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PROCESS RE- ENGINEERING<br />“ An Approach to Systematize a  Leather Apparel Industry”<br />
Project Background<br /><ul><li>Process Re- engineering  as defined by renowned Re- engineering theorists</li></ul>    Ham...
  The majority of manufacturing operations are undertaken  manually in a  </li></ul>    un-standardized manner. <br />
ALPINE APPARELS Pvt. Ltd<br /><ul><li>  Established in 1986 at Faridabad , Alpine's integrated design & </li></ul>   manuf...
Project objective<br />Primary Objective<br /><ul><li>  Re- engineer; the production process in order to identify and elim...
  Time & Motion; to induce the utilization of industrial engineering tools for systemized production methodology</li></ul>...
Project methodology<br />Primary Data Collection & Process Modeling<br />Questionnaire, Process Flow Mapping<br />Result A...
Project Area definition<br />
Primary data analysis & process modeling<br />In order to obtain vital information about the present processes and activit...
QUESTIONNAIRE<br />
Result analysis<br />RESULTS<br />Questionnaire<br />
Result analysis<br />
Result analysis<br />
Process FLOW mapping<br /><ul><li>  Process Flow Mapping helps in the identification  of various activities involved in  <...
Receipt of Order File and Pre- production Meeting <br />Feeding of Cut parts To the Sections<br />Discussion with supervis...
Material flow  analysis<br /> Entry to Finishing <br />PPC<br />   Office<br /> Emergency Exit <br /> Entry from Cutting <...
Relationship analysis<br />Richard Muther developed a format for displaying manager preferences for departmental or facili...
A<br />U<br />I<br />X<br />I<br />E<br />E<br />E<br />X<br />X<br />X<br />I<br />I<br />U<br />X<br />Muther’s grid for...
A<br />O<br />A<br />X<br />I<br />U<br />X<br />E<br />X<br />X<br />X<br />X<br />I<br />U<br />A<br />Muther’s grid for...
Relationship analysis<br />
Relationship analysis<br /><ul><li>  The Table  imparts the information that the total variance points are </li></ul>    1...
Fig  1.2 Stitch Floor<br /><ul><li>    Non- utilization of systemized methodology  of production involving Time Study Anal...
The budgeted cost for stitching is taken by discussions with supervisors and middle </li></ul>      management, <br />find...
Fig 1.3 Current Scenario of material handling<br /><ul><li>The related operations are not in proper proximity to each othe...
  High  of product variation with no product wise segregation on the floor.</li></ul>findings<br />
Area  of IMPROVEMENT 1: layout<br />Critical Areas considered for layout updation:<br />Maximum space utilization<br />Eas...
 Entry to Finishing <br />Proposed  layout<br /> Entry from Cutting <br /> Emergency Exit <br />
proposed layout……contd<br /><ul><li>The clearances around the thread cutting table was:</li></ul>3.5m x 1.5 m x 1.75m<br /...
Area  of Improvement2: Material handling system<br />The factor considered while evaluating suitability of a material hand...
  The product pieces are prone to easy damage and are small in size
  The floor undertakes order of small to medium order quantity (300- 2000 pcs)
  The style variation is high</li></li></ul><li>Proposed  Material handling system<br /><ul><li>The proposed material hand...
Proposed  Material handling system <br />The Guiding Principles<br /><ul><li>  As per OSHA standards, the workers while st...
The Design<br />Hollow Iron Rod<br />Stand Hollow Iron Rod<br />Canvas Bag<br />Wooden Crate<br />Iron Angle Frame<br />Wo...
Proposed  Material handling system <br />The features<br /><ul><li>    The trolley will align itself to the sewing machine...
Material analysis<br /><ul><li> The trolley performs on a mosaic floor with no exposure to wet conditions.
The trolley performs on a floor prone to loose sewing nylon threads.
 The trolley has to bear a weight of 5-7 kilograms.
 The trolley would on an average cover a distance of 10-50 meters / day.</li></ul>Proposed  Material handling system<br />
Material analysis….. contd<br />Proposed  Material handling system<br />
Technical and design specifications<br />Iron Nail<br />5”<br />Casted Steel<br />3”<br />Rubberized Polymer<br />90°<br /...
Cost  analysis<br />Proposed  Material handling system<br />
Proposed  Material handling system<br />Implementation<br />The construction of Technology Demonstrator-I has been approve...
Area  of IMPROVEMENT3: Industrial engineering tools<br />The utilization of IE tools was undertaken for production process...
Industrial Engineering tools…….contd<br /><ul><li>  The utilization of IE tools will enable constant process innovations w...
