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Social issues-affecting-community-health-nursing-


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Social issues-affecting-community-health-nursing-

  3. 3. COMMON SOCIAL ISSUES According to UNICEF, 22,000 children die each day due to poverty. Around 27-28 percent of all children in developing countries are estimated to be underweight or stunted. Nearly a billion people entered the 21st century unable to read a book or sign their names.
  4. 4. Cont … Infectious diseases continue to blight the lives of the poor across the world. Some 1.1 billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to water, and 2.6 billion lack basic sanitation. 1.6 billion people — a quarter of humanity — live without electricity.
  5. 5. Major social issues  Child abuse  Women abuse  Elderly abuse  Female foeticide  Women empowerment  Commercial sex workers  Food adulteration  Crime  Substance abuse
  6. 6. Women Abuse
  7. 7. DEFINITION Women abuse is defined as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to a woman, whether occurring in public or private life”. (Cited by Gomez, 1996)
  8. 8. Forms of women abuse  Domestic Violence Domestic Violence in the Marital Relationship Dowry Harassment and Bride Burning  Sexual Harassment at Work  Sale of Wife  Eve Teasing
  10. 10. Definition: Child abuse can be defined as “a variety of abnormal behaviors directed against children, which can take many forms”
  11. 11. Statistics of child abuse 1.Two out of every three children were physically abused. 2.Out of 69% children physically abused 54.68% were boys. 3.Out of those children physically abused in family situations, 88.6% were physically abused by parents.
  12. 12. Predisposing factors to child abuse The abused childhood Family stress The abuser’s substance abuse Social forces The child
  13. 13. Forms of child abuse Child sexual abuse Pedophilia Physical abuse Child neglect Emotional neglect
  14. 14. Prevention of child abuse: The education to kids Psychiatric help to the abuser. Reporting of child sexual abuse. Parental education.
  15. 15. Elderly Abuse
  16. 16. Definition: “A non-accidental act or omission ,which undermines the life, the physical and psychological integrity of an older person or harms the development of his/her personality or damage his/her financial security”
  17. 17. Types of elderly abuse Financial abuse Emotional abuse Physical abuse Neglect and indifference
  18. 18. Solution for the problem of elderly abuse Social support. Care givers, social workers and volunteers need to reach out to old people who are neglected/abused. Counseling should be given to family members. Counseling to elderly.
  19. 19. Female Foeticide
  20. 20. Female foeticide: Girls are considered as burden in some families even in this technological era. They prefer male children to female children. The united Nation says an estimated 2,000 unborn girls are aborted every day in India. The government has enacted the pre-natal diagnostic techniques act in 1994 ,the situation far from improving ,further worsened. It is ironic to see that maximum sex-selective abortions are performed by lady doctors.
  21. 21. Commercial sex workers
  22. 22. Definition: “Prostitution is defined as an act of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for money or goods.” ELLIOT &MERRILL
  23. 23. Causes of Prostitution Poverty Broken homes Mental illness Uneducated women Widows and divorcees Prestigious life Over sexual desires Indebtedness False hope of marriage Influence of peer group
  24. 24. Types of Prostitution: Street Prostitution Escort or out-call Prostitution Sex tourism Ritualized Prostitution
  25. 25. Control of Prostitution Sex education Change of rigid social customs Job opportunities Social education &propaganda Adequate legislation Rehabilitation
  26. 26. Women empowerment Empowerment is a multi-faceted , multi-dimensional and multi- layered concept. Women’s empowerment is a process in which women gain greater share of control over resources in the home, community, society and nation to gain power.
  27. 27. Definition “Empowerment means moving from a position of enforced powerlessness to one of power”
  28. 28. Problems faced by women Educational problems Occupational problems Health problems Early marriage Female feticide Dowry system Transportation problems
  29. 29. Indicators of Women Empowerment 1. Increase in self-esteem. 2. Increase in knowledge and awareness. 3. Increase in personal leisure time. 4.Change in roles and responsibility in family & community. 5. Visible decrease in violence on women and girls. 6. Increase in bargaining and negotiating power . 7. Increase access to and ability to gather information. 8. Positive changes in social attitudes. 9.Women's decision-making over her work and income.
  30. 30. Measures to Improve Women Empowerment Education Political Participation Decision-Making Self Help Groups Violence Control Measures Ownership of Land State Initiatives Central initiatives
  31. 31. Food Adulteration
  32. 32. Definition: “Food adulteration is the process of addition of an impure, cheap or unnecessary ingredient to cheat with, cheapen or falsify a preparation.”
  33. 33. Food adulterant: Any material which is or could be employed for the purposes of adulteration is known as adulterant.
  34. 34. Concept of adulteration If the article sold is not of the nature, substance or quality demanded by the purchaser. If any inferior or cheaper substances has been substituted. If any constituent of the article has been extracted. If the article has been prepared, packed or kept under unsanitary conditions. If the article is obtained from a diseased animal. If the article contain any prohibited preservative. If the quality of the article falls below the prescribed standards.
  35. 35. Crime
  36. 36. Definition : “Crime is an antisocial behavior that has violated public sentiments certain extent and forbidden by status” Barnes Crime
  37. 37. Factors contributing to crime: Physical factors Physiological factors Hereditary factors Social factors Political factors Environmental factors Familial factors
  40. 40. SUBSTANCE ABUSE Using of substances for pleasure is increasing day by day in the modern society, as a mark of fashion. The chronic usage of addictive substances creates chronic physical and psychological problems among individuals and also has an impact on society.
  41. 41. Definition “Substance abuse can be defined as using a drug in a way that it is inconsistent with medical or social norms and despite negative consequences.” W.H.O
  42. 42. Causes of Substance abuse: Biological causes Psychological causes Social causes.
  43. 43. Biological causes Family history of Substance abuse Personality disorders Co-morbid medical disorders Re-enforcing effects of drugs Withdrawal effects and craving Biochemical factors.
  44. 44. Psychological causes Curiosity Poor impulse control Low self esteem Poor stress management skills Childhood trauma Psychological distress Reaction to neglect
  45. 45. Social causes Peer group pressure Modeling Easy availability of alcohol and drugs Familial conflicts Religious reasons Unemployment Poor social support
  46. 46. Commonly used substances: Alcohol Opioids Cannabinoids Cocaine Amphetamine Hallucinogens Barbiturates Inhalants Nicotine Other stimulants
  47. 47. Control of Substance abuse: Primary prevention: Provision of happy and healthy family life Establishment of healthy parent-child relationship Provision of love and care to the children Show interest towards the child’s activities Offer counseling to the teenagers Reduce the availability of drugs Legislation
  48. 48. Secondary prevention: Closely monitor the changes in the behavior of an individual. Early detection and treatment of addicts. Establishment of de-addiction centers, after care centers and day care centers. Proper treatment and specific therapies should be given to prevent complication of disease.
  49. 49. Tertiary prevention Provision of treatment in the state of severe dependence. Provision of rehabilitation measures for the drug addicts. Involvement of family in the restorative and rehabilitative activities. Involvement of social agencies for the rehabilitation.