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  1. 1. AGRICULTURE Agriculture is the mainstay of the Indian economy. Agriculture and allied sectors contribute nearly 15.7% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), while about 60% of the population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. The agricultural output depends on monsoon as nearly 56% of area sown is dependent on rainfall. RASHTRIYA KRISHI VIKAS YOJANA A new State Plan Scheme of Additional Central Assistance (ACA) for agriculture and allied sectors, the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY) was launched during 2007-08 with an envisaged outlay of Rs.25,000 crore for the 11th Five Year Plan. The broad objective of RKVY is to incentivize the States to increase public investment to achieve 4 %growth rate in agriculture and allied sectors during the 11th Five Year Plan. The new Scheme requires the States to prepare District and State Agriculture Plans and at least maintain or increase the percentages share of expenditure in agriculture and allied sectors in the State Plan. The ACA would be made available to the States as 100 per cent. The funds under the Scheme are provided to the States as 100 %grant by the Central Government. Since the RKVY Scheme is a State Plan Scheme being implemented by the States, the States are required to take appropriate steps for identification of Schemes for priority development under RKVY. The State Level Sanctioning Committee (SLSC) headed by the Chief Secretary approves the projects under RKVY. The distribution of the funds among the States is in two streams - Stream-1 and Stream-II. Under Stream 1, at least 75 %of the RKVY funds are made available for specific projects as part of the State and District Plans. Under Stream II, upto 25 %of the total RKVY funds to a State are made available for strengthening existing State Sector Schemes and filling the gap in resources.
  2. 2. The funds are routed through the State Agriculture Department which is a nodal Department for implementation of RKVY. Under the Scheme, the following broad activities have been identified for investment:(a) Integrated Development of Food Crops; including coarse cereals, minor millets and pulses; (b) Agriculture Mechanization; (c) Soil Health and Productivity; (d) Development of Rainfed Farming Systems; (e) Integrated Pest Management; (f) Market infrastructure; (g) Horticulture; Animal Husbandry; Dairying and Fisheries; (h) Concept to Completion Projects that have definite timelines; (i) Support to Institutions that promote Agriculture and Horticulture; (j) Organic and Bio-fertilizers; and Innovative Schemes. MACRO MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURE (MMA) It is Centrally Sponsored Schemes formulated with the objective to ensure that the Central assistance is spent on focused and specific interventions for development of agriculture in areas of priority of different States. It became operational in 2000-01 in all States and UTs. The Revised MMA scheme comprises 11 sub-schemes relating to crop production and natural resource management. HORTICULTURE SECTOR India is the 2nd largest producer of fruits in the world. It the largest producer of fruits like mango, banana, papaya, sapota, pomegranate and aonla. In terms of productivity of grapes, India ranks first in the world. India occupies the second position in the production of brinjal, cabbage, cauliflower and onion.
  3. 3. India is 3rd in potato and tomato in the world. India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices and spice products in the world. NATIONAL HORTICULTURE MISSION National Horticulture Mission was launched during the year 2005-06 with objective of providing holistic growth to the horticulture sector through an area based, regionally differentiated strategy, supply of quality planting material, production and productivity improvement, technology promotion, extension, post harvest management and marketing. Horticulture Mission for North East and Himalayan States was launched during the financial year 2001-02 to achieve overall development of horticulture in 8 States to harness the potential that exists in the North East region. The Scheme was further extended to three other hilly States namely Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand during 2003-04. National Bamboo Mission was launched in 2006-07 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme to promote the growth of bamboo sector. MISCELLENOUS Central Institute for Horticulture (CIH) Nagaland: The establishment of this Institute in Nagaland has been approved for implementation in 2005-06. The National Seeds Research and Training Centre (NSRTC) Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh) has been notified as a Central Seed Testing and Referral Laboratory (CSTL), with effect from 1st April, 2007. India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world. The estimate of milk production in 2010-11 was 121.8 million tones. India ranks 3rd in egg production. The egg production during 2010-11 was 63 billion. India is 2nd largest in aquaculture production in the world. Fish production during 201011 was 82.9 lakh tones. The Seeds Act 1966 provides for the legislative framework for regulation of quality of seeds sold in the country.
