Tiger extinction


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Tiger extinction

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Environmental scienceis the interdisciplinaryacademic fieldwhich systematically studieshuman interactionwith theenvironmentin the interests of solving complex problems. It is a broad field of study that includes also the natural environment,built environment, and the sets of relationships between them. The field encompasses study in basic principles of ecology and environmental science, as well as associated subjects such asethics,policy,politics,law, economics,philosophy,environmental sociologyandenvironmental justice,planning,pollution controland natural resource management. Why study environmental science ?    You live here. There's only one planet so far that can support human life. You need to know how to protect your environment. You need to know what has already been done to harm the environment so that you can work to repair the damage. We humans are currently undergoing a population explosion, numbering over 6.5 billion people and growing. Most scientists
  3. 3. are convinced that this is an unsustainable population size and that we must reduce our growth rate. While many developed countries have reduced their population growth rates, most developing countries have high birth rates. The prodigious increase in the human population has had and is still having devastating effects on the environment. This is especially true of non-renewable resources, such as fossil fuels, and the output of excessive carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases as a consequence. The study of Environmental Science promotes the development of problem-solving skills. Working in the field of environmental science provides a wide variety of subjects and problems to challenge and expand your skills, as well as the satisfaction of knowing you are helping to improve the quality of our lives and that of the planet. Why Is Environmental Education Important? Our nation’s future relies on a well-educated public to be wise stewards of the very environment that sustains us, our families and communities, and future generations. It is environmental education which can best help us as individuals make the complex, conceptual connections between economic prosperity, benefits to society, environmental health, and our own well being. Ultimately, the collective wisdom of our citizens, gained through education, will be the most compelling and most successful strategy for environmental management.
  4. 4. Yet studies consistently reveal that the public suffers from a tremendous environmental literacy gap that appears to be increasing rather than decreasing. For example, two-thirds of the public fail even a basic environmental quiz and a whopping 88 percent of the public fail a basic energy quiz. These same studies found that many people think the ocean is a source of fresh water and some believe that hydropower is world's top energy source.Environmental education also increases student engagement in science.
  5. 5. ABOUT TIGERS The tiger is the largest member of the cat species. Tigers have muscular bodies with particularly powerful forelimbs and large heads.Its most recognizable feature is a pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside. This gives it a royal look. The pattern of stripes is unique to each animal, and these unique markings can be used by researchers to identify individuals (both in the wild and captivity), in much the same way as fingerprints are used to identify humans. Tigers have exceptionally stout teeth, and the canines are the longest among living felids with a crown height of as much as 74.5 mm (2.93 in) or even 90 mm (3.5 in).Tigers are among the most recognizable and popular of the world's charismatic megafauna. Tigers are native to much of Asia, from some of the coldest regions to the steamy rainforests of the Indonesian Islands. They are the top predator in every ecosystem they inhabit.Tigers ranged widely across Asia, from Turkey in the west to the eastern coast of Russia. The Bengal tiger is the national animal of both India and Bangladesh.
  6. 6. SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Panthera Tigris Binomial name Pantheratigris SUBSPECIES There are 9 subspecies of tiger: PantheraTigrisTigris (Bengal or Indian tiger) PantheraTigriscorbetti (Indochinese tiger) PantheraTigrisjacksoni (Malayan Tiger) PantheraTigrissumatrae (Sumatran tiger) PantheraTigrisaltaica (Siberian tiger) PantheraTigrisamoyensis (South China tigers) Panthera Tigrisvirgate (Caspian tigers) PantheraTigrisbalica (Balinese tiger) PantheraTigrissondaica (Javan tiger) The last three subspecies are extinct. The remaining six tiger subspecies have been classified as endangered by IUCN.
