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1001     VOCABULARY &SPELLING QUESTIONS
1001VOCABULARY& SPELLINGQUESTIONS2nd Edition                                ®              N E W   Y O R K
Copyright © 2003 LearningExpress, LLC.All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions.Publi...
ContentsIntroduction                                                             viiPrefixes, Suffixes, and Common Word Root...
IntroductionW                   E LC O M E TO   1001 Vocabulary and Spelling Questions! This book is designed to provide  ...
–I N T R O D U C T I O N –a Day, 3rd edition all contain a wealth of informa-            check your answers using the answ...
–I N T R O D U C T I O N –       You should have a dictionary or thesaurus              Lewis, Norman. Word Power Made Eas...
Prefixes,                                          Suffixes, and                                          Common Word       ...
–P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –       P r e f i xe sPrefixes are syllables added...
–P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Prefix     Meaning          Example            De...
–P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Prefix        Meaning         Example            ...
–P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Suffix      Meaning         Example           Defi...
–P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Suffix        Meaning           Example          ...
–P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Root       Meaning          Example           De...
–P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Root       Meaning       Example           Defini...
–P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Root       Meaning         Example           Defi...
1001     VOCABULARY &SPELLING QUESTIONS
S E C T I O N                                    Synonyms,                                    Antonyms,1                  ...
C H A P T E R 1                                  SynonymsChoose the synonym for each of the words in italics.       3. Whi...
–S Y N O N Y M S – 5. Which word means the same as coerce?             11. Which word means the same as distinct?    a. fo...
–S Y N O N Y M S – 17. Which word means the same as negligible?          23. tailor     a. insignificant                   ...
–S Y N O N Y M S –29. humidify                     35. philosophy    a. moisten                       a. bias    b. warm  ...
–S Y N O N Y M S –41. site                         47. refine    a. location                      a. condone    b. formatio...
–S Y N O N Y M S –53. croon                       59. obsolete    a. swim                         a. current    b. sing   ...
–S Y N O N Y M S –65. haggard                        71. mundane    a. handsome                        a. proper    b. hon...
–S Y N O N Y M S –77. query                    78. clemency    a. inspect                   a. competency    b. quote     ...
C H A P T E R 2                                  AntonymsChoose the antonym for each of the words in italics.        81. W...
–A N T O N Y M S –83. Which word means the opposite of                  89. Which word means the opposite of prompt?    vu...
–A N T O N Y M S – 95. Which word means the opposite of brittle?        101. Which word means the opposite of grueling?   ...
–A N T O N Y M S –107. Which word is the opposite of retract?            113. Which word means the opposite of belittle?  ...
–A N T O N Y M S –119. Which word means the opposite of                  125. Which word means the opposite of     mandato...
–A N T O N Y M S –130. general                       136. retain     a. specific                         a. withhold     b....
–A N T O N Y M S –142. punctual                      148. nimble     a. random                          a. sturdy     b. s...
–A N T O N Y M S –154. steadfast                    155. stringent     a. envious                        a. obese     b. fi...
C H A P T E R 3                                   Synonyms and                                     AntonymsRead each quest...
–S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –160. Awe is most dissimilar to                          166. Subjective is most di...
–S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –172. Affect is most similar to                          178. Frail is most similar...
–S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –184. Excise is most dissimilar to                        190. Liberate is most dis...
–S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –196. Tedious is most dissimilar to                       202. Rigorous is most sim...
–S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –208. Plausible is most dissimilar to                     214. Confer is most simil...
–S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –220. Impertinent is most dissimilar to                226. Sullen is most dissimil...
–S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –232. Mar is most dissimilar to                          238. Saturate is most simi...
–S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –244. Surreptitious is most similar to                 245. Trepidation is most dis...
C H A P T E R 4                                Verbal                                  ClassificationFor the following ques...
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  1. 1. 1001 VOCABULARY &SPELLING QUESTIONS
  2. 2. 1001VOCABULARY& SPELLINGQUESTIONS2nd Edition ® N E W Y O R K
  3. 3. Copyright © 2003 LearningExpress, LLC.All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions.Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:1001 vocabulary and spelling questions.—2nd ed. p. cm. ISBN 1-57685-473-6 1. Vocabulary—examinations, questions, etc. 2. English language—Orthog-raphy and spelling—Examinations, questions, etc. I. Title: One thousand onevocabulary and spelling questions. II. Title: One thousand and one vocabularyand spelling questions. III. LearningExpress (Organization) PE1449.A15 2003 428.1076—dc22 2003015276Printed in the United States of America9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Second EditionISBN 1-57685-473-6For more information or to place an order, contact LearningExpress at: 55 Broadway 8th Floor New York, NY 10006Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
  4. 4. ContentsIntroduction viiPrefixes, Suffixes, and Common Word Roots xiSECTION 1 Synonyms, Antonyms, Verbal Classification, and Analogies 1 Chapter 1 Synonyms 3 Chapter 2 Antonyms 11 Chapter 3 Synonyms and Antonyms 19 Chapter 4 Verbal Classification 29 Chapter 5 Analogies 33SECTION 2 Vocabulary in Context 43 Chapter 6 Sentence Completion 45 Chapter 7 Reading Comprehension 55 Chapter 8 Synonyms in Context 67 Chapter 9 Choose the Right Word 75SECTION 3 Spelling 79 Chapter 10 Choose the Correctly Spelled Word 81 Chapter 11 Choose the Correct Homophone 91 Chapter 12 Plurals, IE/EI Rule, and Prefixes and Suffixes 95 Chapter 13 Find the Misspelled Word 99SECTION 4 Answer Explanations 113 v