Area  of IMPROVEMENT4: Accountability<br />During the cutting , after the bundling process a bundle ticket has been implem...
Daily production Tracking Sheet<br /><ul><li>  The implementation of the style wise production tracking sheet</li></ul>wil...
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My Research Project: "PROCESS RE- ENGINEERING"

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My Research Project which got me the award of Best Graduating Project at Annual NIFT Tech- Summit- 2008

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My Research Project: "PROCESS RE- ENGINEERING"

  1. 1. PROCESS RE- ENGINEERING<br />“ An Approach to Systematize a Leather Apparel Industry”<br />
  2. 2. Project Background<br /><ul><li>Process Re- engineering as defined by renowned Re- engineering theorists</li></ul> Hammer and Champy as:<br />“ the fundamental reconsideration and the radical redesign of organizational processes, in order to achieve drastic improvement of current performance in cost, service and speed”<br /><ul><li>The leather apparel and goods manufacturing industry is the focus
  3. 3. The majority of manufacturing operations are undertaken manually in a </li></ul> un-standardized manner. <br />
  4. 4. ALPINE APPARELS Pvt. Ltd<br /><ul><li> Established in 1986 at Faridabad , Alpine's integrated design & </li></ul> manufacturing set up is geared to cater to the most discerning buyers <br /> of leather dress gloves  and fine leather goods.<br /><ul><li> It has presently 5 Units committed to manufacturing leather products </li></ul> like Gloves, Bags, Wallets, Caps etc<br />
  5. 5. Project objective<br />Primary Objective<br /><ul><li> Re- engineer; the production process in order to identify and eliminate waste in labor, or production methods
  6. 6. Time & Motion; to induce the utilization of industrial engineering tools for systemized production methodology</li></ul>Secondary Objective<br /><ul><li> To implement control formats to ensure accountability at every stage of the production process</li></ul>PETER F. DRUCKER<br />Peter F. Drucker<br />&quot;There is nothing so useless as doing efficiently that which should not be done at all.“<br />
  7. 7. Project methodology<br />Primary Data Collection & Process Modeling<br />Questionnaire, Process Flow Mapping<br />Result Analysis<br />Identifying Area of Improvement<br />Re- engineering & Initiative Development<br />Idea Formulation<br />Evaluate / Select<br />Idea selection<br /> Acceptability <br /> Analysis<br />NO<br />Discussion with Top Management<br />YES<br />Cost Justification<br />Analysis<br />Implementation<br />
  8. 8. Project Area definition<br />
  9. 9. Primary data analysis & process modeling<br />In order to obtain vital information about the present processes and activities involved in the operation cycle of the department and to analyze the current system of material flow, following tools were used:<br />
  10. 10. QUESTIONNAIRE<br />
  11. 11. Result analysis<br />RESULTS<br />Questionnaire<br />
  12. 12. Result analysis<br />
  13. 13. Result analysis<br />
  14. 14. Process FLOW mapping<br /><ul><li> Process Flow Mapping helps in the identification of various activities involved in </li></ul> the chain of processes supporting the product. The mapping of all the <br /> processes imparts a detail insight into the physical layout of the department <br />Some of the common non-value added problems include:<br />
  15. 15. Receipt of Order File and Pre- production Meeting <br />Feeding of Cut parts To the Sections<br />Discussion with supervisors to set the target labor cost to be achieved<br />Counting of the parts by the Supervisor<br />Receive Cut Parts from Cutting Department as per PO#<br />In- Process Storage<br />Issue of Hardware from Store against BOM <br />Making/ Pasting/ Stitching<br />Counting of Cut parts and the hardware at the Receiving Table<br />Thread Cutting & Inspection<br />Process flow mapping<br />Dispatch to Finishing Department<br />
  16. 16. Material flow analysis<br /> Entry to Finishing <br />PPC<br /> Office<br /> Emergency Exit <br /> Entry from Cutting <br />Average Aisle Width= 1.11m<br />
  17. 17. Relationship analysis<br />Richard Muther developed a format for displaying manager preferences for departmental or facility locations, known as Muther&apos;s grid. The rating system is classified into six categories and degree of relationships, they are: <br />A = Absolutely necessary<br />E = Especially important<br />I = Important<br />O = Okay<br />U = Unimportant<br />X = Undesirable<br />
  18. 18. A<br />U<br />I<br />X<br />I<br />E<br />E<br />E<br />X<br />X<br />X<br />I<br />I<br />U<br />X<br />Muther’s grid for stitch floor<br />Fig 1.1 Rating of Present Layout of the Stitch Floor<br />
  19. 19. A<br />O<br />A<br />X<br />I<br />U<br />X<br />E<br />X<br />X<br />X<br />X<br />I<br />U<br />A<br />Muther’s grid for stitch floor<br />Fig 1.1 Rating as per Desired Layout of the stitch floor<br />
  20. 20. Relationship analysis<br />