  7. 7. TIGER EXTINCTION Until the 20th Century there were nine tiger subspecies that probably numbered over 100,000 animals. They included the giant 660-poundSiberian tigers, the relatively small 200-pound Balinese tiger, the royal Bengal tiger, Indochinese tiger, South China tigers, Sumatran tiger, Javan tiger,Caspian tigers and the Malayan Tiger. Three of the tiger species, Caspian tigers, Balinese tiger and Javan tigers are definitely extinct and depending on whether there are any remaining South China tigers (nobody has seen one in years) there are either 5 or 6 tiger subspecies remaining in existence, all of which endangered. All the tiger subspecies put together currently amount to around 3,200 endangered tigers remaining in the wild. The main reasons tigers are endangered and in most cases, critically endangeredare illegal hunting for their pelts, meat and body parts (used in folk medicines) as well as habitat loss that results from logging and other forms of forest destruction. Fewer than 500 endangered Siberian tigers remain in the wild and all of them are restricted to a small area of coastal FarEastern Russia. Although the population has appeared stable
  8. 8. until recently, these tigers are threatened by poaching, habitat loss due to logging, road-building and development, as well as by the problem of inbreeding that has resulted from the fact that, before conservation measures were implemented in the 1930′s, the entire population had collapsed to around 40 individuals. The Bengal tiger is the most numerous of the endangered tiger subspecies, with probably fewer than 2,000 remaining at large in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan.There are fewer than 500 each of the endangered Malayan tiger native to the Malay Peninsula and Sumatran tiger which is found only on the Indonesian Island of Sumatra.The Indochinese tiger of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) probably numbers fewer than 500.None of the critically endangered South
  9. 9. China tigerhas been sighted for a number of yearsand it is feared that the species may be extinct.Along with the Balinese tiger, formerly found on the Indonesian Island of Bali and known to be extinct since the 1930′s, the Javan tiger, another Indonesian Island species, was also hunted to extinction, with the last one spotted in 1979.The Caspian tiger, a huge, cold-climate species similar to the Siberian tiger, which once roamed the vast mountains of western Asia, has been extinct since the 1950′s.Populations of all endangered tiger species continue to decline.
  10. 10. CAUSES Illegal Hunting for Medicinal Trade Poaching for tiger skins has a long history; the magnificent striped pelt has been in demand for rugs, wall hangings, and fur coats. These are less important now as the market is restricted by trade bans. The poacher's targets today are bones and other parts to meet the demand for pseudo-medicinal use in eastern Asia, primarily China, Taiwan, and South Korea, but also in Indo-China. China's Growing Demand It can be assumed that within China itself the killing of at least 3,000 tigers as pests in the 1950s and 1960s provided large stocks of bones for medicine factories. In the late 1980s reports emerged from Nepal and India of poaching for bones and smuggling to China. The statistics show that over six tons of tiger bones were imported between 1975 and 1992, which could represent the equivalent of 500 to 1,000 tigers (using dry bone weights of 10-12kg per tiger). There was a marked increase in imports in 1988, boosting the annual average through 1992 to 577kg (52-96 tigers a year). Weak Law Enforcement Taiwan prohibited tiger bone imports in 1985 and internal sale and possession in 1989. However, tiger products continued to be openly available. Under mounting international pressure,
  11. 11. especially from the USA, China (1993), Taiwan (1994), and South Korea (1994) have all announced bans on trade in tiger bones, and their use in traditional medicines. However, undercover investigators reported that they had obtained tiger products in various places in China after imposition of the ban. New evidence shows that tigers are being breed in China now to quench the Chinese market for tiger parts. Poaching and Habitat Loss Assessing the impact of poaching is difficult. Unlike carcasses of elephants and rhinos, the remains of tigers quickly disappear, particularly when the skeleton has been taken. Skins are easily identified, but few people can distinguish tiger bones from those of domestic animals. Where forest guards regularly patrol, they may note that a familiar tiger is no longer to be seen, but it may be difficult to decide whether it was poached or died naturally. In many forests there are too few guards, if any.The impact of poaching isn’t just limited to the loss of the actual animal killed. If it is a female, she is likely to have cubs, which may be unable to fend for themselves, in which case the real loss may be three or four tigers, without counting the loss of the tigress's breeding potential. When a male is killed, the result may be an intensive struggle among other males to take over the territory during which cubs get killed and breeding is disrupted for a lengthy period, possibly for several years. Like other big cats, the tiger probably has little future outside protected areas because of the danger to livestock and human life. Tigers which stray out of reserves and attack livestock are often poisoned by local people.
  12. 12. The Genetic Threat Most tiger populations today consist of fewer than 100 individuals and only about 40 per cent of them constitute the breeding population. Inbreeding is inevitable and fatherdaughter and mother-son matinghas been recorded. The balance of the sexes may be distorted by an excess of males or females surviving to maturity, thus increasing the impact of inbreeding. A loss of variability and genetic deterioration follow, with lowered cub production and survival, which may not be apparent until they have reached a level that, threatens the population. Impact of Catastrophes Small isolated populations are especially vulnerable to catastrophic events and natural disasters, such as forest fires, floods, hurricanes, and epidemicsand human-induced events, such as deforestation and conversion of habitat. Extensive fires in the forests of northeastern China in 1987 may have killed Siberian tigersand reduced prey numbers. Monsoon floods and hurricanes regularly kill some tigers in the Indian subcontinent. An epidemic could wipe out a small tiger population, especially if inbreeding has reduced genetic variability and, therefore, resistance to the spread of disease.