  5. 5. IntroductionW E LC O M E TO 1001 Vocabulary and Spelling Questions! This book is designed to provide you with review and practice for vocabulary and spelling success. With 1001 practice questions, you can enrich your verbal abilities at your own pace, and focus on the areaswhere you need improvement. 1001 Vocabulary and Spelling Questions is designed for many audiences. It isfor anyone who has ever taken a language arts course and needs to refresh forgotten skills. It can be used tosupplement current class instruction. It can be used to boost job performance by improving your businesswriting abilities. Most often, this book is used by people who are studying for important academic, entrance,or certification exams. Every test from the SAT exam to the Police Sergeant test requires an excellent graspof vocabulary skills. 1001 Vocabulary and Spelling Questions can be used by teachers and tutors who need to reinforce stu-dent skills. The book is easily adapted to fit lesson plans and for homework assignments. If at some point you feel you need further practice or more explanation, you can find it in otherLearningExpress publications. 501 Vocabulary Questions, 501 Synonym and Antonym Questions, 501 WordAnalogies Questions, 501 Grammar and Writing Questions, and Vocabulary and Spelling Success in 20 Minutes vii
  6. 6. –I N T R O D U C T I O N –a Day, 3rd edition all contain a wealth of informa- check your answers using the answer and explanationtion for students, test takers, professionals, and word section at the end of the book. The purpose of “drilllovers. and skill” practice is to help you become proficient with language skills. Like an athlete preparing for the next season or a musician warming up for a concert, How to Use This Book you can become an expert with practice. If, after answering all the questions in a section, you feel youFirst, look at the table of contents to see the types of need more practice, reread the questions and try yourverbal topics covered in this book. The book is hand at responding one more time. Repetition isorganized in three sections: Synonyms, Antonyms, often the key to success. Studies show that mostVerbal Classification, and Analogies; Vocabulary in repetitive tasks become part of a person’s inventoryContext; and Spelling. This structure divides com- of skills over time. A good idea is to write yourmon language arts strands into compact units so answers on a separate sheet of paper so that you canthat you can work on each concept and gain mas- go through the chapters over and over, as needed, totery. You may want to answer the questions in reinforce and develop your word power.sequence, but if you are using this book to supple- Certain tests that you will take for academicment topics you are currently learning, you may advancement, job promotions, or civil service/mil-want to jump around from topic to topic according itary placement require you to have a workingto your syllabus. knowledge of vocabulary and spelling skills. This As you answer the vocabulary and spelling chart lists some exams that test your verbal skills andquestions in this book, you will undoubtedly want to word knowledge. Tests that Measure Word Knowledge Academic Tests Civil Service Military Job Placement GED Exams Border Patrol Exam ASVAB PPST PSAT Exam Firefighter Exam Military Flight CBEST Aptitude Exam SAT Exam Police Officer Exam Real Estate Agent/Broker State assessment Police Sergeant Exam EMT Basic exams—typically given in grades 8-12 COOP/HSPT Exam Postal Worker Exam Nursing Assistant Exam College Entrance Exams Corrections Officer Administrative/ Executive Assistant GRE test Federal Clerical Exam Miller Analogies Test Treasury Enforcement Agent Exam viii
  7. 7. –I N T R O D U C T I O N – You should have a dictionary or thesaurus Lewis, Norman. Word Power Made Easy: The Com-handy as you work through the questions in each plete Handbook for Building a Superior Vocabu-section. It is always a good idea to make this a habit lary (New York: Pocket Books, 1995).when doing any kind of language activity. Another Morehead, Philip D. The New American Roget’shelpful resource—a list of common prefixes, suffixes, College Thesaurus in Dictionary Form (Newand word roots—follows this introduction. Under- York: Signet, 2002).standing the parts of a word gives you clues about O’Connor, Joyce, et al, eds. Roget’s Desk Thesaurusits definition, and this can help you when you take (New York: Random House, 2001).tests, write reports, or make speeches. Oxford Essential Spelling Dictionary (New York: Berkley Publishing Group, 1998). Shaw, Harry. Building a Better Vocabulary (New Make a Commitment York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1993). Sorsby, Claudia. Spelling 101 (New York: St. Mar-Success does not come without effort. Make the tin’s Press, 1996).commitment to improve your verbal skills. A rich The Merriam-Webster Dictionary (Springfield:vocabulary is both a great asset and a great joy. When Merriam-Webster, 1995).you have an extensive vocabulary, you can provide The Merriam-Webster Dictionary of Synonyms andprecise, vivid descriptions; you can speak more flu- Antonyms (Springfield: Merriam-Webster,ently and with more confidence; you can understand 1994).more of what you read; and you can read more Word Power: 40 Workouts to Boost Your Vocabularysophisticated texts. A good vocabulary can enrich (New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1998).your personal life, help you achieve academic suc-cess, and give you an edge over others in the work-place. You can truly gain the proverbial verbal Remember Theseadvantage. LearningExpress Books for E x t r a Ve r b a l P r a c t i c e Additional Resources LearningExpress. 501 Grammar and Writing Ques- tions (New York: LearningExpress, 2002).If you feel you need even more practice, you might LearningExpress. 501 Synonym and Antonymwant to purchase or borrow the following books: Questions (New York: LearningExpress, 2003). LearningExpress. 501 Vocabulary Questions (NewFunk, Wilfred, et al. 30 Days to a More Powerful York: LearningExpress, 2003). Vocabulary (New York: Pocket Books, 2003). LearningExpress. 501 Word Analogies QuestionsKrevisky, Joseph. Random House Webster’s Pocket (New York: LearningExpress, 2003). Bad Speller’s Dictionary (New York: Random LearningExpress. Vocabulary and Spelling Success House, 1998). in 20 Minutes a Day, 3rd Edition (New York: LearningExpress, 2002). ix