  21. 21. Relationship analysis<br /><ul><li> The Table imparts the information that the total variance points are </li></ul> 18 and the variance has occurred in 6 relationships. Thus, each relationship variation <br /> individually contributes 3 points or 60% to the floor layout variance<br /><ul><li> To calculate the percentage of material layout to be updated in order to </li></ul> achieve the desired layout, the following formula is being used:<br /> <br /> % Updation = Total Rating Variance x %Contribution per Point x100 <br /> Total Relations x max [P-D] x %Contribution per Point<br /> = (18x20) x100/ (15x5x20)<br /> = 24% <br />
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Fig 1.2 Stitch Floor<br /><ul><li> Non- utilization of systemized methodology of production involving Time Study Analysis, </li></ul> Ergonomics, Method Engineering <br /><ul><li> Duplication of the activity of counting of cut parts at the stitch floor
  24. 24. The budgeted cost for stitching is taken by discussions with supervisors and middle </li></ul> management, <br />findings<br />
  25. 25. Fig 1.3 Current Scenario of material handling<br /><ul><li>The related operations are not in proper proximity to each other which results in </li></ul> increased material flow. <br /><ul><li> Absence of a systematic material handling system.
  26. 26. High of product variation with no product wise segregation on the floor.</li></ul>findings<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Area of IMPROVEMENT 1: layout<br />Critical Areas considered for layout updation:<br />Maximum space utilization<br />Easy accessibility<br />Location and width of aisle<br />Optimum material flow<br />Compliances Approved<br />Clear fire exits<br />Feasibility of shifting facilities and workstations<br />
  29. 29. Entry to Finishing <br />Proposed layout<br /> Entry from Cutting <br /> Emergency Exit <br />
  30. 30. proposed layout……contd<br /><ul><li>The clearances around the thread cutting table was:</li></ul>3.5m x 1.5 m x 1.75m<br />1 .5 m<br />1 .5 m<br />2.5 m<br /><ul><li>The spraying/ edge color table dimensions: 2 m x 1.5 m x 1 m</li></li></ul><li>Advantages of proposed layout<br /><ul><li>The addition of one more material handling table ensures proper storage and </li></ul> accountability of cut pieces and hardware.<br /><ul><li> The segregation of the stitch floor into sections enhances the efficiency of </li></ul> the line planning process and imparts an opportunity to install systems to <br /> ensure the accountability of the production process.<br /><ul><li> The workstations and facilities have been allocated as per the material flow </li></ul> and relationship analysis which results in streamlining of the material <br /> movements and ensure minimum loss of time.<br />
  31. 31. Area of Improvement2: Material handling system<br />The factor considered while evaluating suitability of a material handling system:<br /><ul><li> The Aisle Width between machine lines is 1.11 m
  32. 32. The product pieces are prone to easy damage and are small in size
  33. 33. The floor undertakes order of small to medium order quantity (300- 2000 pcs)
  34. 34. The style variation is high</li></li></ul><li>Proposed Material handling system<br /><ul><li>The proposed material handling system consists of a trolley with a wooden crate fixed </li></ul> on a framed structure. <br /><ul><li> The movement of the trolley may be by manual means or it can be automated by </li></ul> installing rail based network. <br /> Since the space and investment constrains rule out a rail based trolley system, a manual trolley transit system was a better option. The design of the trolley was specific to the requirements of a leather apparel and goods manufacturing unit.<br />
  35. 35. Proposed Material handling system <br />The Guiding Principles<br /><ul><li> As per OSHA standards, the workers while stitching should not lean down or stretch their </li></ul> hands to pick up the material for sewing.<br /><ul><li> As per OSHA standards, the material handling system should be such that the operator should </li></ul> not bend or twist to pick up the material to undertake sewing operation.<br /><ul><li> As per OSHA standards, the operator should not stretch and lean to alight the sewn pieces </li></ul> from the machine. <br />Fig 1.5 Ergonomically incorrect material handling systems<br />
  36. 36. The Design<br />Hollow Iron Rod<br />Stand Hollow Iron Rod<br />Canvas Bag<br />Wooden Crate<br />Iron Angle Frame<br />Wooden Buffer Crate<br />Wheel<br />Fig 1.6 Trolley Design<br />
  37. 37. Proposed Material handling system <br />The features<br /><ul><li> The trolley will align itself to the sewing machine with pieces of product kept </li></ul> in the top crate and the buffer crate.<br /><ul><li> The canvas bag attached to the trolley holds the small parts of product like </li></ul> pull tabs, labels, leather strip which are needed to be sewn to the large parts<br />Fig 1.7 Alignment of Trolley with Sewing Workstation<br />
  38. 38. Material analysis<br /><ul><li> The trolley performs on a mosaic floor with no exposure to wet conditions.
