InfectJ Hosp Infect 2000;45:81-42000;45:81-4
  13. 13. 13 Poorly described costs associatedPoorly described costs associated with NIwith NI  Control measures (isolation facilities,Control measures (isolation facilities, commitees, policies)commitees, policies)  Impaired hospital activity (ward closing, etc.)Impaired hospital activity (ward closing, etc.)  Confidence, performance of staffConfidence, performance of staff  LitigationLitigation  Effects on communityEffects on community  MorbidityMorbidity  MortalityMortality Wilcox MH, et al.Wilcox MH, et al. J Hosp InfectJ Hosp Infect 2000;45:81-42000;45:81-4
  14. 14. 14 Excess costs of NIExcess costs of NI (Adults)-(US Dollars)(Adults)-(US Dollars) Study Year Country Cost ($$)) Westwood JCN 1974 USA 1,650 Haley RW 1980 USA 1,018 Coello R 1993 England 1,759 Diaz Molina C 1993 Spain 1,909 Yalcin AN 1997 Turkey 1,582 Orrett FA 1998 Trinidad 1,910 Andersen BM 1998 Norway 2,200 Chen YY 2003 Taiwan 3,306 Roberts 2010 USA 1,581-6,824
  15. 15. 15 Excess costs of NIExcess costs of NI (Pediatrics)-(US Dollars)(Pediatrics)-(US Dollars) Study Year Country Cost ($$)) Leroyer A 1997 France 10,440 Navarette D 1999 Mexico 11,682 Mahieu LM 2001 Belgium 12,399 Yalcin AN.Yalcin AN. Indian J Med SciIndian J Med Sci 2003;57:450-62003;57:450-6
  16. 16. 16 Studies on excess costs inStudies on excess costs in nosocomial infectionsnosocomial infections  Surgical site infectionsSurgical site infections  Bloodstream infectionsBloodstream infections  Catheter-related bloodstream infectionsCatheter-related bloodstream infections  PneumoniasPneumonias  Ventilator-associated pneumoniasVentilator-associated pneumonias
  17. 17. 17 Surgical site infections  Songklanagarind Hospital, Chiang Mai University, Thailand,1998-2003  140 matched pairs of case and control  Procedures:Appendectomy, herniorrhaphy, mastectomy, cholecystectomy, colostomy and craniotomy  Mean extra hospital charge………43,658 Baht (95 % C.l;30,228-57,088 Baht ) (p(p<< 0.001)0.001)  Mean excess postoperative stay…..21,3 days (95 % C.l;16,6-26,0 days) (p(p<< 0.001)0.001) Kasatpibal N, et al.Kasatpibal N, et al. J Med Assoc ThaiJ Med Assoc Thai 2005;88:1083-912005;88:1083-91
  18. 18. Surgical site infections (1)  Plymouth, England, April 2010-March 2012,  282 operations  Additional length of stay….10 days (7-13 days)  Extra cost…5 239 Pounds (4622-6719)  Total cost…..2 491 424 Pounds Jenks PR, et al.Jenks PR, et al. J Hosp InfectJ Hosp Infect 2014;86:24-332014;86:24-33
  19. 19. Jenks PR, et al.Jenks PR, et al. J Hosp InfectJ Hosp Infect 2014;86:24-332014;86:24-33 Surgical site infections
  20. 20. 20 Nosocomial bloodstreamNosocomial bloodstream infections (ICU)infections (ICU)  Dr BL Kapur Memorial Hospital, New Delhi, India, 2006  24 patients and 48 controls  Excess hospitalization: 11,6 daysExcess hospitalization: 11,6 days (p(p<< 0.0001)0.0001)  Mortality : 54 %Mortality : 54 % (p(p<< 0.0001)0.0001)  Excess cost:Excess cost: $$14,818 (10,663 -18,974), (14,818 (10,663 -18,974), (pp<< 0.0001)0.0001) Kothari A, et al.Kothari A, et al. J Hosp InfectJ Hosp Infect 2009;71:143-82009;71:143-8
  21. 21. Nosocomial bloodstreamNosocomial bloodstream infections in elderlyinfections in elderly Cases (n:830) Controls (n:830) Mortality 49.4 % 33.2 % (p(p<< 0.001)0.001) Excess length of stay 29.2 days 20.2 days (p(p<< 0.001)0.001) Cost $ 102.276 $ 69.690 (p(p<< 0.001)0.001) Kaye KS, et al. J Am Geriatr Soc 2014 ; 62 : 306-11