  8. 8. Prefixes, Suffixes, and Common Word RootsA prefixes, suffixes, and word roots can dramatically improve FA M I L I A R I T Y W I T H C O M M O N your ability to determine the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary words. The tables below list common prefixes, suffixes, and word roots; their meanings; an example of a word withthat prefix, suffix, or word root; the meaning of that word; and a sentence that demonstrates the meaningof that word. Refer to this section often to refresh your memory and improve your vocabulary. xi
  9. 9. –P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S – P r e f i xe sPrefixes are syllables added to the beginning of words to change or add to their meaning. This table lists some ofthe most common prefixes in the English language. They are grouped together by similar meanings.Prefix Meaning Example Definition Sentenceuni- one unify (v) to form into a single unit, to unite The new leader was able to unite the three factions into one strong political party.mono- one monologue (n) a long speech by one person or I was very moved by the monologue performer in Scene III.bi- two bisect (v) to divide into two equal parts If you bisect a square, you will get two rectangles of equal size.duo- two duality (n) having two sides or parts The novel explores the duality of good and evil in humans.tri- three triangle (n) a figure having three angles In an isosceles triangle, two of the three angles are the same size.quadri- four quadruped (n) an animal with four feet Some quadrupeds evolved into bipeds.tetra- four tetralogy (n) series of four related artistic works, “Time Zone” was the fourth and final such as plays, operas, novels, etc. work in Classman’s tetralogy.quint- five quintuplets (n) five offspring born at one time Each quintuplet weighed less than four pounds at birth.pent- five pentameter (n) a line of verse (poetry) with five Most of Shakespeare’s sonnets are metrical feet written in iambic pentameter.multi- many multifaceted having many sides This is a multifaceted issue, and we (adj) must examine each side carefully.poly- many polyglot (n) one who speaks or understands It’s no wonder he’s a polyglot; he’s several languages lived in eight different countries.omni- all omniscient (adj) knowing all My teacher must be omniscient; she always knows when I’m not paying attention.micro- small microcosm (n) little or miniature world; something Some people say that Brooklyn representing something else on a Heights, the Brooklyn district across very small scale the river from the Wall Street area, is a microcosm of Manhattan.mini- small minority (n) small group within a larger group John voted for Bridget, but he was in the minority; most people voted for Elaine.macro- large macrocosm (n) the large scale world or universe; Any change to the microcosm will any great whole eventually affect the macrocosm. xii
  10. 10. –P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Prefix Meaning Example Definition Sentenceante- before antechamber (n) a smaller room leading into a larger The panel of jurors waited in the or main room antechamber before entering the court room.pre- before precede (v) to come before in time or order The appetizers preceded the main course.post- after postscript (n) message added after the close of His postscript was almost as long a letter as his letter!inter- between intervene (v) to come between Romeo, trying to make peace, intervened in the fight between Tybalt and Mercutio.inter- together interact (v) to act upon or influence each other The psychologist took notes as she watched the children interact.intra- within intravenous (adj) within or into a vein She could not eat and had to be fed intravenously for three days.intro- into, within introvert (n) a person whose attention is largely Unlike his flamboyant sister, quiet directed inward, toward himself or Zeke was a real introvert. herself; a shy or withdrawn personin- in, into induct (v) to bring in (to a group) She was inducted into the honor society.ex- out, from expel (v) to drive out or away The rebels expelled the invaders.circum- around circumscribe (v) to draw a line around; to mark She carefully circumscribed the the limits of space that would become her office.sub- under subvert (v) to bring about the destruction of, His attempt to subvert my authority overthrow; to undermine will cost him his job.super- above, over supervisor (n) one who watches over Alex accepted the promotion to supervisor and was comfortable with the duties and responsibilities of the office.con- with, together consensus (n) general agreement After hours of debate, the group finally reached a consensus and selected a candidate.non- not nonstop without a stop With energy typical of the very (adj, adv) young, the puppy ran nonstop through the house.in- not invariable (adj) not changing The weather here is invariable— always sunny and warm.un- not, against unmindful (adj) not conscious or aware of; forgetful For better or worse, he is unmindful of office politics.contra- against contradict (v) to state that (what is said) is untrue; I know we don’t have to agree on to state the opposite of, be everything, but she contradicts opposed to everything I say. xiii
  11. 11. –P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Prefix Meaning Example Definition Sentenceanti- against, antipode (n) exact or direct opposite North is the antipode of south. oppositecounter- against, counter- working against production Complaining is counterproductive. opposing productive (adj)dis- not, away, dispel (v) to drive away; not having order To dispel rumors that I was quitting, I opposite of scheduled a series of meetings for the next three months. disorderly (adj) messy, untidy, uncontrolled or unruly Two people were hurt when the disorderly crowd took control of the protest.mis- wrong, ill misuse (v) to use wrongly She misused her authority when she reassigned Charlie to a new team.mal- bad, wrong, ill maltreat (v) to treat badly or wrongly After the dog saved his life, he swore he would never maltreat another animal. malaise (n) feeling of discomfort or illness The malaise many women feel during the first few months of preg- nancy is called “morning sickness.”pseudo- false, fake pseudonym (n) false or fake name Mark Twain is a pseudonym for Samuel Clemens.auto- by oneself or automaton (n) a robot; a person who seems to act The workers on the assembly line by itself mechanically and without thinking looked like automatons.co- together with; cohesive (adj) having a tendency to bond or stick Though they came from different jointly together; united backgrounds and had many different interests, they have formed a remarkably cohesive team. S u f f i xe sSuffixes are syllables added to the ends of words to change or add to their meaning. This table lists some of themost common suffixes in the English language. They are grouped together by similar meanings.Suffix Meaning Example Definition Sentence-en to cause to broaden (v) to make more broad, widen Traveling around the world will become broaden your understanding of other cultures.-ate to cause to resuscitate (v) to bring or come back to life or Thanks to a generous gift from an be consciousness; to revive alumnus, we were able to resusci- tate the study-abroad program. xiv
