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Contents Introduction Android Sandbox Static software analysis vs. sandboxing Android application sandbox System call diagrams Static &dynamic analysis of AASandbox. Experiments Conclusion References. 2
Introduction• Emerging trend : Smart phones - computational power , sensors & communication• Threat :Malware attacks• Anti virus: block virus, worms & Trojan horses.• Behavioural detection: signatures.• Generate signatures: Analysis of significant & meaningful patterns• Sandbox: execution of suspicious binaries in an isolated environment. E.g CWSandbox . 3
ANDROID An operating system for mobile device Based on the Linux kernel Developed by Google and later the Open Handset Alliance (OHA). Allows writing managed code in the Java language 4
What is Sandbox? a sandbox is a "sealed" container, which allows un- trusted programs to have executed within the sandbox. 5
Static Software Analysis vs. Sandboxing Static analysis Sandboxing Forensic techniques: Applications are run in an isolated decompilation,decryption,patter environment(sandbox). n matching. Policy to stop system to prevent Filtering binaries by malicious potential damage. patterns, called signatures. Monitoring & recording system. Fast & relatively simple. User space sandbox. Code pattern has to be known in Kernal space sandbox. advance. 6
Android Application Sandbox for suspicious software detection Located in kernal space since access to critical part of OS is realized. System call hijacking Monitor system & library calls. Android uses a modified Linux basis to host a Java-based middleware running the user applications. Calls are monitored on lowest level possible. 7
Features Loadable kernal module(LKM) is placed in Android emulator environment. LKM intended to hijack all available system calls. Two step analysis of android applications Kernal space sandbox. Fast static pre-check Aasandbox takes android application archive which is packaged in *.apk file as input. Java virtual machine-Dalvik. 10
Static analysis of AASandbox APK scanned for special patterns eg. Runtime.Exec() Decompression- zip file. AndroidManifest.xml- descriptions, security permissions. Classes.dex- complete bytecode. Res/- layout, language etc. Decompilation Classes.dex-bytecode which is converted to Baksmali-human readable format, easily parsable pseudocode. Pattern search: Java native interface,System.getRuntime().exec(..),ser vices & IPC provision,android permission. 11
Dynamic analysis of Android applications. App installed in android emulator. User inputs –”Android Monkey” tool generates pseudo random streams of user events.Prepare & start Install Install APK & Obtainemulator AASandbox start monkey system call logs • Mobile device • LKM(policy) emulator • ADB • Process killed • Inserted by • 500 generated • AVD closed • AVD (android ADB(android virtual events. device)configuratio debugging bridge). n 12
Experiments as examples Ex application- self written fork bomb it uses Runtime.Exec() to start external binary program. App is started & analysis is done. Static analysis –REPORTS/ForkBomb.apk/ Subdirectories like unzipped/ & disasm/ The log file output after static analysis. 13
Dynamic analysis of code Dynmic analysis Android emulator starts installed via adb install ForkBomb.apk Android monkey is started via adb shell monkey –p $ACTIVITY –vv – throttle 1000 500. Output of emulator will be logged into LOGS/ForksBomb.apk-s2.log as shown format 14
Experimental analysis Information is now possible to create a system call histogram as shown Analysis is done through the official android market representing theUpto 150 applictions.. top 150 popular application. Current status, malware characteristics & behaviour known from other platform ,e.g. Symbian OS are analysed in sandbox. 15
Conclusion Android emulator can be used to run android applications in isolated environment. The pre-check functionality that analyses indicate usage of malicious pattern in source code. In dynamic analysis, system calls are traced & corresponding reports are logged. 16
REFERENCES  M. Becher, F. Freiling, and B. Leider. On the effort to create smartphone worms in windows mobile. In Information Assurance and Security Workshop, 2007. IAW ’07. IEEESMC, pages 199–206, 20-22 June 2007.  Bundesamt f¨ur Sicherheit in der Informationstechnik. Mobile endger¨ate und mobile applikationen: Sicherheitsgef¨ahrdungen und schutzmassnahmen, 2006.  W. Enck, M. Ongtang, and P. McDaniel. Understanding android security. IEEE Security and Privacy, 7(1):50–57, 2009.  S. Forrest, S. Hofmeyr, and A. Somayaji. The evolution of system-call monitoring. In ACSAC ’08: Proceedings of the 2008 Annual Computer Security Applications Conference,pages 418–430. IEEE Computer Society, 2008.  A. Rubini. Kernel system calls. http://www.ar.linux.it/docs/ksys/ksys.html. [Online; accessed 01-March-2010]. 17