  22. 22. 22 Central catheter-relatedCentral catheter-related bloodstream infectionsbloodstream infections  Six ICU, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1997-2002Six ICU, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1997-2002  142 patients, 142 controls142 patients, 142 controls  Excess hospitalization: 11,9 daysExcess hospitalization: 11,9 days  Excess mortality: 24,6 %Excess mortality: 24,6 %  Excess cost:Excess cost: $$4,8884,888  Excess antibiotics cost:Excess antibiotics cost: $$1,9131,913 Rosenthal VD, et al.Rosenthal VD, et al. Am J Infect ControlAm J Infect Control 2003;31:475-802003;31:475-80
  23. 23. 23 Central venous catheter-associatedCentral venous catheter-associated bloodstream infections (ICU)bloodstream infections (ICU) General Hospital, Specialties Intituto Mexicano delGeneral Hospital, Specialties Intituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Hospital, Gabriel Mancera Hospital,Seguro Social Hospital, Gabriel Mancera Hospital, Mexico City, Mexico, 2002-3Mexico City, Mexico, 2002-3  55 patients, 55 controls55 patients, 55 controls  Excess hospitalization: 6,1 daysExcess hospitalization: 6,1 days  Excess mortality: 20%Excess mortality: 20%  Excess cost (mean):Excess cost (mean): $$11,59111,591  Excess antibiotics cost (mean):Excess antibiotics cost (mean): $$598598 Higuera F, et al.Higuera F, et al. Infect Control Hosp EpidemiolInfect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:31-52007;28:31-5
  24. 24. 24 Nosocomial pneumoniasNosocomial pneumonias  Six ICU, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2001-2005Six ICU, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2001-2005  307 n. pneumonias, 307 controls307 n. pneumonias, 307 controls  Excess cost → $ 2,255Excess cost → $ 2,255  Excess antibiotic cost → $ 996Excess antibiotic cost → $ 996  Extra length of stay → 8,95 daysExtra length of stay → 8,95 days  Extra mortality → 30,3 %Extra mortality → 30,3 % Rosenthal D, et al. Am JRosenthal D, et al. Am J Infect ControlInfect Control 2005;33:157-612005;33:157-61
  25. 25. 25 StudyStudy (period)(period) CountryCountry NumberNumber VAP/VAP/ ControlControl CostCost VAPVAP (($$)) CostCost ControlControl (($$)) pp Hugonnet SHugonnet S (1995-1997)(1995-1997) SwitzerlandSwitzerland 97/9797/97 24 72724 727 17 43817 438 ‹‹ 0.0010.001 Warren DKWarren DK (1998-1999)(1998-1999) USAUSA 127/692127/692 70 56870 568 21 62021 620 ‹‹ 0.0010.001 Cocanour CSCocanour CS (2002-2003)(2002-2003) USAUSA 70/7070/70 82 19582 195 25 03725 037 ‹‹ 0.050.05 Karaoğlan HKaraoğlan H (2004-2005)(2004-2005) TurkeyTurkey (Antalya)(Antalya) 81/8181/81 8 6028 602 2 6212 621 ‹‹ 0.00010.0001 Kollef MAKollef MA (2008-2009)(2008-2009) USA 2144/2144 133 371 74 729 ‹‹ 0.00010.0001 Ventilator-associated pneumonias
  26. 26. 26 HA-Cl.difficile infections  Retrospective, cohort studyRetrospective, cohort study  New York State, 2007-8New York State, 2007-8  4 853 000 HA-CDI cases4 853 000 HA-CDI cases  29 000 deaths (USA)29 000 deaths (USA)  Average cost per patient…$ 29 000Average cost per patient…$ 29 000  Annual cost……$55 millionAnnual cost……$55 million Lipp MJLipp MJ, et al., et al. J Gastroenterol HepatolJ Gastroenterol Hepatol 20201212;;2727:: 1733-71733-7