  12. 12. –P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Suffix Meaning Example Definition Sentence-ify/-fy to make or electrify (v) to charge with electricity The singer electrified the audience cause to be with her performance.-ize to make, to alphabetize (v) to put in alphabetical order Please alphabetize these files for give me.-al capable of, practical (adj) suitable for use; involving activity as He has years of practical, on-the-job suitable for distinct from study or theory experience.-ial pertaining to commercial of or engaged in commerce Commercial vehicles must have (adj) special license plates.-ic pertaining to aristocratic (adj) of or pertaining to the aristocracy Though he was never rich or power- ful, he has very aristocratic manners.-ly resembling, tenderly (adv) done with tenderness; gently, He held the newborn baby tenderly having the delicately, lovingly in his arms. qualities of-ly in the boldly (adv) in a bold manner Despite his fear, he stepped boldly manner of onto the stage.-ful full of meaningful (adj) significant, full of meaning When Robert walked into the room with Annette, she cast a meaningful glance to me.-ous/-ose full of humorous (adj) full of humor, funny His humorous speech received laughter and applause from the audience.-ive having the descriptive (adj) giving a description The letter was so descriptive that I quality of could picture every place he had been.-less lacking, painless (adj) without pain, not causing pain The doctor assured me that it is a free of painless procedure.-ish having the childish (adj) like a child; unsuitable for a grown He didn’t get the job because of his quality of person childish behavior during the interview.-ance/ quality or tolerance (n) willingness or ability to tolerate a He has a high level of tolerance for-ence state of person or thing rudeness.-acy quality or indeterminacy state or quality of being The indeterminacy of his statement state of (n) undetermined (without defined made it impossible to tell which side limits) or vague he favored.-tion act, state or completion (n) the act of completing; the state of The second siren signaled the condition of being completed or finished completion of the fire drill.-or/-er one who does narrator (n) one who tells the story, gives an A first-person narrator is usually or performs account of not objective. the action of xv
  13. 13. –P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Suffix Meaning Example Definition Sentence-atrium/ place for arboretum (n) a garden devoted primarily to trees They built a deck with an arboretum-orium and shrubs for their bonsai tree collection.-ary place for, sanctuary (n) a sacred place, refuge With three noisy roommates, Ellen pertaining to frequently sought the quiet sanctuary of the library.-cide kill pesticide (n) substance for killing insects This pesticide is also dangerous for humans.-ism quality, state optimism (n) belief that things will turn out for the Her optimism makes people want to or condition best; tendency to take a hopeful be around her. of; doctrine of view of things-ity quality or morality (n) state or quality of being moral He argued that the basic morality of state of civilized societies hasn’t changed much over the centuries.-itis inflammation tonsillitis (n) inflammation and infection of Her tonsillitis was so severe that of the tonsils doctors had to remove her tonsils immediately.-ment act or judgment (n) ability to judge or make decisions He exercised good judgment during condition of wisely; act of judging the meeting and did not challenge his supervisor.-ology the study of zoology (n) the scientific study of animal life Because of her strong interest in zoology, she took an unpaid summer job at the zoo. C o m m o n L a t i n Wo r d R o o t sMany words in the English language have their origins in Latin. The table below shows the original Latin wordsthat have been used to create various English words. The Latin words serve as roots, providing the core meaningof the words. Prefixes, suffixes, and other alterations give each word its distinct meaning. The word roots are listedin alphabetical order.Root Meaning Example Definition Sentenceamare to love amorous (adj) readily showing or feeling love She told him to stop his amorous advances as she was already engaged.audire to hear audience (n) assembled group of listeners or The audience listened intently to the spectators; people within hearing riveting speaker.bellum war antebellum (adj) before the war In American history, antebellum refers to the period before the Civil War. xvi
  14. 14. –P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Root Meaning Example Definition Sentencecapere to take captivate (v) to capture the fancy of The story captivated me from the beginning; I couldn’t put the book down.dicere to say, speak dictate (v) to state or order; to say what needs She began to dictate her notes into to be written down the microphone.duco to lead conduct (v) to lead or guide (thorough) He conducted a detailed tour of the building.equus equal equilibrium (n) a state of balance I have finally achieved equilibrium between work and leisure.facere to make manufacture (v) to make or produce The clothes are manufactured here or do in this factory.lucere to light lucid (adj) very clear No one could possibly have mis- understood such a lucid explanation.manus hand manicure (n) cosmetic treatment of the fingernails A manicure is not only important hygiene, but clean and neat nails also tell a great deal about a person.medius middle median (n) middle point; middle in a set The median household income in of numbers this wealthy neighborhood is $89,000.mittere to send transmit (v) to send across The message was transmitted over the intercom.omnis all, every omnipresent present everywhere That top-40 song is omnipresent; (adj) everywhere I go, I hear it playing.plicare to fold application (n) putting one thing on another; His loan application was denied making a formal request because of his poor credit history.ponere/ to place position (n) the place a person or thing occupies Although he is only 22, he holds apositum very powerful position in the company.protare to carry transport (v) to carry across The goods will be transported by boat.quarere to ask, inquiry (n) act of inquiry, investigation, or The inquiry lasted several months question questioning but yielded no new information.scribere to write scribe (n) person who makes copies of The scribe had developed thick writings calluses on his fingers from years of writing.sentire to feel sentiment (n) personal experience; one’s own After reading the collection of letters, feeling it was easy to tell the sentiments of the writer. xvii
