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Rahul project(org)123

  1. 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYINTRODUCTION OF PROJECT:-With the rapidly changing technological, social, economic, political, legal environment &the trend toward globalization of business & industry so effective management of humanresource has become a very challenging job. There is no denying the fact that humanelement is at the center stage in all economic activities. In this project, an attempt has beenmade to suggest various measures to serve as guidelines for the management of SIMPLEXINFRASTRUCTURES LTD .Performance appraisal procedure was studied at SIMPLEX INFRASTRUCTURES LTD.The main objective of the project was to study the appraisal procedure & process of thecompany.This research is descriptive type it include primary data and secondary data. Primary datais designing of questionnaire from where the data was collected. Secondary data wascollected through the extensive study of the company website and other related websiteand books.PROJECT TITLE:-“Enhancing personnel effectiveness and workplace leadership for teamwork at SIMPLEXINFRASTRUCTURES LTD. 1
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT:-To study the performance appraisal system and method of performance appraisal atSIMPLEX INFRASTRUCTURES LTD.To study whether the identified training needs are fulfilled or not.To find out the level of satisfaction of the employees through the Performance Appraisal.To help organization to overcome its weakness & develop healthy workforce.SCOPE OF THE STUDY:-The scope of the project covers the study of performance appraisal system ofthe SIMPLEX INFRASRUCTURES LTD. The study covers feedback fromsenior and middle management officer of company on performance appraisaland its impact on promotion, transfer, work attitude, career planning etc. 2
  3. 3. COMPANY PROFILE BRIEF HISTORYSince 1924 when Simplex became the first company to introduce cast-in-situ-driven pilesin India and South East Asia, it has been on the forefront of technical breakthroughs inthe Indian construction industry.1935 - Starts construction of steel plants, subsequently building Indias steel backbone with plants for SAIL, Tata, Jindal, Essar, etc.1940s - Constructs the prestigious King George Docks (Jawaharlal Nehru Port) in Mumbai to be recognised as one of the top construction engineers of India1960s - Makes maiden foray into the urban utilities segment, setting up sewage treatment plant in Howrah1970 - Begins civil and structural construction of Thermal Power Plants.1972-73 - Install Indias first 50m deep cast-in-situ driven piles at Cochin.1977-78 - Develops indigenous technique for soil densification through stone columns by driven piling technique.1982-83 - Develops breakthrough technique for jointed pre- cast concrete piles. 3
  4. 4. 1990 - Constructs 2000mm dia pile foundation for the first time in India.1993-94 - Becomes first to install fully computerised geo- technical laboratory in India.1997 - (1) Enters the transport sector with road, bridge and railway construction. (2) Constructs the first housing complex using Aarding Tunnel Forum technology in the country.1999 - Constructs Rail over-bridge with 50m span P. S. C. Girder over running electrified section of rail-track for the first time in India.2002 - Begins civil and structural construction of Nuclear Power Plants to establish comprehensive capabilities in the power sector.2004 - Begins civil and structural construction of hydro- power plants.2008 - Over 70 Mtr. deep Pile in Kochi.2010 - Begins installation of steel using vibro technology at Dahej Port in one of the worlds most challenging marine conditions. 4
  5. 5. ACHIVEMENTS Been in business since 1924 and present in almost all Indian States as well as Middle East. Simplex combines financial robustness with technological competence. The Company enjoys an uninterrupted profit track record since inception. Repeat orders from reputed & large clientele. Recognized by World Confederation of Businesses as “Inspirational Company with all its Rights & Privileges” in 2010POSITION IN INDIA Ranked 7th among “India‟s Top 10 Infrastructures Companies” by Construction Week. Ranked among “Top 5 India‟s Fastest Growing Large Companies” by Business Today in 2008.AWARDS Awarded by International BID Quality Summit, New York the “International Quality Summit Award in Gold Category” for achievement in Quality & Excellence in 2009. Thrice nominated as “Most Admired Infrastructure Company” by NDTV Profit in 2006, 2008 & 2009. Titled as “Overall Best Managed Company” by Asia Money in 2005 . 5
  6. 6. MARKET VALUE Present Order Book of Rs.14,707 Crores with over 150 Projects location in India and Overseas. Its shares are listed on the NSE, BSE & CSE enjoying Market Capitalization of Rs.2500 Crores .VISIONWe have the vision to lead and win. To execute projects with consistent quality assurance,cost control and adherence to milestones in a safe environment as per customerrequirements.MISSIONTo promote the culture of sharing rich and varied experience with staff members, as also withclients. And thereby benefit and help the growth of the construction fraternity and society atlarge.Simplex serves those who build the nation. Our diverse clientele ranges from statutory bodiesto national and state governments to domestic and international conglomerates. 6
  7. 7. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF SIMPLEX INFRASTRUCTURES LTD Chairman Vice Chairman Managing DirectorProduction Marketing HR Finance Technical Manager Manager Manager Manager ManagerSales Advertise Executive Consultant MISOfficer Officer Officer Consulta ntSupervisor HR Admin Safety Officer Officer Officer Material Manager Workers R&D Manager 7
  8. 8. HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT OF SIMPLEX INFRASTRUCTURES LTDHR DEPARTMENTThe HR department takes care of all process related to Human Resource in the company. Theprocess like performance management, pay roll, training and development, recruitment,corporate and internal communication, community development.1. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Handle appraisal of employees.2. TRAINING DIVISIONThis division trains the new entrants. Various faculties‟ gives training on different topics likeon power products of the company, marketing, technical calls etc.3. RECRUITMENT Handle the recruitment, joining formalities etc of the employees.4. COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT The company encourages its employees to spend their spare time in service tosociety. 8
  9. 9. HR MISSION STATEMENTTo find way to help the associates to do what they love and love what they do. The missionstatement of HR department stays as a constant reminder for associate‟s wellbeing. BRANCHES AND OFFICES KOLKATA(Registered office) MUMBAI DELHI CHENNAI 9
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  14. 14. ABOUT PERFORMANCEAPPRAISAL Performance Appraisal is a systematic attempt to measure the performance of all employees and take steps to ensure its continuous improvement. It entails: 1. Setting clear goals & desirable behavior for all employees 2. Evaluating i.e. comparing output with the goals set 3. Evaluating i.e. comparing behavior with the scale 4. Passing a feedback 5. Recommending rewards for performers 6. Recommending a Development Plan to address skill gaps 7. Counseling to address motivational issues.Requirements for an Effective Performance AppraisalThe following competencies come in handy while conducting a PerformanceAppraisal: 1. Goal Setting using the SMART Concept 2. Communication – Speaking, Writing & Listening Skills 3. Counseling 4. Discipline & Process Orientation In addition, access to correct information, a simple & understandable appraisal form and a transparent process contributes to making an appraisal effective 14
