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By: Dadasaheb Anuse
   Meaning & concept
   Defination
   Objective of IR
   Importance of IR
   Role of three actors
   Causes for poor IR
   Developing sound IR
   Code of conduct/discipline
   Objective of code of discipline
   Principle of code of discipline
   Approaches of IR
   Parties to IR
   The term „Industrial Relations‟ comprises of two
    terms:

              ‘Industry’ and ‘Relations’

 “Industry” refers to “any productive activity in
  which an individual (or a group of individuals)
  is (are) engaged”.
 By “relations” we mean “the relationships that
  exist within the industry between the employer
  and his workmen.”
   The term industrial relations explains the relationship
    between employees and management which stem directly or
    indirectly from union-employer relationship.
   Industrial relations are the relationships between employees
    and employers within the organizational settings.
   The relationships which arise at and out of the workplace
    generally include the relationships between individual
    workers, the relationships between workers and their
    employer, the relationships between employers, the
    relationships employers and workers have with the
    organizations formed to promote their respective interests,
    and the relations between those organizations, at all levels
   The term industrial relations has a broad as well as a narrow
    outlook. Originally, industrial relations was broadly defined to
    include the relationships and interactions between employers
    and employees
   The relationships which arise at and out of the
    workplace generally include the relationships
    between individual workers, the relationships
    between workers and their employer, the
    relationships between employers, the relationships
    employers and workers have with the organizations
    formed to promote their respective interests, and
    the relations between those organizations, at all
    levels. industrial relations also includes the
    processes through which these relationships are
    expressed (such as, collective bargaining, workers‟
    participation in decision-making, and grievance
    and dispute settlement), and the management of
    conflict between employers, workers and trade
    unions, when it arises.
The Industrial Relation relations also called as
 labor - management, employee employers
 relations.

1)   “Employer-employee relationships that are
     covered specifically under collective
     bargaining and industrial relation laws”.
2)    “Concerned with the systems, rules and
     procedures used by unions & employers to
     determine the reward for effort & other
     conditions of employment.”
Employees                             Trade Union
                                       Employers




 Employee      Employer-Employee       Employer
 Employers     Industrial Relations
Associations       Relations          Associations




Government                              Courts &
                                        Tribunals
1.   To safeguard the interest of labor and management by
     securing the highest level of mutual understanding
     and good-will among all those sections in the industry
     which participate in the process of production.
2.   To avoid industrial conflict or strife and develop
     harmonious relations,.
3.   To raise productivity to a higher level in an aera of full
     employment by lessening the tendency to high
     turnover and frequency absenteeism.
4.   To improve the economic conditions of workers in the
     existing state of industrial managements and political
     government
5.    To Protect management and labor interests by securing
     mutual relations between the two groups.
1.   To Avoid disputes between management and
     labor, and create a harmonizing relationship
     between the groups so productivity can be
     increased.
2.    Ensure full employment and reduce absenteeism,
     hence, increasing productivity and profits.
3.   To Provide better wages and living conditions to
     labor, so misunderstandings between
     management and labor are reduced to a
     minimum.
4.   To bring about government control over plants
     where losses are running high, or where products
     are produced in the public interest.
   Uninterrupted production
   Reduction in Industrial Disputes
   High morale
   Mental Revolution
   Reduced Wastage
   Foster Industrial Peace
   Promote Industrial Democracy
 EMPLOYEES


 STATE


 EMPLOYER
Role of Employee:
   To redress the bargaining advantage on one-on-on
    basis
   To secure better terms and conditions for their
    members
   To obtain improved status for the worker in his/her
    work
   To increase implementation of democratic way of
    decision making at various levels
   Creating and sustaining employee motivation

   Ensuring commitment from employees

   Negotiating terms and conditions of employment
    with TU leaders

   Sharing decision making with employees
   Labor policies

   Labor laws

   Industrial tribunals

   Wage boards

   Industrial relations policy
The main reasons are as follows:
 An attitude of contempt towards the workers on the part of
  the management.
   Inadequate fixation of wages or improper wage structure.
   Indiscipline
   Unhealthy working conditions at the workplace.
   Lack of human relations skills on the part of supervisors and
    managers.
   Desire of workers for higher bonus, wages or daily allowances.
   Desire of employers to pay as little as possible to its workers.
   Inadequate welfare facilities.
   Dispute on sharing the gains of productivity.
   Retrenchment, dismissal and lockouts by the
    management.
   Strikes by the workers.
   Inter-union rivals.
   General economic and political environment such as
    rising prices, strikes by others and general indiscipline
    having their effect on the employees attitudes.
   Mental inertia on the part of the management.
   Developing trust between Labor & Management

   Maintenance of Industrial Peace

   Continuous feedback & monitoring

   Professional approach

   Existence of sound, democratic TU
   It specifies various obligations for the management
    and the workers with the objective of promoting
    cooperation between their representatives.