  15. 15. –P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Root Meaning Example Definition Sentencespecere to look at spectacle (n) striking or impressive sight The debate was quite a spectacle; the candidates made accusations about each other that were un- expected and slightly unprofessional.spirare to breathe respiration (n) the act of breathing His respiration was steady, but he remained unconscious.tendere to stretch extend (v) to make longer, stretch out Please extend the deadline by two weeks so we can complete the project properly.verbum word verbatim (adj) word for word The student failed because she had copied an article verbatim instead of writing her own essay. C o m m o n G r e e k Wo r d R o o t sMany English words have their origins in the ancient Greek language. The table below shows the Greek wordsthat have been used to create various English words. The Greek words serve as roots, providing the core mean-ing of the words. Prefixes, suffixes, and other alterations give each word its distinct meaning. The word roots arelisted in alphabetical order.Root Meaning Example Definition Sentencebios life biology (n) the science of living organisms He is majoring in biology and plans to go to medical school.chronos time chronological arranged in the order in which things The story is confusing because she (adj) occurred did not put the events in chronologi- cal order.derma skin dermatology (n) branch of medical science dealing She has decided to study with the skin and its diseases dermatology because she wants to find a cure for skin cancer.gamos marriage, polygamy (n) the practice or custom of having Polygamy is illegal in the United union more than one spouse or mate States. at a timegenos race, sex, genocide (n) the deliberate extermination of one The recent genocide in Bosnia has kind race of people created a crisis in orphaned children.geo earth geography (n) the study of the Earth’s surface; the The geography of this region made surface or topographical features of it difficult for the different tribes to a place interact.graphein to write calligraphy (n) beautiful or elegant handwriting She used calligraphy to address her wedding invitations. xviii
  16. 16. –P R E F I X E S , S U F F I X E S , A N D C O M M O N W O R D R O O T S –Root Meaning Example Definition Sentencekrates member of democrat (n) one who believes in or advocates I have always been a democrat, but a group democracy as a principle of I refuse to join the Democratic Party. governmentkryptos hidden, secret cryptic (adj) concealing meaning, puzzling He left such a cryptic message on my answering machine that I don’t know what he wanted.metron to measure metronome (n) device with a pendulum that beats She used a metronome to help her at a determined rate to measure keep the proper pace as she played time/rhythm the song.morphe form polymorphous having many forms Most mythologies have a (adj) polymorphous figure, a “shape shifter” who can be both animal and human.pathos suffering, pathetic (adj) arousing feelings of pity or sadness Willy Loman is a complex character feeling who is both pathetic and heroic.philos loving xenophile (n) a person who is attracted to foreign Alex is a xenophile; I doubt he’ll ever peoples, cultures, or customs come back to the States.phobos fear xenophobe (n) person who fears or hates foreigners Don’t expect Len to go on the trip; or strange cultures or customs he’s a xenophobe.photos light photobiotic (adj) living or thriving only in the presence Plants are photobiotic and will die of light without light.podos foot podiatrist (n) an expert in diagnosis and treatment The podiatrist saw that the ingrown of ailments of the human foot toenail had become infected.psuedein to deceive pseudonym (n) false name George Eliot is a pseudonym for Mary Ann Evans.pyr fire pyromaniac (n) one who has a compulsion to set The warehouse fire was not an things on fire accident; it was set by a pyromaniac.soma body psychosomatic of or involving both the mind and In a psychosomatic illness, physical (adj) body symptoms are caused by emotional distress.tele distant telescope (n) optical instrument for making distant While Galileo did not invent the objects appear larger and nearer telescope, he was the first to use it when viewed through the lens to study the planets and stars.therme heat thermos (n) insulated jug or bottle that keeps The thermos kept my coffee hot all liquids hot or cold afternoon. xix
  17. 17. 1001 VOCABULARY &SPELLING QUESTIONS
  18. 18. S E C T I O N Synonyms, Antonyms,1 Verbal Classification, and Analogies T HIS SECTION CONSISTS of five chapters of different types of vocabulary questions. Questions vary from finding similar words to finding dissimilar words, from identifying analogies, to identifying the three words that are sim- ilar within a group of four words. Most standardized tests use synonym and antonym questions to test verbal skills. The first chapter in this section is on synonyms. A synonym is a word that means the same or nearly the same as another word. You will be asked to find synonyms, or choose the word that has the same or nearly the same meaning. In Chapter 2, you will identify antonyms, or words that are most nearly the opposite of the word in italics. The questions in Chap- ter 3 ask you to identify the word that is most similar or dissimilar to another word, effec- tively testing your knowledge of two words. Chapter 4 tests your ability to identify groups of word as similar to one another. You do this by finding the word in the list of four that does not belong with the other three words. Finally, in Chapter 5 you are asked to iden- tify word analogies. Analogies are comparisons. To answer an analogy question, look for a relationship between the first set of words. Then, look for a similar relationship in the second set of words. Choose the answer that best completes the comparison. 1
  19. 19. C H A P T E R 1 SynonymsChoose the synonym for each of the words in italics. 3. Which word means the same as garbled? a. lucid 1. Which word means the same as erroneous? b. unintelligible a. digressive c. devoured b. confused d. outrageous c. impenetrable d. incorrect 4. Which word means the same as expose? a. relate 2. Which word means the same as grotesque? b. develop a. extreme c. reveal b. frenzied d. pretend c. hideous d. typical 3
