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Types of layouts

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These are class notes for PGDM second semester students.

Types of layouts

  1. 1. Types of Plant Layout • Layouts can be classified into the following Types of Layout: Product Layout categories: v/s Process Layout – Process Layout – Product Layout Presented By: – Combination Layout Anupam Kumar – Fixed Position Layout Reader SMS Varanasi – Group Layout E mail: anupamkr@gmail.com © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 1 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 2 Process Layout Process Layout • In process layout: • Advantages: • Disadvantages: – All machines performing similar type of operations – Machines are better – Material handling cannot utilized and fewer be mechanized are grouped together at one location. machines are required – Process time is – Production volume remains limited. – Flexibility of equipment prolonged – The production happens in batches or lots. & personnel is possible – Lower productivity due – A large variety of products can be produced from – Lower initial investments to number of set-ups the same plant. – Higher utilization of – Throughput time is production facility longer – Backtracking and long movements reduces the – Diversity of tasks makes – Space & capital is tied up material handling efficiency. the work challenging & by work in progress/ – Space and capital are tied up in WIP inventory. interesting. process. © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 3 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 4 Product Layout Product Layout • The product layout is selected when the • Advantages: • Disadvantages: – Reduced material – No flexibility in the volume of production is high enough to justify handling activities. production process. a separate production line. – Work In Process almost – Low flexibility in the eliminated. manufacturing times. • In this type of layout, the machines and – Minimum manufacturing – High capital investment. auxiliary services are located according to the time. – Every workstation is processing sequence of the product. – Simplification of the critical to the process.- production planning and The lack of personnel or • The facilities are arranged to ensure efficient control systems. shut down of a machine flow of material and lower cost per unit. – Tasks simplification. stops the whole process. – Monotonous work. © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 5 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 6© Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 1
  2. 2. Combination or Matrix Layout Combination or Matrix Layout • A combination layout combines the advantages of both the process and product layouts. • It is used when the same item is being manufactured in different types or sizes. • In this, the machines are arranged in the process layout format but process grouping is arranged in a sequence. • The sequence of operation with each of the product variety however remains the same. © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 7 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 8 Fixed Position Layout Group Layout or Cellular Layout • This type of layout is suitable when one or a few • Group Layout is also a combination of Product and identical heavy items are to be manufactured. Process Layout. • The materials are kept fixed because the cost of • It identifies the families of components that require transportation of material is very high. similar types of requirements and machines which • In this type of layout, are clubbed together as cells. – the material or the major component remain fixed and • The cellular layout is also called a multi-objective – the tools, machinery, men and other materials move layout because this layout tries to minimize around it. – The sum of the cost of transportation • This type of layout is also called project type layout. – The cost of equipment © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 9 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 10 Group Layout or Cellular Layout Layout Design Process (Functional) Layout Group (Cellular) Layout • ABC Electronics has a facility with six production areas. A cluster • It proposes to locate 6 departments (A,B,C,D,E,F), which have the or cell number of moves per day between departments as shown in the T T T CG CG T T T table below. M • What type of layout would be suitable for the facility? M M T T T T SG SG • Develop a layout for the facility. D D M D M M D D D SG CG CG D A B C D E F M M D D D SG A 5 10 3 2 1 2 3 B 12 Resources to produce similar products 4 5 6 Similar resources placed together placed together C 10 4 8 D 16 E 7 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 11 F 8 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 12© Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 2
  3. 3. Bibliography • Buffa, E.S. and Sarin, R.K., “Modern Production/Operations Management,” Eighth Edition. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia). 1994. • Martinich, J.S., “Production and Operations Management: An Applied Approach”, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia), 2003. • Badi, R.V. and Badi, N.V., “Production and Operations Management”, Second Edition, New Delhi: Vrinda Publication, 2008. For further details… • Chary, S.N., “Productions and Operations Management,” Third Edition, New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill, 2004 • Goel, B.S., “Production Operations Management”, Twenty Second Edition, Meerut, U.P.: Pragati Prakashan, 2010. • Kachru, U. “Production and Operations Management: Text and Cases,” New Delhi: Excel Books, 2007. Contact • Rama Murthy, P., “Production and Operations Management,” New Delhi: New Age International, Anupam Kumar 2012. • Chunawalla, S.A., and Patel, D.R., “Production and Operations Management,” Mumbai: Himalaya Reader Publishing House, 2006. • Jauhari, V. and Dutta, K., “Services: Marketing Operations and Management,” New Delhi: Oxford SMS Varanasi University Press, 2010. • Verma, H.V., “Services Marketing: Text and Cases,” New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley, Pearson E mail: anupamkr@gmail.com Education, 2009. © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 13 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 15© Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 3

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