   To maintain harmonious relations and promote
    industrial peace, a Code of Discipline has been laid
    down which applies to both public and private
    sector enterprises
   Maintain peace and order in industry.
   Promote constructive criticism at all levels of management
    and employment.
   Avoid work stoppage in industry.
   Secure the settlement of disputes and grievances by a
    mutually agreed procedure.
   Avoiding litigation.
   Facilitate a free growth of trade unions.
   Eliminate all forms of coercion, intimidation and violations of
    rules and regulations governing industrial relations.
   There should be no strike or lockout without prior notice.
   No unilateral action should be taken in connection with any
    industrial matter.
   Employees should not follow go slow tactic.
   No deliberate damage should be caused to a plant or property
   Acts of violations, intimidation and coercion should not be
    resorted
   The existing machinery for the settlement of disputes should
    be utilized.
   Actions that disturb cordial relationships should be avoided.
   There are mainly three approaches to IR

    1. Unitary approach


    2. Pluralistic Approach


    3. Marxist Approach
Approaches to organisations

 Unitary                                  Pluralistic                       Marxist

       Authoritarian                                Co-operation                      Evolution

                                                      Conflict
           Paternalism                                                                Revolution
                              Approaches to industrial relations


                            Input          Conversion          Output
                                           Institutions
                            Conflict                         Regulation
                                               and
                         (differences)                        (rules)
                                            processes


  Human                                    Systems         Social action   Control of
 resource                                                                  the labour
management                                                                  process
                          Wider approaches to industrial relations

                   Labour market                            Comparative
   IR is grounded in mutual co-operation, individual
treatment, team work and shared goals.
   Union co-operate with the mgt.    & the mgt.‟s right to
manage is accepted because there is no „ we they feeling‟
   Assumption: Common interest & promotion of harmony
No strikes are there.
   It‟s a reactive IR strategy.
   They seek direct negotiations with employees.
   It perceives:
     • Org. as a coalitions of competing interest.
     • TU as legitimate representatives of employee
       interests.
     • Stability in IR as the product of concessions and
       compromises between mgt. & unions.

   Conflict between Mgt. and workers is understood as
    inevitable.
   Conflict is viewed as conducive for innovation and
    growth.
   Strong union is necessary.
   Regard conflict as Pluralists…


   Marxists see conflict as a product of the capitalist society.


   Conflict arises due to the division in the society between those
    who own resources and those who have only labor to offer.


   For Marxist all strikes are political.


   He regard state intervention via legislation & the creation of
    Industrial tribunals as supporting mgt‟s interest rather than
    ensuring a balance between the competing groups.
THANK YOU
 QUESTIONS?