  20. 20. –S Y N O N Y M S – 5. Which word means the same as coerce? 11. Which word means the same as distinct? a. force a. satisfied b. permit b. imprecise c. waste c. uneasy d. deny d. separate 6. Which word means the same as abrupt? 12. Which word means the same as flagrant? a. interrupt a. secret b. sudden b. worthless c. extended c. noble d. corrupt d. glaring 7. Which word means the same as apathy? 13. Which word means the same as oration? a. hostility a. nuisance b. depression b. independence c. indifference c. address d. concern d. length 8. Which word means the same as despair? 14. Which word means the same as libel? a. mourning a. description b. disregard b. praise c. hopelessness c. destiny d. loneliness d. slander 9. Which word means the same as 15. Which word means the same as philan- contemptuous? thropy? a. respectful a. selfishness b. unique b. fascination c. scornful c. disrespect d. insecure d. charity10. Which word means the same as tote? 16. Which word means the same as proximity? a. acquire a. distance b. carry b. agreement c. tremble c. nearness d. abandon d. intelligence 4
  21. 21. –S Y N O N Y M S – 17. Which word means the same as negligible? 23. tailor a. insignificant a. measure b. delicate b. construct c. meaningful c. launder d. illegible d. alter 18. Which word means the same as vigilant? 24. yield a. nonchalant a. merge b. watchful b. relinquish c. righteous c. destroy d. strenuous d. hinder 19. Which word means the same as astute? 25. eternal a. perceptive a. timeless b. inattentive b. heavenly c. stubborn c. loving d. elegant d. wealthy 20. Which word means the same as collaborate? 26. stow a. cooperate a. pack b. convince b. curtsy c. entice c. fool d. elaborate d. trample 21. Which word means the same as insipid? 27. intimate a. overbearing a. frightening b. tasteless b. curious c. exhilarating c. private d. elaborate d. characteristicFor each of the following words, choose the word 28. considerthat has the same or nearly the same meaning. a. promote b. require 22. navigate c. adjust a. search d. ponder b. decide c. steer d. assist 5
  22. 22. –S Y N O N Y M S –29. humidify 35. philosophy a. moisten a. bias b. warm b. principles c. gather c. evidence d. spray d. process30. arouse 36. custom a. inform a. purpose b. abuse b. habit c. waken c. buyer d. deceive d. role31. harass 37. harbor a. trick a. halter b. confuse b. statement c. betray c. refuge d. pester d. garment32. fortified 38. muse a. reinforced a. tune b. distorted b. ponder c. disputed c. encourage d. developed d. read33. delegate 39. vessel a. analyze a. container b. respect b. furniture c. criticize c. garment d. assign d. branch34. accountable 40. dispute a. applauded a. debate b. compensated b. release c. responsible c. divide d. approached d. redeem 6
  23. 23. –S Y N O N Y M S –41. site 47. refine a. location a. condone b. formation b. provide c. speech c. change d. view d. purify42. compensate 48. pledge a. help a. picture b. challenge b. idea c. defeat c. quote d. pay d. promise43. journal 49. gangly a. trip a. illegally b. receipt b. closely c. diary c. ugly d. list d. lanky44. opportunity 50. sage a. sensitivity a. wise b. arrogance b. obnoxious c. chance c. conceited d. reference d. heartless45. invent 51. dormant a. insert a. hidden b. discover b. slumbering c. apply c. rigid d. allow d. misplaced46. sphere 52. banish a. air a. exile b. spread b. decorate c. globe c. succumb d. enclosure d. encourage 7
  24. 24. –S Y N O N Y M S –53. croon 59. obsolete a. swim a. current b. sing b. dedicated c. stroke c. unnecessary d. yell d. outmoded54. hostel 60. expansive a. turnstile a. talkative b. cot b. relaxed c. trek c. humorous d. inn d. grateful55. mesa 61. relinquish a. brain a. abandon b. plateau b. report c. wagon c. commence d. dwelling d. abide56. ado 62. submissive a. idiom a. raucous b. punishment b. obedient c. cost c. virtuous d. fuss d. selfish57. obscure 63. ponderous a. concealed a. heavy b. obvious b. thoughtful c. reckless c. hearty d. subjective d. generous58. malicious 64. stoical a. spiteful a. impassive b. changeable b. loud c. murderous c. curious d. dangerous d. intense 8
  25. 25. –S Y N O N Y M S –65. haggard 71. mundane a. handsome a. proper b. honest b. ordinary c. gaunt c. greedy d. intense d. murky66. enigma 72. remiss a. laughter a. recent b. mystery b. false c. enclosure c. negligent d. shadow d. broken67. jocular 73. imminent a. lenient a. sturdy b. strict b. actual c. powerful c. soon d. jolly d. later68. rebuke 74. inordinate a. scold a. excessive b. deny b. exclusive c. distract c. purpose d. protect d. hesitant69. renown 75. disheveled a. attitude a. rumpled b. fame b. divorced c. health c. marked d. strength d. dedicated70. robust 76. disillusioned a. eager a. disadvantageous b. rough b. distracted c. old-fashioned c. disenchanted d. vigorous d. disarming 9
  26. 26. –S Y N O N Y M S –77. query 78. clemency a. inspect a. competency b. quote b. certainty c. succeed c. destiny d. inquire d. mercy 10
  27. 27. C H A P T E R 2 AntonymsChoose the antonym for each of the words in italics. 81. Which word means the opposite of shameful? a. honorable 79. Which word is the opposite of alert? b. animated a. attentive c. fickle b. inattentive d. modest c. careful d. trivial 82. Which word means the opposite of vague? a. hazy 80. Which word is the opposite of cautious? b. skilled a. considerate c. definite b. noble d. tender c. proper d. reckless 11
  28. 28. –A N T O N Y M S –83. Which word means the opposite of 89. Which word means the opposite of prompt? vulnerable? a. punctual a. frantic b. slack b. feeble c. tardy c. secure d. regular d. complicated 90. Which word is the opposite of delay?84. Which word means the opposite of distress? a. slow a. comfort b. hasten b. reward c. pause c. trouble d. desist d. compromise 91. Which word is the opposite of soothe?85. Which word means the opposite of unity? a. increase a. discord b. comfort b. stimulation c. aggravate c. consent d. delight d. neglect 92. Which word means the opposite of86. Which word means the opposite of clarify? moderate? a. explain a. original b. dismay b. average c. obscure c. final d. provide d. excessive87. Which word means the opposite of grant? 93. Which word means the opposite of reveal? a. deny a. disclose b. consume b. achieve c. allocate c. retreat d. provoke d. conceal88. Which word means the opposite of 94. Which word means the opposite of initial? impartial? a. first a. complete b. crisis b. prejudiced c. final c. unbiased d. right d. erudite 12