  15. 15. DEFINITION OF THE TERM PERFORMANCEAPPRAISALAfford and Beatty: Performance appraisal is the evaluation or appraisal of therelative worth to the company of mans service on his job.Performance appraisal is a formal structured system of measuring and evaluating anemployees job related behaviors and outcomes to discover how and why theemployee is presently performing on the job and how the employee can performmore effectively in the future so that the employee, organization and society all benefits.The last definition include employees behaviour, as part of the assessment.Behavior can be active or passive, do something or does nothing. Either way,behavior affects job results. The other term used for performance appraisal areperformance rating, employee assessment, employee performance review, personalreview, personal appraisal, performance evaluation, employee evaluation and meritrating. It is linked to job analysis as shown in the table.RELATIONOFPERFORMANCEAPPRAISAL AND JOBANALYSIS Job analysis Performance Standards Performance Appraisal Describes work Translates job Describe the job relevant and requirements into levels strength and weaknesses of personal of acceptable or each individual requirement of a unacceptable performance particular job 15
  16. 16. WHO WILL APPRAISE?SupervisorsPeersSubordinatesSelf appraisalsconsultantsWHEN TO APPRAISE?Informal appraisals are conducted whenever the supervisoror personnel manager feel it necessary. However ,systematicappraisals are conducted on a regular basis, say for example,every six months or annually.OBJECTIVES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL :To increase productivityTo improve qualityTo help company to fulfill its future personnel needsTo improve organizational climateTo improve health and safetyTo secure optimum co attribution from employeesTo prepare worker for higher level jobBENEFITS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS How Performance appraisal Benefits theOrganization: 16
  17. 17. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization.Improves the morale of the workforceHelps people identify with organizational goalsHelps create a better corporate imageImproves relationship between boss and subordinateAids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organizationOrganization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skillsAids in increasing productivity and/or quality of workAids in improving organizational communicationBenefits to the Individual :Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problemsolvingHelps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflictIncreases job satisfaction and recognitionMoves a person towards personal goals while improving interactiveskillsProvides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her ownfutureImproves communication between groups and individuals:Improves interpersonal skills.Improves morale 17
  18. 18. Builds cohesiveness in groups Provides a good climate for learning, growth, and co-ordination Makes the organization a better place to work and liveTHE PROCESS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS PERFORMANCE GOAL SETTING DETERMINING ACTION PLAN PERFORMANCE REVIEW PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK PERFORMANCE COUNSELLING COACHING 18
  19. 19. 1. The Process of performance Goal SettingPERFORMANCE goal setting is largely about bringing into focus the performanceexpectations. The following, therefore, are the key components of performance goalsetting process. 1. Establishing Key Result Areas (KRAs) 2. Setting Agreed Objectives/Goals 3. Determining Action plans for objectives Organizational Vision & Mission Business Strategy Project‟s KRAs Department / Functional KRAsIndividual Individual KRAs Performance KRAs Measures Action Plan 2.Determining Action Plans for Objectives The second component of performance goal setting is the action plan for the objectives, which helps employees specify key actions and milestones. There may not be enough time during the goal setting session to complete the action plans for every objective that needs them. It is advisable to leave this job to the team member who may submit them at a later date. GOAL – 99% uptime for DG sets for the period June 2011 – Dec 2011. 19
  20. 20. ACTION PLANSerial No. Activity Start End Responsibility 01 Provide training to all operators 1.08.11 30.08.11 A Mohanty Carry out preventive maintenance on 02 1.08.11 30.08.11 B Das all sets . 03 Replace an old set with a new one 1.09.11 30.0911. A Ghosh Carry out preventive maintenance on 04 1.10.11 30.10.11 B Das all sets . 3.Performance Review“If we want performance in the workplace, somebody has to have the courage andconfidence to determine whether we are getting it or not.”Andrew Grove  What is Performance Review?Performance review may be defined as - A systematic means of ensuring that managersand their staff meet regularly to discuss past and present performance issues, and to agreewhat future action is appropriate on both sides.Performance review must be seen as an intrinsic part of managers responsibilities and notas an unwelcome and time-consuming appendage. It is about improving performance andultimately effectiveness.  Objectives of Reviewing PerformanceMotivation: to provide positive feedback, recognition, praise and opportunities for growth;to clarify expectationsDevelopment: to provide a basis for developing and broadening capabilities relevant bothto the current role and any future role that the employee may have the potential to carryout;Communicating Performance: to communicate to them exactly where they stand in termsof their performance. 20
  21. 21.  THE PROCESS OF PERFORMANCE REVIEWThe Performance Review process, as shown in the figure in the following page, iscompleted in the following steps: 1. Planning for Review 2. The Review Meeting  Delivering the Message  Review Writing  Creating Developmental Plan Planning for Review Review Meeting Delivering the message Creating development plan Review Writing The Process of Performance Review 21
  22. 22. 4. PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK “Feedback is the breakfast of champions.” -Ken Blanchard  Performance Feedback: An OverviewFeedback is Information about performance or behaviour that leads to an action to affirmor develop that performance or behaviour, Performance feedback provides information thathelps employees to alter, change or maintain their behaviours and / or attitudes so that theorganization continues to operate smoothly. The key elements of performance feedbackare:Description of behavior : Feedback should address the specific action or behaviour youare trying to recognize or change.Specific: Feedback must be detailed and individualized for the specific person with whomyou are addressing.Non-evaluative: When providing feedback, one must not respond in a judgmental way butonly base it on facts.Timely: It should be given as close to the performance event being addressed as possible.Empathetic: feedback should acknowledge the feelings of both parties in the discussion.  Types of FeedbackPerformance feedback can be delivered in the following three ways: 1. Positive feedback 2. Negative feedback 3. Constructive feedback 22
