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Cloning #SciChallenge2017

The presentation also talks about the advantages and disadvantages of cloning #SciChallenge2017

Cloning #SciChallenge2017

  1. 1. Cloning By Anushka Kumar
  2. 2. What is cloning? July 22, 2012 Footer text here2 Cloning occurs naturally in some plants and in human identical twins, and it is now possible to clone animals artificially. Clones are genetically identical individuals. Bacteria, plants, and some animals, can reproduce asexually to form clones that are genetically identical to their parent. Identical human twins are also clones. Any differences between them are due to environmental factors.
  3. 3. Natural Cloning July 22, 2012 Footer text here3 In nature, some plants and single-celled organisms, such as bacteria, produce genetically identical offspring through a process called asexual reproduction. In asexual reproduction, a new individual is made. Natural clones, also known as identical twins, occur in humans and other mammals. These twins are produced when a fertilized egg splits, creating two or more embryos that carry almost identical DNA. Identical twins have nearly the same genetic makeup as each other, but they are genetically different from either parent.
  4. 4. Artificial Cloning July 22, 2012 Footer text here4 People may want to clone an animal deliberately. Just like the cloning of plants, the cloning of animals has many important commercial implications. It allows an individual animal with desirable features, such as a cow that produces a lot of milk, to be duplicated several times. But the process is more complex than it is with plants. People may want to clone a plant deliberately, that is produce lots of identical new plants. Cloning of plants has many important commercial implications: it allows a successful variety of a plant to be produced commercially and cheaply in a short space of time and on a massive scale.
  5. 5. Ways of cloning July 22, 2012 Footer text here5 Asexual reproduction needs only one parent, unlike sexual reproduction, which needs two parents. Since there is only one parent, there is no fusion of gametes and no mixing of genetic information. As a result, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent and to each other.They are clones. A developing embryo is removed from a pregnant animal at an early stage, before the embryo's cells have had time to become specialised. The cells are separated, grown for a while in a laboratory, and then transplanted into host mothers. When the offspring are born, they are identical to each other. They are not identical to their host mothers, because they contain different genetic information (the offsprings' DNA comes from the original pregnant animal and the father).
  6. 6. Advantages of cloning July 22, 2012 Footer text here6 Human cloning technology could be used to reverse heart attacks. Scientists believe that they may be able to treat heart attack victims by cloning their healthy heart cells and injecting them into the areas of the heart that have been damaged. Infertility. With cloning, infertile couples could have children. Despite getting a fair amount of publicity in the news current treatments for infertility, in terms of percentages, are not very successful. Down's syndrome. Those women at high risk for Down's syndrome can avoid that risk by cloning.
  7. 7. Disadvantages of Cloning July 22, 2012 Footer text here7 If a clone is susceptible to disease or changes in environment, then all the clones will be susceptible. It will lead to less variation, and less opportunity to create new varieties in the future. Cloning children could foster an understanding that children can be designed and replicated to the parents’ wishes. There would be a lack of uniqueness and violate convictions regarding human individuality and freedom. Clones could be seen as less than human compared with non-clones.
  8. 8. Advantages and Disadvantages table July 22, 2012 Footer text here8 Advantages Disadvantages Helps with organ donations Causes less varation in species Can help with less extinction Cannot fight diseases easily Can reverse heart attacks Violates human law Can stop infertility Every one would be the same Can avoid down syndrome No evolution would occur
  9. 9. Thank you for watching July 22, 2012 Footer text here9

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