  29. 29. –A N T O N Y M S – 95. Which word means the opposite of brittle? 101. Which word means the opposite of grueling? a. flexible a. effortless b. breakable b. casual c. grating c. exhausting d. thin d. empty 96. Which word means the opposite of capable? 102. Which word means the opposite of forsake? a. unskilled a. admit b. absurd b. abandon c. apt c. submit d. able d. cherish 97. Which word means the opposite of stray? 103. Which word is the opposite of restrain? a. remain a. control b. inhabit b. liberate c. wander c. maintain d. incline d. distract 98. Which word is the opposite of dainty? 104. Which word is the opposite of bleak? a. delicate a. desperate b. coarse b. dreary c. harsh c. bright d. delicious d. fond 99. Which word means the opposite of craving? 105. Which word is the opposite of unruly? a. desire a. controllable b. repudiation b. disorderly c. motive c. honest d. revulsion d. covered100. Which word means the opposite of 106. Which word is the opposite of solidarity? ferocious? a. union a. docile b. disunity b. savage c. laxity c. explosive d. rigidity d. noble 13
  30. 30. –A N T O N Y M S –107. Which word is the opposite of retract? 113. Which word means the opposite of belittle? a. assert a. arrange b. withdraw b. compliment c. impugn c. criticize d. follow d. presume108. Which word is the opposite of concise? 114. Which word means the opposite of aimless? a. generous a. inactive b. lengthy b. faithful c. loose c. purposeful d. brief d. impartial109. Which word is the opposite of omit? 115. Which word means the opposite of detest? a. eliminate a. prohibit b. perform b. hate c. depart c. examine d. include d. admire110. Which word means the opposite of prohibit? 116. Which word means the opposite of valiant? a. surrender a. instinctive b. permit b. cowardly c. involve c. cynical d. embrace d. worthy111. Which word means the opposite of disclose? 117. Which word means the opposite of lenient? a. succeed a. capable b. conceal b. impractical c. restrain c. merciful d. possess d. domineering112. Which word means the opposite of stifle? 118. Which word means the opposite of tarnish? a. encourage a. absorb b. familiarize b. endure c. deny c. shine d. overcome d. sully 14
  31. 31. –A N T O N Y M S –119. Which word means the opposite of 125. Which word means the opposite of mandatory? judicious? a. apparent a. partial b. equal b. litigious c. optional c. imprudent d. required d. unrestrained120. Which word means the opposite of 126. Which word means the opposite of chagrin? dissonance? a. conviction a. harmony b. irritation b. carefulness c. pleasure c. specificity d. humanity d. value121. Which word means the opposite of 127. Which word means the opposite of erudite? commence? a. uneducated a. initiate b. polite b. adapt c. unknown c. harass d. agitated d. terminate For each of the following words, choose the word122. Which word means the opposite of that means the opposite or most nearly the conscientious? opposite. a. careless b. apologetic 128. harmony c. diligent a. noise d. boisterous b. brevity c. safety123. Which word means the opposite of deficient? d. discord a. necessary b. adequate 129. insult c. flawed a. compliment d. simple b. contempt c. argument124. Which word means the opposite of lucid? d. attitude a. ordinary b. turbulent c. implausible d. vague 15
  32. 32. –A N T O N Y M S –130. general 136. retain a. specific a. withhold b. total b. release c. insignificant c. succumb d. substantial d. incise131. imaginary 137. impulsive a. sober a. secure b. ordinary b. mandatory c. unrealistic c. rash d. factual d. cautious132. demolish 138. competent a. attend a. incomplete b. consider b. intense c. create c. inept d. stifle d. massive133. absorb 139. promote a. acquire a. explicate b. repel b. downgrade c. consume c. concede d. assist d. retain134. critical 140. requirement a. inimical a. plan b. judgmental b. consequence c. massive c. option d. trivial d. accident135. infantile 141. irritate a. despicable a. soothe b. adolescent b. drain c. mature c. resist d. perpetual d. solve 16
  33. 33. –A N T O N Y M S –142. punctual 148. nimble a. random a. sturdy b. smooth b. sluggish c. intermittent c. thoughtless d. tardy d. relaxed143. virtue 149. tranquil a. reality a. agitated b. fact b. explicit c. vice c. sluggish d. amateur d. composed144. fortunate 150. sprightly a. excluded a. eager b. hapless b. lofty c. hardworking c. dull d. lucky d. local145. notable 151. amiable a. oral a. dangerous b. graceful b. permissive c. legal c. aloof d. ordinary d. congenial146. prim 152. prudent a. outrageous a. rash b. last b. licentious c. ugly c. libertine d. cantankerous d. demonstrative147. prosperous 153. scant a. affluent a. pellucid b. destitute b. meager c. cowardly c. copious d. receptive d. vocal 17
  34. 34. –A N T O N Y M S –154. steadfast 155. stringent a. envious a. obese b. fickle b. lax c. improvident c. obtuse d. sluggish d. fluid 18
  35. 35. C H A P T E R 3 Synonyms and AntonymsRead each question carefully and select the word 158. Subdue is most similar tothat is most similar or most dissimilar in meaning a. conquer.to the word provided. b. complain. c. deny. 156. Rational is most similar to d. respect. a. deliberate. b. invalid. 159. Animated is most similar to c. prompt. a. abbreviated. d. sound. b. civil. c. secret. 157. Attribute is most similar to d. lively. a. quality. b. penalty. c. speech. d. admission. 19
  36. 36. –S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –160. Awe is most dissimilar to 166. Subjective is most dissimilar to a. contempt. a. invective. b. reverence. b. objectionable. c. valor. c. unbiased. d. distortion. d. obedient.161. Intricate is most similar to 167. Succinct is most dissimilar to a. delicate. a. distinct. b. costly. b. laconic. c. prim. c. feeble. d. complex. d. verbose.162. Skeptic is most dissimilar to 168. Enthusiastic is most similar to a. innovator. a. adamant. b. friend. b. available. c. politician. c. cheerful. d. believer. d. eager.163. Hypothetical is most dissimilar to 169. Adequate is most similar to a. uncritical. a. sufficient. b. actual. b. mediocre. c. specific. c. proficient. d. imaginary. d. average.164. Enhance is most dissimilar to 170. Uniform is most dissimilar to a. diminish. a. dissembling. b. improve. b. diverse. c. digress. c. bizarre. d. deprive. d. slovenly.165. Manipulate is most similar to 171. Ecstatic is most similar to a. simplify. a. inconsistent. b. deplete. b. positive. c. nurture. c. wild. d. handle. d. thrilled. 20