  39. 39. The trolley performs on a floor prone to loose sewing nylon threads.
  40. 40. The trolley has to bear a weight of 5-7 kilograms.
  41. 41. The trolley would on an average cover a distance of 10-50 meters / day.</li></ul>Proposed Material handling system<br />
  42. 42. Material analysis….. contd<br />Proposed Material handling system<br />
  43. 43. Technical and design specifications<br />Iron Nail<br />5”<br />Casted Steel<br />3”<br />Rubberized Polymer<br />90°<br />Fig 1.8 Parts of Trolley<br />Proposed Material handling system <br />
  44. 44. Cost analysis<br />Proposed Material handling system<br />
  45. 45. Proposed Material handling system<br />Implementation<br />The construction of Technology Demonstrator-I has been approved by one of the leading Industrial trolley manufacturers in India<br />VANYA Inc, Okhla New Delhi<br />The system is scheduled to be implemented in the near future at Alpine Apparels Ltd, Faridabad<br />
  46. 46. Area of IMPROVEMENT3: Industrial engineering tools<br />The utilization of IE tools was undertaken for production process of two<br />styles:<br />NEXT Crossbody Leather Bag<br />EDC Jungle Green Canvas Bag <br />The steps followed were:<br />Time Study & Method Analysis at Sampling Stage<br /> Calculation of the Throughput Time for each styles<br /> Calculation of Target Cost by following formula:<br />Target Labor Cost= Order Quantity x Throughput Time (in hrs) x Labour cost / hr<br />
  47. 47. Industrial Engineering tools…….contd<br /><ul><li> The utilization of IE tools will enable constant process innovations which is </li></ul> driving tool for improvements<br /><ul><li> The loss of value in terms of time and labor would be conserved after the </li></ul> implementation of systemized methodology<br /><ul><li> The production process would not dependant on the inferences of the </li></ul> supervisor<br /><ul><li> The technical data pertaining to the on-going production process would </li></ul> be available.<br />
  48. 48. Area of IMPROVEMENT4: Accountability<br />During the cutting , after the bundling process a bundle ticket has been implemented which would have the following information:<br />The above format will eliminate the redundant activity of counting the cut pieces on the stitch floor<br />
  49. 49. Daily production Tracking Sheet<br /><ul><li> The implementation of the style wise production tracking sheet</li></ul>will account the exact man- hours spent on a particular style.<br /><ul><li> The data generated will act as a input to generate performance report and will identify the loopholes and faults.
  50. 50. It will also perform as a mechanism for daily performance tracking</li></ul> of the department, so as to ensure that the production process is in <br /> progress as per the planning.<br />
  51. 51. Daily production Tracking Sheet<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53. Result calculation methodology<br /><ul><li> Result would be tracked by, the difference between the performances </li></ul> of a particular style before the implementation of the proposed layout <br /> and after its implementation.<br /><ul><li> The time constrains imposed by duration of the project made it difficult to track the results.</li></ul>Formula:<br />Benefit Manhours = Previous Performance (Manhours) - Performance after Implementation( <br /> Manhours)<br />
  54. 54.
  55. 55. <ul><li> It has been assumed that the factor that limits the performance of </li></ul> the organization is the ineffectiveness of its processes. This <br /> assumption may not always be true.<br /><ul><li> The research area has been restricted to processes of the stitch floor </li></ul> of the organization, the process chains of other departments of the <br /> organization have been spared.<br /><ul><li> The non co-operation of the middle management was a major hurdle </li></ul> to procure information and implement changes.<br />
  56. 56.
  57. 57. “ Perfection is not a destination, it’s a journey”<br /><ul><li> The purpose Process Re- engineering (PRE) is to identify, evaluate and re- structure processes to extract efficiency. So, the processes are bound to modify in this dynamic corporate environment.
  58. 58. The present system of processes are not permanent, they need modification with changing requirements.
  59. 59. The approved design of the trolley will undergo user trials and after necessary amendment it would be implemented.
  60. 60. PRE starts with a clean slate so every time there is a new beginning for Re- engineering project.</li></li></ul><li>ThankS,<br />To all members of DFT, NIFT- Hyderabad and the Management and production staff of Alpine Apparels for their support and guidance<br />- Anupam Srivastava<br />

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