  23. 23. 1. POSITIVE FEEDBACK: Defined as: "providing feedback to someone who has done something well and deserves praise for his or her efforts. This is feedback given to a person which reinforces good performance or behavior, physical appearance etc. The entire objective is appreciation and reinforcement. positive feedback reinforces acceptable behavior with the signal that it can be repeated again.2. Negative feedback: Defined as: "corrective feedback given for improving poor performance or behavior.3. Constructive feedback: This is feedback given with the basic assumption that it builds on what is good and it plans further development. Constructive feedback consists of positive feedback, which is given to reinforce acceptable behavior. It also consists of feedback pertaining to corrective or unacceptable behavior but it is delivered in a way which is not harsh or rude. The entire objective is to pinpoint corrective areas with the intention of planning improvement towards growth and development. Even if one is giving constructive feedback there is a need to word the feedback carefully. Complete the next worksheet and read subsequent pages to gain the skill of giving acceptable feedback.4. PERFORMANCE COUNSELLING The Institute of Personnel and Development (IPD) as have described counseling: Any activity in the workplace where one individual uses a set of skills and techniques to help another individual to take responsibility for and to manage their own decision-making whether it is work related or personal." The mantle of helping individual, in the context of performance counseling is generally donned by the manager. The purview of performance counseling essentially includes the motivational aspect affecting professional growth and performance of a subordinate. 23
  24. 24. Performance Counseling is about helping Subordinate Resolve the hindering issues:Performance counseling always relies on the assumption that the subordinate has the skills,knowledge and - deep down - the desire to find a solution. They may be too close to theproblem, or too immersed in emotion to be able to think rationally. The managers role is tohelp the subordinate step back and see it differently, so that they can find a new wayforward.Performance Counseling is about Listening:Counseling, more than any other managerial conversation, demands deep listening skills.The manager must give this conversation his undivided attention and as much time as itneeds. It should be understood that the conversation should be private and completely freefrom interruption. The manager should limit his responsibility to provide counseling inareas that directly or indirectly affect subordinates performance.Performance Counseling is not about Giving Advice:Counseling helps to resolve a situation that the person sees as a problem. Counseling is notgiving advice. As a counselor, the managers role is to provide a different perspective fromwhich to try out ideas. The counseled person (henceforth referred as the subordinate) mustfind their own solution and exercise their own responsibility.The Four Stages of Performance Counseling:The four stages of performance counseling are very like those of coaching. The maindifference between them is in emphasis. Coaching is about reaching a goal and improvingin some way; counseling is essentially about removing some performance obstacle ordifficulty and simply being able to move on. 24
  25. 25. Stage I: DIAGNOSISThis is the conversation for relationship. The manager needs to establish at the outset apositive relationship with the subordinate. During this stage, both the manager and thesubordinate being counseled need to establish the following:What is the subordinates perception of the problem?Where is the blockage?Stage II: EXPLORATIONThis is the conversation for possibility. The manager‟s role here is to help the subordinateto step back and examine the possibilities of the situation. During this stage, the followingquestions may be useful:Why do you think you feel this way?‟What kind of response do you think you might get if you told X about this?Who else has contributed to the problem?How do you think this has arisen?What might be the cause of the problem?‟The manager might consider making the conversation more creative at this stage by askingthe subordinate to think about the problem in radically different ways:What does this problem look like?If you were the problem, how would you feel?Can you think of another way of expressing the problem?A subordinate may all too easily feel pressure at this point to take ownership of a problemwhile lacking any desire to. The manager must use all his skill and sensitivity to managethis most crucial part of the process.Stage III: OPPORTUNITIES 25
  26. 26. The conversation for opportunity should lead the subordinate to envisage possible coursesof action and their consequences. The subordinate should be moving from emotion to amore considered attitude without any pressure from the manager.They should be visualizing various results and the feelings these would evoke. Thesubordinate should by now be feeling more enabled to choose a course of action.Stage IV: ACTIONNow that the subordinate can see the situation more clearly and has assessed variousoptions, there is a need to make a move. If the manager has helped the subordinate beingcounseled to make a clear plan, then the process of counseling has succeeded. Both themanager and subordinate need to feel hat they have anticipated most of the likely outcomesof the proposed action and that, between them, they have the resources to cope with theconsequences. 6.COACHINGcorrection wit“ A Coach is someone who can give hout causing resentment.” -John WoodenCoaching is undertaken to bring out the best in people. The first use of the word in theEnglish language was in reference to a particular kind of carriage. Hence, the basicmeaning is to "transporting a valued person from where he or she is to where he or shewants to be."Coaching is an ongoing process designed to help the employee gain greater competenceand overcome barriers to improving performance. Coaching differs from training, which is 26
  27. 27. a structured process to provide employees with the knowledge and skills to perform jobtasks. Coaching is thus closer to practice while training is closer to theory. Counseling vs. Coaching?Coaching aims at augmenting performance by increasing the competence of the person todeal with a given situation. Coaching probably makes a person more able.Counseling aims at augmenting performance helping the person to overcome a problemthat is causing demonization. Counseling probably makes a person more willing. Both areneed-based interventions. Qualities of a good Coach  Should be knowledgeable & skillful  Should be analytical  Good at Planning & Controlling  Patience & Sensitivity  Very good Communication A Method of Coaching Your coaching role becomes effective, when your behavior includes the following elements: 1. Explain & Demonstrate: The manager needs to work with the employees to identify the cause of the performance problem. He then demonstrates how the problem can be solved. 2. Reflect: The subordinate is then allowed to recall the demonstration. He or she is encouraged to ask questions incase there are doubts. All questions are answered. 3. Review Progress: The subordinate is now asked to practice. The performance is reviewed & corrective feedback given. 4. Planning to practice again: Subordinate keeps these inputs in mind and plans to practice again. This leads one back to step 3 and the subordinate‟s skill level continues to rise towards the expected level. 27