  27. 27. Resistant microorganisms and cost  Vienna, Austria, January-June 2002 Daxboeck F, et al. J Hosp Infect 2006; 614-8 MDRMDR-GNB-GNB (s: 99)(s: 99) MRSAMRSA (s: 74)(s: 74) pp Length ofLength of staystay 42 gün42 gün 37 gün37 gün 0.20.2 CostCost 18 11518 115 ££ (582-(582- 149 817)149 817) 6 6246 624 ££ (516-(516- 108 558)108 558) 0.010.01
  28. 28. A.baumannii -BSI  Taipei,Taiwan, April 1996- August 2001 Lee NY, et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007;28:713-9 ResistantResistant-- A.baumanniiA.baumannii ((nn: 46): 46) SensitiveSensitive A.baumanniiA.baumannii ((nn: 46): 46) pp Length ofLength of staystay 54.254.2 daysdays 34.134.1 daysdays 0.0060.006 CostCost $$ 9 3499 349 $$ 4 8654 865 0.0010.001
  29. 29. 29 StudyStudy YearYear NumberNumber ResRes// Suscept.Suscept. ResistantResistant (($$)) SusceptibleSusceptible (($$)) pp GasinkGasink (Quinolone)(Quinolone) 20062006 320/527320/527 62 32562 325 48 73348 733 0.000.0088 EvansEvans (Imipenem)(Imipenem) 20072007 47/7347/73 99 67299 672 69 50269 502 0.00.01515 EagyeEagye (Meropenm)(Meropenm) 20092009 58/11558/115 100 700100 700 32 59432 594 ‹‹ 0.00.00101 LautenbachLautenbach (Imipenem)(Imipenem) 20102010 2289/2532289/253 286 417286 417 189 274189 274 ‹‹ 0.0010.001 MoralesMorales (MDR)(MDR) 2012 134/149 13 178 4 258 ‹‹ 0.0010.001 Cost: P.aeruginosa Nathwani DNathwani D.. Antimicrob ResistanceAntimicrob Resistance Infect ControlInfect Control 2014;3:32-482014;3:32-48
  30. 30. Impact of antimicrobial resistance on cost Microorganism Attributable cost CR-Non-fermenters $ 58 457 - 85 299 MDR A.baumannii $ 4484 ESBL(+) Enterobacteriaceae $ 1584 - 30 093 MRSA $ 1014 - 40 090 Giannoula S, et al.Giannoula S, et al. Expert Rev AntiExpert Rev Anti Infect TherInfect Ther 20120133;;1111::321-31321-31
  31. 31. Impact of antimicrobial resistance on cost Microorganism Excess cost VRE $ 16 711 – 60 988 MDR A.baumannii $ 5336 – 126 856 ESBL(+) Enterobacteriaceae $ 3658 - 4892 MRSA $ 695 – 29 030 Gandra S, et al.Gandra S, et al. Clin Microbiol InfectClin Microbiol Infect 20120144;;2020::973-9973-9
  32. 32. 32 Costs of NI-USACosts of NI-USA (US(US $$)) Infection type Costs (Mean) Range (Minimum-maximum) CLA-Bloodstream infections $ 45,814 30,919-65,245 Ventilator- associated pneumonias $ 40,144 36,286-44,220 Surgical site infections $ 20,785 18,902-22,667 Urinary tract infections $ 896 603-1,189 Zimlichman E, et al.Zimlichman E, et al. JAMA Intern MedJAMA Intern Med 2013; 173:2039-462013; 173:2039-46
  33. 33. 33 Attributable costs of NI (USAttributable costs of NI (US $$)) Infection type Attributable costs (Mean) Range (Minimum-maximum) Ventilator- associated pneumonias 22,875 9,986-54,503 CLA-Bloodstream infections 18,432 3,592-34,410 Surgical site infections 17,944 7,874-26,668 Urinary tract infections 1,257 804-1,710 Yokoe DS, et al.Yokoe DS, et al. Infect Control Hosp EpidemiolInfect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008; 29 (Suppl. 1):S3-S112008; 29 (Suppl. 1):S3-S11