  13. 13. CONSERVATION The conservation on international Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) has played a crucial role in improving international efforts for tiger conservation. CITES is an international governance network employing tools and measures which adapt and become more efficient with time. Create awareness Tiger is in danger and only excessive awareness programs can save the species. Everybody can help if they did their part. You could help as well, all you have to do is make posters or fliers illustrating about the significance of tigers on the planet earth. Educating the people The people who do the most harm to the forests are those living nearby them. They need to be educated about the significance of tigers to if they wish to see the Ecosystem balanced. If there will be no tigers then we will not find any grass on our planet because there will be nobody to stop the grass eating animals from eating all the grass. Discourage poaching: Hunting of tigers is banned because selling tiger skin or any other body parts is the biggest reason why indian tigers are going extinct. If you know somebody who is involved in indian tiger hunting then it is your duty to report the officials.
  14. 14. Support a cause If you see a program running to save the indian tiger, you should take part in it and support their cause. You could also start your own blog on how to save the indian tiger, it will really educate the people. Take an eco tour If you really want to save the indian tigers then an eco tour is must for you. Eco tour really helps the people in understanding the significance of tigers. These are some of the simplest ways you can adopt to save the Indian tiger from becoming extinct.
  15. 15. PROJECT TIGER In 1972 Project Tiger was initiated to bring certain tiger conservation plans into action. The main aim behind Project Tiger was to protect the Bengal Tigers living in several regions of India. To achieve the mission of tiger conservation they set up several tiger reserves. The tiger reserves had the responsibility of maintaining natural environment of the regions where tigers dwelled the most. For several years The Tiger Reserves representatives covered the area of nearly 37,761 km² and were able to bring the population of tigers from 1,200 in 1970s to 3500 in 1990s. However, when the Government of India did a survey in 2008 the tiger population was estimated to be only 1,411. This was announced as a major setback, to rectify the loopholes in the activities of Project Tiger regarding their overall tiger conservation activities the Government requested for a donation of US$153 million. Some of the areas where the fund will be used extensively to further strengthen tiger conservation activities include: A high tech information network is needed by the wildlife protection and crime risk management team of Project Tiger to deliver maximum protection to the fields where tigers live. The huge portion of the fund will be allocated to develop several
  16. 16. technologies which would help the representatives to gather, maintain and make proper use of the data and also to watch over the tiger conservation areas through Mapping and GIS modeling. The activities of some of the units such as Sunderbans Tiger Conservation Unit, Central Indian Tiger Conservation Unit and Western Ghat Tiger Conservation Unit will be strictly monitored as these are the areas where tiger population has reduced rapidly. A satellite data will be set which will keep an eye on the tiger habitats. Further activities for tiger conservation will include education the villagers on tiger conservation so they also help in saving the almost extinct species. The Project Tiger is hopeful that with proper use of the fund and more international help they will be able to save the tigers in the coming years.
  17. 17. IMPORTANCE OF TIGER CONSERVATION Tigers are the top predator in the food chain that keeps the ecosystem going in tropical jungles. When they vanish due to poaching and lack of habitat, they take away with them an important link in the food chain. Tigers help keep the population of herbivores in the jungle. Nature is finely balanced with the right proportion of predators for prey. By taking away one important predator, prey will increase at the cost of habitat which finally impacts mankind By conserving and saving tigers the entire wilderness ecosystem is conserved. In nature, barring human beings and their domesticates, rest of the ecosystem is wild. Hence conserving wilderness is important and crucial to maintain the life support system. So saving tiger amounts to saving the ecosystem which is crucial for man's own survival. Tigers play a pivotal role in the health of the ecosystem. Tigers constitute the top carnivores in the ecosystem and are placed at the apex of the food chain. The removal of a top carnivore from an ecosystem can have an impact on the relative abundance of herbivore species. Along with other major carnivores as leopard it acts as a control mechanism for herbivores or consumers. Top carnivores, tigers, have an important role to play in the structuring of communities and ultimately of ecosystems. Thus, the preservation of tigers becomes an important consideration.
  18. 18. SNAPSHOTS
  19. 19. REFERENCES www.wikipedia.in/tiger Dickson, B. (2002). International conservation treaties, poverty and development: The case of CITES. ODI Natural Resource Perspectives, January 1974 Tigers of the World Ronald L. Tilson. Threat to The Tiger by John Vaillant The Way of the Tiger by Orient Longman