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Industrial relation

  • 2. Meaning & concept  Defination  Objective of IR  Importance of IR  Role of three actors  Causes for poor IR  Developing sound IR  Code of conduct/discipline  Objective of code of discipline  Principle of code of discipline  Approaches of IR  Parties to IR
  • 3. The term „Industrial Relations‟ comprises of two terms: ‘Industry’ and ‘Relations’  “Industry” refers to “any productive activity in which an individual (or a group of individuals) is (are) engaged”.  By “relations” we mean “the relationships that exist within the industry between the employer and his workmen.”
  • 4. The term industrial relations explains the relationship between employees and management which stem directly or indirectly from union-employer relationship.  Industrial relations are the relationships between employees and employers within the organizational settings.  The relationships which arise at and out of the workplace generally include the relationships between individual workers, the relationships between workers and their employer, the relationships between employers, the relationships employers and workers have with the organizations formed to promote their respective interests, and the relations between those organizations, at all levels  The term industrial relations has a broad as well as a narrow outlook. Originally, industrial relations was broadly defined to include the relationships and interactions between employers and employees
  • 5. The relationships which arise at and out of the workplace generally include the relationships between individual workers, the relationships between workers and their employer, the relationships between employers, the relationships employers and workers have with the organizations formed to promote their respective interests, and the relations between those organizations, at all levels. industrial relations also includes the processes through which these relationships are expressed (such as, collective bargaining, workers‟ participation in decision-making, and grievance and dispute settlement), and the management of conflict between employers, workers and trade unions, when it arises.
  • 6. The Industrial Relation relations also called as labor - management, employee employers relations. 1) “Employer-employee relationships that are covered specifically under collective bargaining and industrial relation laws”. 2) “Concerned with the systems, rules and procedures used by unions & employers to determine the reward for effort & other conditions of employment.”
  • 7. Employees Trade Union Employers Employee Employer-Employee Employer Employers Industrial Relations Associations Relations Associations Government Courts & Tribunals
  • 8. 1. To safeguard the interest of labor and management by securing the highest level of mutual understanding and good-will among all those sections in the industry which participate in the process of production. 2. To avoid industrial conflict or strife and develop harmonious relations,. 3. To raise productivity to a higher level in an aera of full employment by lessening the tendency to high turnover and frequency absenteeism. 4. To improve the economic conditions of workers in the existing state of industrial managements and political government 5. To Protect management and labor interests by securing mutual relations between the two groups.
  • 9. 1. To Avoid disputes between management and labor, and create a harmonizing relationship between the groups so productivity can be increased. 2. Ensure full employment and reduce absenteeism, hence, increasing productivity and profits. 3. To Provide better wages and living conditions to labor, so misunderstandings between management and labor are reduced to a minimum. 4. To bring about government control over plants where losses are running high, or where products are produced in the public interest.
  • 10. Uninterrupted production  Reduction in Industrial Disputes  High morale  Mental Revolution  Reduced Wastage  Foster Industrial Peace  Promote Industrial Democracy
  • 12. Role of Employee:  To redress the bargaining advantage on one-on-on basis  To secure better terms and conditions for their members  To obtain improved status for the worker in his/her work  To increase implementation of democratic way of decision making at various levels
  • 13. Creating and sustaining employee motivation  Ensuring commitment from employees  Negotiating terms and conditions of employment with TU leaders  Sharing decision making with employees
  • 14. Labor policies  Labor laws  Industrial tribunals  Wage boards  Industrial relations policy
  • 15. The main reasons are as follows:  An attitude of contempt towards the workers on the part of the management.  Inadequate fixation of wages or improper wage structure.  Indiscipline  Unhealthy working conditions at the workplace.  Lack of human relations skills on the part of supervisors and managers.  Desire of workers for higher bonus, wages or daily allowances.  Desire of employers to pay as little as possible to its workers.
  • 16. Inadequate welfare facilities.  Dispute on sharing the gains of productivity.  Retrenchment, dismissal and lockouts by the management.  Strikes by the workers.  Inter-union rivals.  General economic and political environment such as rising prices, strikes by others and general indiscipline having their effect on the employees attitudes.  Mental inertia on the part of the management.
  • 17. Developing trust between Labor & Management  Maintenance of Industrial Peace  Continuous feedback & monitoring  Professional approach  Existence of sound, democratic TU
  • 18. It specifies various obligations for the management and the workers with the objective of promoting cooperation between their representatives.  To maintain harmonious relations and promote industrial peace, a Code of Discipline has been laid down which applies to both public and private sector enterprises
  • 19. Maintain peace and order in industry.  Promote constructive criticism at all levels of management and employment.  Avoid work stoppage in industry.  Secure the settlement of disputes and grievances by a mutually agreed procedure.  Avoiding litigation.  Facilitate a free growth of trade unions.  Eliminate all forms of coercion, intimidation and violations of rules and regulations governing industrial relations.
  • 20. There should be no strike or lockout without prior notice.  No unilateral action should be taken in connection with any industrial matter.  Employees should not follow go slow tactic.  No deliberate damage should be caused to a plant or property  Acts of violations, intimidation and coercion should not be resorted  The existing machinery for the settlement of disputes should be utilized.  Actions that disturb cordial relationships should be avoided.
  • 21. There are mainly three approaches to IR 1. Unitary approach 2. Pluralistic Approach 3. Marxist Approach
  • 22. Approaches to organisations Unitary Pluralistic Marxist Authoritarian Co-operation Evolution Conflict Paternalism Revolution Approaches to industrial relations Input Conversion Output Institutions Conflict Regulation and (differences) (rules) processes Human Systems Social action Control of resource the labour management process Wider approaches to industrial relations Labour market Comparative
  • 23. IR is grounded in mutual co-operation, individual treatment, team work and shared goals.  Union co-operate with the mgt. & the mgt.‟s right to manage is accepted because there is no „ we they feeling‟  Assumption: Common interest & promotion of harmony No strikes are there.  It‟s a reactive IR strategy.  They seek direct negotiations with employees.
  • 24. It perceives: • Org. as a coalitions of competing interest. • TU as legitimate representatives of employee interests. • Stability in IR as the product of concessions and compromises between mgt. & unions.  Conflict between Mgt. and workers is understood as inevitable.  Conflict is viewed as conducive for innovation and growth.  Strong union is necessary.
  • 25. Regard conflict as Pluralists…  Marxists see conflict as a product of the capitalist society.  Conflict arises due to the division in the society between those who own resources and those who have only labor to offer.  For Marxist all strikes are political.  He regard state intervention via legislation & the creation of Industrial tribunals as supporting mgt‟s interest rather than ensuring a balance between the competing groups.