  28. 28. HOW PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL CAN CONTRIBUTE TO FIRMS COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES Improving PerformanceStrategy and Behavior Making Correct Decision Competitive Advantage Ensuring Legal Value and Compliance Behavior Minimizing Dissatisfaction & Turnover METHOD OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL The Performance Appraisal method may be classified into three categories, as shown in figure. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL METHOD Individual evaluation method Multi-person evolution Other method 1. Confidential report 1.Ranking method 1.Psychometric test 2 .Essay incidents 2.Paired comparison 2.Behavior testing 3. Critical incidents 3.Forced distribution 4. Checklists 5. Graphic rating scale 6. MBO 28
  29. 29. INDIVIDUAL EVALUATION METHOD1. CONFIDENTIAL REPORTSConfidential record are maintained mostly in government departments, though it‟s theperformance2. ESSAY EVOLUTION Essay evolution is extremely useful in filling information gaps about the employee thatoften occur in the better structured checklist method.3. CRITICAL INCIDENTSThis method is useful for peers to maintains logs on each employee and its behavior.4. CHECKLISTSA set of objective or descriptive statements about the employee and the behavior.5. GRAPHIC RATING SCALEA printed form is to evaluate the performance of an employee. It is the most commonmethod of evaluation of an employees.6. MBOThe MBO process seems to be most useful with managerial personnel & employees whohave a fairly wide range of flexibility & self control in their jobs. 29
  30. 30. MULTIPLE PERSON EVALUATION TECHNIQUES1.RANKING METHODIn ranking method superior ranks his or her subordinates in the order of their merit, startingfrom best to the worst.2. PAIRED COMPARISON METHODUnder this method the appraiser compares each employees with every other employee, oneat a time.3. FORCED DISTRIBUTION METHODThe forced distribution method operators under an assumption that employee performancelevel conforms to a normal statically distribution..OTHER TECHNIQUE  PSYCHOMETRIC TESTThe word psychometric is formed from the Greek words for mental and measurement.Psychometric tests attempt to objectively measure aspects of your mental ability or ourpersonality. Psychometric test are most likely to encounter psychometric testing as part ofthe recruitment or selection process and occupational psychometric tests are designed toprovide employers with a reliable method of selecting the most suitable job applicants orcandidates for promotion.Psychometric tests are seldom used in isolation and represent just one of the methods usedby employers in the selection process. The usual procedures for selecting candidates stillapply, for example: A job is advertised and you are invited to send in your resume, which isthen checked to see if the organisation thinks that your experience and qualifications aresuitable. 30
  31. 31. These tests aim to measure attributes like intelligence, aptitude and personality, providing a potential employer with an insight into how well you work with other people, how well you handle stress, and whether you will be able to cope with the intellectual demands of the job. There are two main types of psychometric tests: 1. Ability test 2. Aptitude test1. ABILITY TESTS – Measure your ability to perform or carry out different tasks.Personality Questionnaires - Measure your way of doing things, and specifically the wayyou interact with your environment and other people. 2. APTITUDE TESTS - Aptitude test are designed to assess your logical reasoning or thinking performance. They consist of multiple choice questions and are administered under exam conditions. They are strictly timed and a typical test might allow 30 minute.. Verbal Ability - These include questions which test your ability to spell words correctly, use correct grammar, understand analogies and follow detailed written instructions. Numeric Ability - These include questions on basic arithmetic, number sequences and simple mathematics. In more complex numerical critical reasoning questions, blocks of information are provided that require interpretation. Abstract Reasoning - These tests are usually based on diagrams and measure your ability to identify the underlying logic of a pattern and then determine the solution. Spatial Reasoning - These tests measure your ability to manipulate shapes in two dimensions or to visualize three-dimensional objects presented as two-dimensional picture. 31
  32. 32.  PSYCHOMETRIC ASSESSMENTPsychometric test is similar to psychological testing but usually involves a morecomprehensive assessment of the individual. Psychometric assessment is a process thatinvolves the integration of information from multiple sources, such as tests of normal andabnormal personality, tests of ability or intelligence, tests of interests or attitudes, as well asinformation from personal interviews. Collateral information is also collected aboutpersonal, occupational, or medical history, such as from records or from interviews withparents, spouses, teachers, or previous therapists or physicians. A psychometric test is oneof the sources of data used within the process of assessment; usually more than one test isused. TYPES OF PSYCHOMETRIC TESTS1. FIRO-B2. LOC1. FIRO-BFIRO-B stands for Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior.Developed by William Schutz in 1958, Schutz first used the FIRO-B tool to assess howteams performed in the US Navy.The FIRO-B is an assessment tool used to help individuals and teams better understandtheir preferences in satisfying three basic social needs:Inclusion (the degree to which one belongs to a group, team or community)Control (the extent to which one prefers to have structure, hierarchy and influence)Affection (ones preference for warmth, disclosure and intimacy).For each of these factors, FIRO-B assesses individuals as to:How much they express the needs andHow much they want to have the needs expressed to them from others. 32
  33. 33.  In this respect, FIRO-B is measuring the three aspects of Inclusion, Control and Affection, from two needs perspectives of expressing (outwardly directed behavior towards others) and wanting (behavior from others directed towards oneself).  The FIRO-B model and assessment tool can also provide information regarding leadership styles and areas of potential conflict.2 .LOCA locus of control orientation is a belief about whether the outcomes of our actions arecontingent on what we do (internal control orientation) or on events outside our personalcontrol . It has two type1. External Locus of ControlIndividual believes that his/her behavior is guided by fate, luck, or other externalcircumstancesExternals can lead easy-going, relaxed, happy lives.2. Internal Locus of ControlIndividual believes that his/her behavior is guided by his/her personal decisions & efforts.Internals can be psychologically unhealthy and unstable. An internal orientation usuallyneeds to be matched by competence, self-efficacy and opportunity so that the person isable to successfully experience the sense of personal control and responsibility. Overlyinternal people who lack competence, efficacy and opportunity can become neurotic,anxious and depressed. In other words, internals need to have a realistic sense of theircircle of influence in order to experience success. 33
