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Contraceptive Subdermal Implants
This is excellent method of contraception.
The implants are small and rod shaped.
Contraceptive implants provide long-acting, highly effective reversible
Provides controlled release of progestin over years
The rods are implanted surgically into upper nondominant arm.
Types of Contraceptive Implants
Levonorgestrel is a totally synthetic
and biologically active progestin.
Mechanism of action
Production of viscous cervical
mucus that impairs sperm
Inhibition of ovulation by action on
the hypothalamus and pituitary to
suppress or reduce the surge of
Luteinising Hormone (LH) that
It is a type of Polymer membrane
permeation-controlled drug delivery
It is fabricated from a silicone
elastomer tubing, by sealing both ends
with silicone adhesive to encapsulate
The thickness of the wall controls the
rate of the drug release
It consisted of six flexible rods each
containing 36 mg of levonorgestrel.
Each capsule was 34 mm long with a
diameter of 2.4 mm.
It can prevent pregnancy for 5 years
Suitable for long-term implanted devices
Consistent from batch to batch
Jadelle is manufactured by Bayer HealthCare.
This system consists of two implantable rods (2.5 mm in
diameater & 43 mm in length), each consisting of a drug-
releasing core encased in thin-walled silicone rubber
tubing sealed at both ends.
The core of each rod consists of 50% by weight of
levonorgestrel (75mg) and 50% of elastomer.
Prevention of pregnancy for the long-term (up to 5years)
reversible method of contraception. 11
The two rods are placed in the
shape of a ‘V’ opening toward
Levonorgestrel released per
rod at a rate of 80 mcg/day in
the first month, 50 mcg/day by
9 months, and then 25 to 30
After placement of Jadelle implants, maximum levonorgestrel
concentrations are reached in about 2 to 3 days.
The mean levonorgestrel concentrations slowly decline to
approximately 435 ± 172 pg/mL at 1 month
357 ± 155 pg/mL at 6 months, and 280 ± 123 pg/mL at 3 years.
Concentrations at 4 and at 5 years are similar to those at 3 years.
Sino-implant (II), manufactured in
China by Shanghai Dahua
Pharmaceutical Co Ltd.
Sino-implant (II) lasts four years.
The LNG implant should be inserted within 1 - 5 days of
When switching from LNG-IUD implant can be inserted
after 7 days.
Implants may be inserted within 5 days of a first trimester
abortion & second trimester abortion.
Etonogestrel is a synthetic
and biologically active
Mechanism of action:
(a) thickening cervical mucus
which prevents sperm
(b) preventing ovulation
It is a single rod implant that releases etonogestrel
which prevents pregnancy for 3 years.
It measures 4-cm long and 2mm in diameter.
It is a made up of core containing an 40% ethylene vinyl
acetate copolymer & 60% ENG (68 mg), surrounded by a
60-μm skin of EVA copolymer.
Etonogestrel released at a rate of 60 to 70 mcg/day initially,
35 to 45 mcg/day at the end of the first year, 30 to 40
mcg/day at the end of the second year, and finally 25 to 30
mcg/day at the end of the third year. 18
Initially, serum levels of ENG rapidly rise to a mean serum
concentration of 265.9±80.9 pg/mL by 8 hours, a level that
exceeds the 90 pg/mL needed to prevent ovulation.
Maximum serum concentrations are usually seen by day 4 after
ENG levels decrease slightly to a mean serum concentration of
196 pg/mL at 1 year of use and 156 pg/mL by 3 years.
After removal, serum levels are undetectable (less than 20
pg/mL) by 1 week in the majority of users, with most women
demonstrating ovulation within 6 weeks of implant removal.
delay At least 3 month
(ParaGard T 380A) 0.6 Immediate Up to 10 y
(Mirena) 0.1 Immediate Up to 5 y
(Implanon) 0.1 Immediate Up to 3 y
Nexplanon is manufactured by Merck/MSD.
Nexplanon and Implanon are bioequivalent
The only difference is the addition of barium sulfate which
makes Nexplanon radio-opaque.
This means that it can be seen on X-ray, computed
tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Therefore easier to locate.
For women without preceding hormone use, the ENG
implant should be inserted within 5 days from the start of
When switching from a oral contraceptive pills, insertion
should occur within 7 days of the last active pill.
Implants may be inserted within 5 days of a first trimester
abortion, within 6 weeks of a second trimester abortion, or
within 6 weeks of childbirth.
Difference between LNG & ENG
ENG is more
1. Serum ENG
Insertion of Implant
Removal of Implant
It was developed in Brazil, its active ingredient is nestorone.
Discontinued due to endometriosis
It contains 55 mg of nomegestrol acetate that offers
contraceptive efficacy for 1 year.
It is currently under clinical trials.
It provides 99% contraception efficacy
It works for long period (3/4/5 years) hence
It is safe to use while breastfeeding
It is an option when estrogen-based contraception
It is totally reversible, return to fertility is
immediate after removal.
The implant may reduce heavy periods or painful
periods after the first year of use
• Subdermal implants are more
appropriate for younger
• There are no chances of
pelvic inflammatory disease
• The cost is high as compared
• IUDs more suitable for older
• There are chances of pelvic
inflammatory disease when
IUD is inserted.
• It is cost effective as
compared to implants
• Vaginal bleeding may occur at irregular intervals & bleeding
patterns may be unpredictable.
• Weight gain, acne, fluid retention, headache, breast tenderness,
hair loss, mood changes, abdominal pain, and irritation, pain,
itching at the insertion area.
• It does not protect against HIV or other sexually transmitted
Contraceptive implants for men
MENT ® is created from a synthetic steroid that resembles
It is one-year implant that is placed under the skin of the
MENT ® under development at the Population Council.
Contraceptive subdermal implants are
excellent in prevention of pregnancy and has
been approved in many countries in the
family planning programs
New research has focused on using
different progestins, minimizing side
effects (bleeding disturbances) & assuring
that implants are safe
Researchers are working on the male
contraceptive implants also.
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Contraception, Pg. No. 1 – 6, 2015.
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