  37. 37. –S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –172. Affect is most similar to 178. Frail is most similar to a. accomplish. a. vivid. b. cause. b. delicate. c. sicken. c. robust. d. influence. d. adaptable.173. Wary is most dissimilar to 179. Recuperate is most similar to a. alert. a. recover. b. leery. b. endorse. c. worried. c. persist. d. careless. d. worsen.174. Novel is most dissimilar to 180. Subsequent is most dissimilar to a. dangerous. a. necessary. b. unsettled. b. insignificant. c. suitable. c. primary. d. old. d. previous.175. Continuous is most similar to 181. Nonchalant is most dissimilar to a. intermittent. a. intelligent. b. adjacent. b. popular. c. uninterrupted. c. concerned. d. contiguous. d. reckless.176. Courtesy is most similar to 182. Hoax is most similar to a. civility. a. logic. b. congruity. b. crusade. c. conviviality. c. embargo. d. rudeness. d. ruse.177. Fallacy is most dissimilar to 183. Composure is most similar to a. truth. a. agitation. b. blessing. b. poise. c. weakness. c. liveliness. d. fable. d. stimulation. 21
  38. 38. –S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –184. Excise is most dissimilar to 190. Liberate is most dissimilar to a. sleep. a. conserve. b. retain. b. restrain. c. organize. c. attack. d. staple. d. ruin.185. Disperse is most dissimilar to 191. Faltering is most dissimilar to a. gather. a. steady. b. agree. b. adoring. c. praise. c. explanatory. d. satisfy. d. reluctant.186. Eccentric is most similar to 192. Vast is most similar to a. normal. a. attentive. b. frugal. b. immense. c. peculiar. c. steady. d. selective. d. slight.187. Commendable is most similar to 193. Comply is most similar to a. admirable. a. subdue. b. accountable. b. entertain. c. irresponsible. c. flatter. d. noticeable. d. obey.188. Domain is most similar to 194. Optimum is most dissimilar to a. entrance. a. mediocre. b. rebellion. b. victorious. c. formation. c. worst. d. territory. d. rational.189. Passive is most similar to 195. Enlighten is most similar to a. inactive. a. relocate. b. emotional. b. confuse. c. lively. c. comply. d. woeful. d. teach. 22
  39. 39. –S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –196. Tedious is most dissimilar to 202. Rigorous is most similar to a. stimulating. a. demanding. b. alarming. b. tolerable. c. intemperate. c. lenient. d. tranquil. d. disorderly.197. Exonerate is most dissimilar to 203. Orient is most dissimilar to a. minimize. a. confuse. b. respect. b. arouse. c. irritate. c. deter. d. blame. d. simplify.198. Ephemeral is most dissimilar to 204. Levitate is most dissimilar to a. internal. a. plod. b. enduring. b. undulate. c. temporary. c. whisper. d. hidden. d. sink.199. Predecessor is most dissimilar to 205. Oblivious is most similar to a. successor. a. visible. b. antecedent. b. sinister. c. descendant. c. conscious. d. ancestor. d. unaware.200. Refrain is most similar to 206. Verify is most similar to a. desist. a. disclose. b. secure. b. confirm. c. glimpse. c. refute. d. persevere. d. unite.201. Affable is most dissimilar to 207. Pacify is most dissimilar to a. disagreeable. a. complicate. b. hollow. b. dismiss. c. simple. c. excite. d. eager. d. atomize. 23
  40. 40. –S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –208. Plausible is most dissimilar to 214. Confer is most similar to a. insufficient. a. confide. b. apologetic. b. consult. c. unbelievable. c. refuse. d. credible. d. promise.209. Idle is most similar to 215. Repast is most similar to a. working. a. meal. b. effective. b. debt. c. immobile. c. book. d. functional. d. goal.210. Avid is most dissimilar to 216. Esteem is most dissimilar to a. partial. a. disrespect. b. unenthusiastic. b. disregard. c. equal. c. dissent. d. unkind. d. disabuse.211. Meek is most dissimilar to 217. Eloquent is most dissimilar to a. mild. a. shabby. b. painful. b. fluent. c. forceful. c. inarticulate. d. polite. d. plain.212. Complacent is most dissimilar to 218. Apathetic is most similar to a. concerned. a. pitiable. b. pleasant. b. indifferent. c. happy. c. suspicious. d. convinced. d. evasive.213. Ambiguous is most dissimilar to 219. Deterrent is most dissimilar to a. apathetic. a. encouragement. b. certain. b. obstacle. c. equivocal. c. proponent. d. indefinite. d. discomfort. 24
  41. 41. –S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –220. Impertinent is most dissimilar to 226. Sullen is most dissimilar to a. animated. a. morose. b. rude. b. impetuous. c. relentless. c. provocative. d. polite. d. jovial.221. Augment is most similar to 227. Menial is most similar to a. repeal. a. lowly. b. evaluate. b. boring. c. increase. c. dangerous. d. criticize. d. rewarding.222. Ludicrous is most dissimilar to 228. Panacea is most similar to a. absurd. a. cure. b. somber. b. result. c. reasonable. c. cause. d. charitable. d. necessity.223. Archaic is most dissimilar to 229. Taut is most dissimilar to a. tangible. a. neutral. b. modern. b. relaxed. c. ancient. c. rigid. d. haunted. d. vague.224. Incredulous is most similar to 230. Rile is most dissimilar to a. fearful. a. appease. b. outraged. b. prosper. c. inconsolable. c. oppress. d. disbelieving. d. irk.225. Vindictive is most similar to 231. Glib is most similar to a. outrageous. a. angry. b. insulting. b. insulting. c. spiteful. c. dishonest. d. offensive. d. insincere. 25
  42. 42. –S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –232. Mar is most dissimilar to 238. Saturate is most similar to a. delineate. a. deprive. b. bolster. b. construe. c. clarify. c. soak. d. repair. d. verify.233. Cognizant is most similar to 239. Methodical is most dissimilar to a. conscious. a. erratic. b. educated. b. deliberate. c. mystified. c. hostile. d. confused. d. deformed.234. Mediate is most similar to 240. Latent is most dissimilar to a. ponder. a. slow. b. interfere. b. tardy. c. reconcile. c. dormant. d. dissolve. d. active.235. Concurrent is most similar to 241. Proscribe is most similar to a. incidental. a. measure. b. simultaneous. b. recommend. c. apprehensive. c. detect. d. substantial. d. forbid.236. Induce is most similar to 242. Prevarication is most dissimilar to a. prompt. a. accolade. b. withdraw. b. veracity. c. presume. c. deprecation. d. represent. d. mendacity.237. Intrepid is most dissimilar to 243. Mirth is most dissimilar to a. belligerent. a. pallor. b. consistent. b. solemnity. c. chivalrous. c. penury. d. fearful. d. lethargy. 26
  43. 43. –S Y N O N Y M S A N D A N T O N Y M S –244. Surreptitious is most similar to 245. Trepidation is most dissimilar to a. expressive. a. distribution. b. secretive. b. agitation. c. emotional. c. fearlessness. d. artistic. d. uniformity. 27
  44. 44. C H A P T E R 4 Verbal ClassificationFor the following questions, choose the word that 248. a. premeditateddoes not belong with the others. b. rehearsed c. spontaneous 246. a. confirmed d. calculated b. tentative c. definite 249. a. rampant d. conclusive b. restrained c. widespread 247. a. implied d. pervasive b. distinct c. explicit 250. a. flexible d. forthright b. rigid c. supple d. limber 29

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