  34. 34. CONDUCTING THE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL BEFORE THE APPRAISALKeep good record Both praise and criticism are most meaningful when supported by factual example.Review previous Use previous goal to evaluate progress. goalsGet input from Seek feedback from others who work with the appraisee in Others areas they will have objective knowledge of and get example where available.Prepare carefully Prepare in advance so that you can deliver the message that you intend to.Prepare administrative Agree on a time, Select a location, Ask employee to preparedetails DURING THE APPRAISALEncourage I. Listencommunication II. encourage two way communication. III. ask for ideas on how they can improve their performance. IV. ask for how they feel you can help them.Communicating The employee expects and should know what he/she needs toshortcoming improve.Making promise Dont make promises you do not have control over salary increments,promotions,transfers etc.Be open Be versatile and open-minded if you hear things that cause you to change your opinion.Review goals Concentrate on a few areas things that make a difference. Try to encourage continuation and growth in areas of strength. AFTER THE APPRAISALFollow-up Follow-up on agreements made during the appraisals.Learning Review what you have learnt about the employee, your record and systems, yourself, the appraisal process and your management style. 34
  35. 35. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM IN SIMPLEX INFRASTRUCTURES OBJECTIVE OF THE SYSTEM To bring role clarity. Self assessment by the employee. Understanding strength and weakness. Identifying training and development needs. Identifying leadership quality. Goal setting Improving organizational performance. Better understanding between appraise and appraiser. APPRAISAL SYSTEM IN SIMPLEXAppraisal FormTo make performance appraisal simpler and transparent the new form has been developed.The performance appraisal form consists of 2 parts.1.Part A performance assessment based on psychometric test. It is the same for all Level.2.Part B is a behavior and personnel assessment.3.Part C is a skill and development plan. This is just development plan for the next comingyear.  Different forms are developed for 2 levels.Level 1- Staff to executiveLevel2- Asst Manager to Sr. manager 35
  36. 36. Mark Weight age for 2 levels. Levels Performance Behavioral & Individual Total Mark Assessment Personal Development Part A Assessment. Plan Part B Part c Level 1 70 marks 30 marks - 100 marks Level 2 70 marks 30 marks - 100 marksPERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTPart A is a psychological testing. Simplex used two type of method is used for checking theactivity of human behavior. FIRO-B and LOC was two type of different type of test whichwas used for checking the leadership quality, external and internal control and also checkingthe introvert and extrovert types. From this test also checking the job knowledge,innovativeness, co-operation, leadership behavior,JOB KNOWLEDGE(Knowledge of work gained through experience, general education, specialized trainingetc.)1. Has knowledge which is superior to most employees in similar position (very good)2. Adequate job knowledge to do his job-(Average)3. Deficient in job Knowledge and needs to improve -(Poor)4. Totally lack of job knowledge-(Very poor)INNOVATIVENESS(Ability to think and be creative)1. Self starter -suggest and implements new ideas/changes-(Very good)2. Innovation on most aspect of work,upon being guided-(Average)3. Routine, passive on innovation-(Poor)4. No innovativeness-(Very poor)CO-OPERATION:-(Attitude toward work, fellow employees)1. Co-operative and linked, goes out of the way to help others constructively-(Good)2. Had difficulty working with other, some tendency to be different, cannot take orders-(Average)3. Can not work with others-(Poor)4. Dislikes others and discourteous-(Very Poor) 36
  37. 37. LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR 1. Taking initiatives, responsibility & making decision-(Good) 2. Quite responsible-(Average) 3. Makes Occasionally responsible -(Poor) 4. Totally irresponsible and undependable-(Very poor)FLEXIBILITY(To deals effectively with changes in task and conditions of work) 1. Flexible takes up all type of task upon allotment -(Good) 2. Takes up all tasks and jobs on explanation-(Average) 3. Hesitate in taking up other tasks-(Poor) 4. Refuses to take up tasks other than his own area-(Very poor)PART B: BEHAVIORAL AND PERSONAL ASSESSMENT There are 5 parameter given on which the employee will be assessed.For Level 1 1. Initiative 2. Time management 3. Continuous improvement 4. Enthusiasm 5. PlanningFor Level 2 1. Delegation 2. Communication 3. Interpersonal relationship 4. Dependability 5. People Development 37
  38. 38. PART C: INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT PLANAfter having appraised the employee‟s performance against objective and key competencyarea, you need to summarize the key strength and weakness of the individual.The performance appraisal has two objective. First its evaluation of performance againstobjective and second is employee development. It is important that the appraisal processprocess result in growth, development, and improvement.Part c is basically a development plan for the individual based upon his performance in theprevious year and future requirements.There are no marked assigned to it. It consists of 1 .Training and development plan 2 .career development planComputation of the overall score is obtained by adding the final part A and part B. Then therecommendation are to be given by the supervisor.The immediate supervisor and the employee both sign and date this page to document thatperformance was discussed and evaluated.The flow chart showing the detail schedule of performance appraisal process is attachedherewith for ready reference. It is expected from all concerned to adhere with schedule fortimely release of increment/promotion letters.INCREMENT PERCENTAGEBased on the performance of the company the exact percentage of increment foreach level shall be decide and communicated to all.PROMOTION CRITERIAThere will be no specific percentage of the employee that can be promoted inthe organization. Following parameter should be considered while deciding apromotion.:-Minimum years in same grade.Present and earlier performance appraisal rating.Additional responsibilities he is handling.Availability of position in the company. 38
  39. 39. FAST TRACK EMPLOYEES1 .No restriction of minimum year in the same grade for promotion.2 .Appreciation/RewardENCOURRAGEMENT WITHIN THE GROUP:To encourage the existing employee within the group for consideration for thevarious vacancies in new plant head/position, the concerned plant head mayrecommend the name of the employee, who has potential to grow further.APPRAISAL SESSIONS:Training session will be conduct by respective HR department for the benefitsof the appraisals. The session will help he appraisals to understand theperformance appraisals system. APPRAISALS SCHEDULESr Activity Target Date1 The appraisals form to be forward to all concern. The Last week of may level appraisals committees to be formed by the head.2 The process of self appraisals to be completed by all 1st week of june eligible employees and submitted to the respective authorities.3 The annual appraisals and new settings for the next year, 1st june to 20th june to be completed by the respective appraisals.4 The plant review committee to submit it 25th june recommendation and final rating to the plant HR.5 Plant HR to submit the compiled appraisal report to the 27th june apex committee.6 The apex committee to finalize the appraisal result. 30th june7 Promotion/increment to be declared. 1st august 39