  34. 34. 34 Costs of Nosocomial infectionsCosts of Nosocomial infections HAIHAI ControlControl  BedBed 464464 214214  LaboratoryLaboratory 417417 249249  AntibioticsAntibiotics 11901190 5454  OthersOthers 209209 181181  TOTALTOTAL $ 2280 $ 698$ 2280 $ 698 Yalcin AN, et al.Yalcin AN, et al. J ChemotherJ Chemother 1997; 9:411-41997; 9:411-4 (Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, 1995)(Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, 1995)
  35. 35. 35 Distribution of costs inDistribution of costs in Nosocomial infectionsNosocomial infections Yalcin AN, et al.Yalcin AN, et al. J ChemotherJ Chemother 1997; 9: 411- 41997; 9: 411- 4 (Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, 1995)(Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, 1995)
  36. 36. 36 Distribution of cost (VAP)($) Costs Costs of VAP Group ± SD (min- max) Costs of Control Group ± SD (min- max) P value Bed 1193.7±679.8 (176-3140) 381.0±382.2 (154-3320) <0.0001 Antibiotics 837.1±472.9 (40-2140) 8.5±11.0 (0-40) <0.0001 Drugs and medical materials 2305.0±1347.6 (330- 8143) 816.7±645.9 (125-4125) <0.0001 Laboratory 1647.0±1004.5 (248- 8068) 546.4±442.4 (34-2335) <0.0001 Radiology 269.9±222.1 (36-1683) 156.8±160.9 (16-806) <0.0001 Operation 628.2±1190.1 (0-7280) 302.4±535.3 (0-2523) <0.05 Intervention 1024.6±973.8 (135-7794) 254.3±271.7 (43-1579) <0.0001 Care 696.7±613.1 (72-3753) 155.4±192.8 (23-1524) <0.0001 Total 8602.7±5045.5 2621.9±2053.3 <0.0001 Karaoğlan H,Yalcin AN, et al.Karaoğlan H,Yalcin AN, et al. Infez MedInfez Med 2010;18:248-552010;18:248-55 (Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey, 2006-7)(Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey, 2006-7)
  37. 37. 37 Daily antibiotic cost inDaily antibiotic cost in nosocomial infectionsnosocomial infections  Urinary tract infectionsUrinary tract infections 96-203 FF96-203 FF  PnemoniasPnemonias 108-219 FF108-219 FF  Surgical site infectionsSurgical site infections 116-220 FF116-220 FF  Bloodstream infectionsBloodstream infections 165-287 FF165-287 FF Astagneau P, et al.Astagneau P, et al. J Hosp InfectJ Hosp Infect 1999;42:303-121999;42:303-12
  38. 38. 38 Daily antibiotic cost in nosocomialDaily antibiotic cost in nosocomial infectionsinfections Yalçın AN, et al.Yalçın AN, et al. Turk J Hosp InfTurk J Hosp Inf 2002;6:41-52002;6:41-5 (Pamukkale University Hospital, Denizli, Turkey, 2001)(Pamukkale University Hospital, Denizli, Turkey, 2001)
  39. 39. 39 Daily antibiotic cost inDaily antibiotic cost in nosocomial infectionsnosocomial infections  MS-KNSMS-KNS $ 44,9$ 44,9  MSMS-S.aureus-S.aureus $$ 46,746,7  E.coliE.coli $ 48,5$ 48,5  EnterobacterEnterobacter spp.spp. $ 63,8$ 63,8  MR-MR-S.aureusS.aureus $ 80,0$ 80,0  P.aeruginosaP.aeruginosa $ 111,7$ 111,7 Yalçın AN, et al.Yalçın AN, et al. Turk J Hosp InfTurk J Hosp Inf 2002;6: 41-52002;6: 41-5 (Pamukkale University Hospital, Denizli, Turkey, 2001)(Pamukkale University Hospital, Denizli, Turkey, 2001)
  40. 40. 40 Daily antibiotic cost in nosocomialDaily antibiotic cost in nosocomial infectionsinfections Inan D, et al.Inan D, et al. BMC Infect DisBMC Infect Dis 2005; 5 :1-52005; 5 :1-5 (Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey, 2004)(Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey, 2004)
  41. 41. 41 Costs of NIs with gramCosts of NIs with gram negativenegative non-fermentative rodsnon-fermentative rods Aşık Z,Yalçın AN et al. (Aşık Z,Yalçın AN et al. (Thesis-2011-Akdeniz UniversityThesis-2011-Akdeniz University)) (Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey, 2011)(Akdeniz University Hospital, Antalya, Turkey, 2011)