  4. 4. National Seed Mission: The Department proposes, to launch National Seed Mission from the year 2011-12 with an outlay of Rs.3775 crore replacing the existing Seed Infrastructure Scheme on account of the dynamism in the seed sector and the experience gained in the Implementation of the Scheme. National Dairy Plan –I is prepared to meet the projected national demand of 150 million tones of milk by 2016-17 with the assistance of World Bank. Delhi Milk Scheme (DMS) was set up in 1959 with the primary objective of supplying wholesome milk to the Citizens of Delhi at reasonable prices. Installed capacity is 5lakh liters per day. Planning Commission has given in-principle approval to the Mission. Scheme for Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Legislation for protection of plant varieties and farmers rights’ was enacted in year 2001. The legislation provides for the establishment of an effective system for protection of plant varieties, the rights of farmers and plant breeders and to encourage the development of new varieties of plants. Kisan Call Centres have been functioning since 21st January, 2004 and working in 25 different locations covering almost all the States of the country. At present 144 Call Centre Agents have been engaged in KCCs who are answering farmers’ queries in 21 local dialects. All KCC locations are accessible by dialing single toll free number ‘1551’ and ‘1880’-1801551’ from 6.00 A.M. to 10.00 P.M. Agriculture-Clinic and Agriculture-Business Centres Scheme was launched on 9.4. 2002 to provide extension services to farmers on payment basis through setting up of economically viable self-employment ventures. To accelerate the flow of credit to agricuture and allied activities, the Government is implementing a comprehensive Farm Credit Package since June, 2004. The target of doubling of agriculture credit flow in three years with base year as 200304 has been achieved in 2 years and agricultural credit flow reached Rs. 384514 crores during 2009-10 forming 118% of the target. In pursuance of recommendations made by the Vaidyanathan Committee Task Force, the Government of India had approved a Revival Package for Short Term Cooperative
  5. 5. Credit Structure (STCCS) which aims at making it a well manged and vibrant structure to best serve the credit needs of Rural India. Department of Agricultural Research & Education was set up in 1973. Union Cabinet approved “Agri Innovate India Limited” an agency for technology commercialsation and consultancy services at home and abroad. Decoding of Pigeonpea genome first time accomplished by Indian Scientists. A total of 47000 protein coding genes were identified in genome, of which 1213 are for diseases resistance and 152 are for tolerance to draught, heat and salinity. The National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) is being implemented in the country since Rabi 1999-2000, as a part of risk management in agriculture with the intention of providing financial support to the farmers in the event of failure of crops as a result of natural calamities, pests and diseases. The Pilot Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) is being implemented in the 15 States during Kharif 2010 season by Agricultural Insurance Company of India (AIC) and private General Insurance Company like ICICI-LOMBARD, IFFCO-TOKIO and MS Cholamandalam General Insurance Company to provide insurance protection to the farmers against adverse weather incidence, such as deficit and excess rainfall, high or low temperature, humidity etc. which are deemed to impact adversely the crop production. The Coconut Palm Insurance Scheme (CPIS) is launched on pilot basis during years 2009-10 and 2010-11 in the selected areas of Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu to cover Coconut Palms. The National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development (NOVOD) board was constituted on 8th March, 1984 under the National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oil Development Board Act, 1983 as a statutory body for the integrated development of oilseeds and vegetable oil industry under the control of the Union government consisting of 36 members headed by the Union Ministers of Agriculture as Chairman and ten members in its Managing committee headed by Secretary (Agriculture and Cooperation) as Chairman. The National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA) was launched in the VIII Plan period and has been subsumed under Macro Management of Agriculture (MMA) since November, 2000.
  6. 6. The National Institute of Agricultural Marketing (NIAM) is premier national level Institute set up by the Government of India in August 1988 to offer specialized Training, Research, Education and Consultancy in Agricultural Marketing. NIAM is an autonomous body under the aegis of the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. It was set up as a Registered Society to cater to the needs of Agricultural marketing personnel in India as well as from South East Asian countries. The Union Minister for Agriculture is the President of the General body NIAM and Secretary, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation is the Chairman of the Executive Committee. In Pursuance to the resolution of National Development Council (NDC) to launch a Food Security Mission in the country for enhancing the production of rice, wheat and pulses by 10, 8 and 2 million tonnes respectively by the end of 11th Plan, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme on 'National Food Security Mission (NFSM)' is under implementation by the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation in 17 States. The NFSM has three components viz. NFSM-Rice, NFSM-Wheat and NFSM-Pulses. The Government of India had advised the State Governments in the year 1964, to set up State Agro Industries Corporations (SAICs) in the public sector to act as catalysts in providing access to industrial inputs for farmers, for their use in agriculture. Thus, 17 SAICs were set up in the joint sector with equity participation of the Government of India and respective State Governments, namely Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal during 1965 to 1970. India is the third largest producer of fertilizers after China and USA and second largest consumer after China in the world. The all India average fertilizer consumption in 2008-09 was 127.21 kg/ha of NPK nutrients. ICAR has launched ‘National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture’ with objective of undertaking strategic research on climate change adaptation and mitigation. Cattle Breeds: Binjharpuri, Ghumsuri, Khariar and Motu. Buffalo Breeds: Banni, Chilika Whole genome sequencing of Murrah buffalo was undertaken in the country.
  7. 7. The marine fish statistics of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi was recognized as official statistics of government of India. Indian Institute of Spices Research is at Kozhikode. India currently spends about 0.6% of its agricultural GDP on research and development.