  40. 40. DETERMINE THE RESULTS OF FIRO-B & LOCPersons behavior according to FIRO-B Test InclusionLow 0-5 Introvert, Unsocial, Choosy, Prefer to work individually, Neither a joiner nor a meeting lover.Mid 6-14 Comfortable around known people, Selective socialHigh 15-18 Looking for new relationship, always want to be a team , Extrovert. ControlLow 0-5 Timid, Ineffective communicator.Mid 6-14 Effective communicator, decision maker, have motivating and influencing skillsHigh 15-18 Dominant in nature, over confident, hard to convince AffectionLow 0-5 Do not generally share feeling with other, Lonely in nature.Mid 6-14 Support team in selective situation, maintain balance in forming close relationship, normally believe in professional relationshipHigh 15-18 Very supportive, highly affectionate, share warm relationships with co-worker. 40
  41. 41. INCLUSION INCLUSION CONTROL AFFECTION Expressed Control Expressed Affection Total Expressed Expressed Behavior Inclusion 7 Wanted Inclusion Wanted Control Wanted Affection Total Wanted Behavior 7 Total Need for Total Need for Control Total Need for Affection Overall Interpersonal Inclusion NeedResults on Expressed Inclusion (7) and Wanted Inclusion (7) suggest that the followingpattern of behaviors may describe:- 1. You include others and like to be included. 2. You enjoy the opportunity to provide input 3. You don‟t like to get cut off from information and updates 4. •You seek recognition and endorsement from colleagues and superiors. 41
  42. 42. CONTROL INCLUSION CONTROL AFFECTION Expressed Control Expressed Affection Total ExpressedExpressed BehaviorInclusion 1Wanted Inclusion Wanted Control Wanted Affection Total Wanted Behavior 9Total Need for Total Need for Control Total Need for Overall InterpersonalInclusion Affection Need Results on Expressed Control (1) and Wanted Control (9) suggest the following pattern of behaviors. You may accept direction from those in authority. You may not be interested in gaining influence. You are a loyal and cooperative member of the organization. You like to perform your work according to standard operating Procedures. 42
  43. 43. AFFECTION INCLUSION CONTROL AFFECTION Expressed Control Expressed Affection Total Expressed Expressed Behavior Inclusion 7 Wanted Inclusion Wanted Control Wanted Affection Total Wanted Behavior 7 Total Need for Total Need for Control Total Need for Affection Overall Interpersonal Inclusion NeedResults on Expressed Affection (7) and Wanted Affection (7) suggest that the followingpattern of behaviors. 1. You are friendly, open, and optimistic. 2. You value trustworthiness. 3. You prefer to motivate others by praise and support and are best motivated in the same way 4. .You may enjoy resolving conflicts and negotiating. 5. You may feel sad when group projects involving regular contact with colleagues end. 43
  44. 44. LOCSCORE TYPE OF LOC This person has strong locus of control and would 0-3 ILOC generally perceive himself or herself as only responsible for certain occurrence, his or her action would have a direct bearing the result. This kind of people are those who controlled their destinies 4-12 ILOC by their own action, They take charge of thing , assertive in nature, take responsibilities of work within their control. LOC refers to how a person perceive the cause of life 13-23 ELOC events. A person with an strong ELOC would only blame or thank fate, destiny, luck, society, or some other force beyond his or her control. 44
  45. 45. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYDefinition of Research:-By Clifford Woody- “The process which includes defining and re-definingproblems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution; collecting,organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reachingconclusions and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determinewhether they fit the formulating hypothesis “Research Design:-The project report is based on following on research types:-Descriptive Research: - It is fact finding investigation with adequateinterpretation. It focuses on particular aspects of problem beingstudied. It is design to gather descriptive information. Data arecollected by using one or more appropriate methods like, observation,interviews and questionnaire.Analytical Research: - In these research facts, information used tomake critical evaluation. In analytical research detailed analysis offacts is given.The detailed information was collected by interviewing thempersonally in the office with help of questionnaire.Research techniqueMethod of survey was chosen for completion of the project.Type of questionsThe type of questions in the survey was close ended questions withlimited probing as well as open ended questions. 45
  46. 46. Type of questionnaireIn this survey, structured questionnaire was used. The questions werepresented with exactly the same wording and in the same order to allrespondents. And the questions were prepared in advance and not onthe spot during the questioning period.DATA COLLECTION:-Facts, information or premises, systematically collected and formallypresented for the purpose of drawing inferences called as data.There are two types of data:-1 Primary Data-For the purpose of the project the method of direct interview wasselected. The industry was selected as unit and selectively respondentswere chosen as representatives from each department. The managerand the employee were questioned based on questionnaire. The datawas collected from each manager and employee chosen as respondentsand selectively respondents were chosen as representative from eachdepartment.Basic methods of collecting primary Data:-Observation.Interview.Questionnaire and schedules.For data collection we use following methods:-QUESTIONNAIRE :-The questionnaire is a form prepared and distributed to secureresponses to certain questions. In the questionnaire, questions are takenwith positive negative replies. The replies of the candidates areanalyzed on few parameters. 46
  47. 47. The questionnaire can be of two types:- a) Structured Questionnaire: b) Unstructured Questionnaire: Questionnaire is yet another method used by me to know more about training program effectiveness. In this study most of the questions in the questionnaire are closed ended questions. Questionnaire was used as an instrument for the collection of primary data because of the following reasons:-1. Since the assignment involved studying the employee‟s perception, behavior & attitudes the questionnaire as a tool offered high versatility and ease of administration2. Face to face interaction is possible, which helps in observing and noting the finer aspects of the respondent‟s body language.3. Queries from the respondents can be easily answered.4. It provides more clarity to respondent regarding the purpose that avoids the misinterpretation. This was the most popular and useful method for conducting the survey. It helped in collecting the information from the framed questions to get maximum necessary data required for research. Thus the questionnaire helped in various ways:- Respondents had an adequate time to give well thought answers. Through informal discussion much more information could be obtained from the respondents. 47