  42. 42. 42 Excess length of stay inExcess length of stay in nosocomial infectionsnosocomial infections Study Year Country LOS (days) Westwood JCN 1974 USA 22,0 Haley RW 1980 USA 13,4 French GL 1991 Hong Kong 23,4 Yalcin AN 1997 Turkey 20,3 Orrett FA 1998 Trinidad 33,5 Sanou J 1999 Burkina Faso 10,0 Roberts R 2010 USA 5,9-9,6 Askarian M 2003 Iran 6,2 Sanchez-V LD 2006 Mexico 10,0
  43. 43. 43 Excess length of stay in nosocomialExcess length of stay in nosocomial infectionsinfections Infection type Excess length of stay (days) Urinary tract infection 1-4 Surgical site infection 7-8,2 Bloodstream infection 7-21 Pneumonias 6,8-30 Jarvis WR.Jarvis WR. Infect Control Hosp EpidemiolInfect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1996;17: 552-71996;17: 552-7
  44. 44. 44 Excess length of stay in NIExcess length of stay in NI (days)(days) UTIUTI VAPVAP CR-BSICR-BSI ArgentinaArgentina 7.97.9 8.78.7 9.39.3 BrasilBrasil 8.98.9 9.19.1 7.87.8 MexicoMexico 5.95.9 10.710.7 7.17.1 TurkeyTurkey 8.78.7 8.38.3 9.59.5 IndiaIndia 4.24.2 5.45.4 2.02.0 INICC Project (ICAAC-2005) posters :K-1916, K-1920, K-1922, K-1923, K-1924INICC Project (ICAAC-2005) posters :K-1916, K-1920, K-1922, K-1923, K-1924
  45. 45. Extra mortality in nosocomialExtra mortality in nosocomial infections (%)infections (%) Study Year Country Mortality rate Spengler RF 1978 USA 32,1 French GL 1991 Hong Kong 7,4 Dinkel RH 1994 USA 4,1 Yalcin AN 1997 Turkey 16,7 Martin M 2001 Spain 21,3 Roberts 2010 USA 6,1
  46. 46. Mortality:Resistant and susceptible P.aeruginosa 46Nathwani DNathwani D.. Antimicrob ResistanceAntimicrob Resistance Infect ControlInfect Control 2014;3:32-482014;3:32-48
  47. 47. Methodological limitations in studies assessing disease burden attributable to ARI  Failure to adjust for hospital stay prior to onset of infection  Failure to adjust for severity of underlying illness and comorbidities  Failure to adjust for effective antibiotic therapy  Failure to consider exposure as time- dependent Gandra S, et al.Gandra S, et al. Clin Microbiol InfectClin Microbiol Infect 20120144;;2020::973-9973-9
  48. 48. Reasons for variability in outcomes of antibiotic-resistant infections  Heterogeneity in study population  Inadequate sample size  Type of control group  Causative pathogens  Location of infection site  Definitions of resistance  Follow-up time Gandra S, et al.Gandra S, et al. Clin Microbiol InfectClin Microbiol Infect 20120144;;2020::973-9973-9
  49. 49. 49 Economical analysis studies in NIsEconomical analysis studies in NIs  Use of guidelines for authors and editors onUse of guidelines for authors and editors on conducting an economic analysis,conducting an economic analysis,  Continued development of more sophisticatedContinued development of more sophisticated mathematical models,mathematical models,  Training of infection control professionals inTraining of infection control professionals in economic methods ……economic methods …… Stone PW, et al.Stone PW, et al. Am J Infect ControlAm J Infect Control 2005; 33:501-92005; 33:501-9
  50. 50. 50 Thanks…….. anyalcin@yahoo.com anyalcin@akdeniz.edu.tr
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