  48. 48. For this study observation is used as one of the tool:-Interview method:-An interview is technique for collection of primary data. In interview method participants aswell as superiors are interviewed after two months of training program, to know theusefulness of training program.2 Secondary Data-The secondary data means data that is already available in various reports, dairies, books,periodicals etc. the data presented in research report when used again for further research iscalled secondary data.Sources of secondary data can be classified as: A. Published sources B. Unpublished sourcesSAMPLE SIZE:- 60 EMPLOYEESSample size: refers to determining how many elements (units) of the population should beincluded in the sampleFor the collection of data, we had taken 100 respondents of managerial grade which wereselected randomly. SAMPLE DETAILS Size 60 employee Designation Officer, Manager, Asst. Manager, Supervisor Department HR, Finance, MIS, Maintenance 48
  49. 49. 1. What should be the basic thrust of a current appraisal system ? Sr.No ATTRIBUTES NO. OF EMPLOYEE PERCENTAGE 1 Performance 20 34% 2 Leadership 03 05% 3 Supportive & Affectionate 12 20% 4 All of the above 25 41% 41% 34% Performance Leadership Supportive & Affectionate 20% All the above 5%INTERPRETATIONAccording to the graph 34% of the respondents believe that only performance should be thebasic thrust of a current appraisal system. 41% of the respondent say that performance,personality traits & managerial skills, experience and seniority should be the basic thrust ofcurrent appraisals system. Whereas 20% of the respondents view that only experience andseniority should be the basic thrust. The rest 5% of the respondents believe that personalitytraits and managerial skill should be only basic thrust of a current appraisals system. 49
  50. 50. 2. The Purpose of performance appraisals in organization is : Sr. No. ATTRIBUTES NO. OF EMPLOYEE PERCENTAGE 1 Determine salary increments 20 34% 2 Deciding on promotion 18 30% 3 Identifying training needs 09 15% 4 Identifying candidates for careers 07 11% 5 Providing feed back to individuals 06 10% about their performance 10% 11% 34% Salary Promotion 15% Training Careers 30% PerformanceINTERPRETATIONAs per the graph 34% respondents agree to the point that the purpose of performanceappraisals is to determine salary increments, 30% respondents say that its purpose is decidingon promotions 15% respondents feel that the purpose of performance appraisals is toidentifying training needs. Whereas 11% respondents say that the purpose is to identifyingcandidates for career or succession plan. Last but not least only 10% respondent view that itis for providing an opportunity for dialog between supervisors and subordinates. 50
  51. 51. 1. Do such periodic appraisal motivates to do better ay your job? OPINIONS PERCENTAGE Yes 65 No 22 Can’t say 13 Yes No Cant sayINTERPRETATIONFrom the above graph it show that 65% employee‟s think that performance appraisalsmotivates their job and 22% people say that performance appraisals don‟t help to motive theirjob. 13% employee who are new in company says can‟t say. 51
  52. 52. 2. The appraisals system in this organization according to you is-Appraisal system PercentageVery good 72Satisfactory 17Not satisfactory 7Need of revision 4 Very good Satisfactory Not Satisfactory ImprovementINTERPRETATIONFrom the above table and graph we can clearly find out that 72% of the employees say thatthe system is excellent and hardly need any change, 17% feel it‟s satisfactory and 7% thinkthat it can be improved further. But 4% think the system is average and definitely needs achange or improvements and more than 50% think that the system is ok and don‟t need anychange. 52
  53. 53. 5. Persons behavior according to LOC(Locus Of Control) Test : Sr.No. ATTRIBUTES NO. Of EMPLOYEE PERCENTAGE 1 ILOC 40 66% 2 ELOC 20 34% ELOC 34% ILOC 66%INTERPRETATIONAccording to the graph, 66% of the respondents have strong internal locus of control andwould generally perceive himself or herself as only responsible for certain occurrences,his or her action would have a direct bearing on the result. 34% respondent has externallocus of control would most often blame or thank fate, destiny, society or some other forcebeyond his or her control. 53
  54. 54. 6. Persons behavior according to FIRO-B test(Inclusion)SR. NO. ATTRIBUTE NO. OF EMPLOYEE PERCENTAGE 1 Low 12 20 2 Medium 12 20 3 High 36 60 Low Medium High 20% 60% 20%INTERPRETATIONFrom the above graph & data approximately 20% employee are Unsocial & introvert, 20% ofthe employee are Selectively social &the rest 60 % of the employee are Social and extrovert. 54
  55. 55. 6. Persons behavior according to FIRO-B test(Control) SR. NO ATTRIBUTE NO. OF EMPLOYEE PERCENTAGE 1 Low 6 10 2 Medium 36 60 3 High 18 30 Sales Low Medium HighINTERPRETATIONFrom the above graph and data, approximately 10% employee are timid and ineffectivecommunicator.60% are effective communicator and decision maker and the remaining 30%are dominant in nature and over confident. 55
  56. 56. 8. Persons behavior according to FIRO-B test(Affection) SR. NO ATTRIBUTE NO. OF EMPLOYEE PERCENTAGE 1 Low 6 10 2 Medium 18 30 3 High 36 60 Low Medium High 10% 30% 60%INTERPRETATIONFrom the above chart & data, approximately 10% of employee are sharing feelings withothers, Lonely in nature 30 % employee are maintain balance in forming close relationship,normally believe in professional relationship. 60% employee are Very supportive, highlyaffectionate, share warm relationships with co-worker. 56
  57. 57. 9. The program objectives were well covered Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly Total Disagree 8 44 8 0 60 13 74 13 0 100% Strongly agree Agree Disagree Strongly disagree 0% 13% 13% 74%INTERPRETATIONIt is found out that 13% participants strongly agree and 74 % just agree while 13 % weredisagree to the same. 57
  58. 58. LIMITATION OF THE STUDYSince, the duration of the summer internship was limited to only 60days, this time period was not really sufficient for studying in depthabout the Training and Development.The analysis was based on the views and opinion of respondents.It cant be assure that the collected data has high degree of precision &accuracy.Some respondents could not respond due their busy schedule.Limited availability and accessibility of secondary data.Secrecy of the organization creates hesitance on the part of theconcerned authority to come out accurate response.Two months project duration was one of the major limitation as Icould not cover all the aspect of my project. 58
  59. 59. FINDINGS1. It was observed that about 100% of employee are aware of performance appraisal system carried out in an organization.2. A survey conveys most of the employee plan and monitor their performance, as they are aware of doing self planning and monitoring.3. Survey conveys that the employee undertake their half yearly performance review.4. It was observed that, annual performance appraisal is undertaken by the superior for measuring the performance of employees and suggesting for improvements in the performance if any.5. From the survey it was found that the employees are highly motivated, because the reward given to them are satisfactory.6. 60% employee are satisfied with the new technique of performance appraisal.7. 20% are not satisfied with psychometric tests.8. 20% are against of this method. 59
  60. 60. CONCLUSIONSAs per the employees responses in exit interviews, communicationmeet and other channels of formal and informal communicationprovide input for measuring employee well being, satisfaction andmotivation.The performance appraisal system is helpful for better understandingbetween management and employee.It brings role clarity among performer, so they can give their 100% fororganization to achieve their goals.The system is effective to improve the skill level of employee and canutilize their time and competencies well.The current performance appraisals system creates the competitiveculture in the organization so it help to identify the potential ofperformer /employee and it also help to improve the organizationalperformance for attaining the organizational goals.60% satisfied with psychometric tests.66% of employees have ILOC they would generally perceive himselfas only responsible of their work.Most of the employees are social, extrovert, effective communicator,supportive and highly affectionate in company.(recognize by FIRO-BTESTS and personal meeting).The Performance appraisals system can identify the training anddevelopment needs, so the management helps to employee by givingtraining and other strategies. 60
  61. 61. SUGGESTIONSAs some of employee are not aware of planning and monitoring oftheir performance, they should be given training for the same.There should be regular communication between superior andemployee, so that there can be more of transference for buildingconfidence among employees regarding performance appraisalssystem and for showing better and improved performance.There should be more of motivation to the employee by monitory andnon- monitory motivational factors. As they give annual increments,they can give more of monitory incentive and the non-monetary factorsuch as arranging the function for recognizing the employeesperformance so that the employee can be motivated.To enhance the performance level, the company should support theemployee and there should be more of involvement of employee indecision making for motivating them.Promotion is an important non -monitory technique of motivation sothe company must use this motivation techniques efficiently byreducing the consistency period to 2-3 years and consider the factorlike experience, skill, intelligence etc.The performance appraisals should be conduct half yearly. 61
  63. 63. Name of the employee: Designation: Employee code: Location: QUESTIONARIES 1. What should be the basic thrust of a current appraisal system ? 1.Performance 2.Leadership 3.Supportive &Affectionate 4.All the above 2. The Purpose of performance appraisals in organization is : 1.Determine salary increments 2.Deciding on promotion 3.Identifying training needs 4.Identifying candidates for careers 5. Providing feed back to individuals about their performance 3. Do such periodic appraisal motivates to do better ay your job? 1.Yes 2.No 3.Can‟t say 4.The appraisals system in this organization according to you is-1. Very good2. Satisfactory3. Not satisfactory4. Needing immediate revision/improvement 63
  64. 64. (QUESTIONNAIRE)LOCUS OF CONTROLCircle the number to sow how strongly youagree/disagree with each statement. Numbers on theleft always mean disagree and those on the right alwaysmean agree.1. Getting ahead is about what you can do, not who youknow.Disagree Agree123452. I am too old to change.Disagree Agree123453. If someone hates me, there is not a lot I can doabout it.Disagree Agree123454. Most people can learn to be leaders- it’s not a matterof birth.Disagree Agree123455. A good way to handle a problem is not to think aboutit.Disagree Agree123456. Promotions are earned through hard work andpersistence.Disagree Agree123457. I am very persevering – and I usually accomplishwhat I set out to do.Disagree Agree123458. Because no one can predict the future there is littlepoint in making plans.Disagree Agree12345 64
  65. 65. 9. I won’t make resolutions because I don’t usually keepthem.Disagree Agree1234510. I believe we are masters of our own fates.Disagree Agree1 2 3 4 5If your total score is 40 or higher you probably feel incontrol of your life and what happens to you, the goodand the bad. You are likely to take initiative inrelationships, work and career.A score of 30 to 39 also suggests an internal locus ofcontrol, though less definitely.If you scored 10 or lower the opposite is probably true –you feel you don’t have much control over whathappens.A score of 11 to 19 carries a similar, though lesspronounced meaning.A score of 20-29 falls in between. There is real scope foryou to develop your internal locus of control further. 65
  66. 66. INTERPERSONAL NEEDS QUESTIONNAIRE (FIRO-B)For each statement below, decide which of the following answers bestapplies to you. Place the number of the answer at the left of thestatement.1.Usually 2. Often 3. Sometimes 4.Occasionally 5.Rarely6.Never 1. I try to be with people. 2. I let other people decide what to do. 3. I join social groups. 4. I try to have close relationships with people. 5. I tend to join social organizations when I have and opportunity. 6. I let other people strongly influence my actions. 7. I try to be included in informal social activities. 8. I try to have close, personal relationships with people. 9. I try to include other people in my plans. 10. I let other people control my actions. 11. I try to have people around me. 12. I try to get close and personal with people. 13. When people are doing things together, I tend to join them. 14. I am easily led by people. 15. I try to avoid being alone. 16. I try to participate in group activities. 66
  67. 67. For each of the next group of statements, choose one ofthe following answers:1. Most 2. Many 3. Some 4. A few 5. One ortwo 6. Nobody17. I try to be friendly to people.18. I let other people decide what to do.19. My personal relationships with people are cool and distant.20. I let other people take charge of things.21. I try to have close relationships with people.22. I let other people strongly influence my actions.23. I try to get close and personal with people.24. I let other people control my actions.25. I act cool and distant with people.26. I am easily led by people.27. I try to have close, personal relationships with people.For each of the next group of statements, choose one ofthe following answers:1. Most 2. Many 3. Some 4. A few 5. One ortwo 6. Nobody28. I like people to invite me to things.29. I like people to act close and personal with me.30. I try to influence strongly other peoples actions. 67
  68. 68. 31. I like people to invite me to join in their activities.32. I like people to act close toward me.33. I try to take charge of things when I am with people.34. I like people to include me in their activities.35. I like people to act cool and distant toward me.36. I try to have other people do things the way I want them done.37. I like people to ask me to participate in their discussions.38. I like people to act friendly toward me.39. I like people to invite me to participate in their activities.40. I like people to act distant toward me.For each of the next group of statements, choose one ofthe following answers:1. Usually 2. Often 3. Sometimes 4. Occasionally 5. Rarely6. Never41. I try to be the dominant person when I am with people.42. I like people to invite me to things.43. I like people to act close toward me.44. I try to have other people do things I want done.45. I like people to invite me to join their activities.46. I like people to act cool and distant toward me.47. I try to influence strongly other peoples actions.48. I like people to include me in their activities.49. I like people to act close and personal with me.50. I try to take charge of things when Im with people. 68
  69. 69. 51. I like people to invite me to participate in their activities52. I like people to act distant toward me.53. I try to have other people to do things the way I want them done.54. I take charge of the things when Im with people. 69