Analyzing Tourism through the 4-A Framework

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In the study ‘Matching Product Initiatives with Customer
Expectations: Analyzing Tourism through the 4-A Framework’ it has been argued that the time has come to have a re-look at the basic tourism products that one has to offer.
The paper highlights some of the options which became blatant in light of the 4-A framework. This study puts forth the view that as a viable tourism product, one must look at both the accessibility and affordability aspects in tandem.

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Analyzing Tourism through the 4-A Framework

  1. 1. Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Emerging Perspective and Paradigm
  2. 2. Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Emerging Perspective and Paradigm Prof. S. C. Singh Dr. Sherry Abraham Mr. Saurabh Gupta lobus Press DELHI CHENNAI PATNA
  3. 3. Travel, Tourism and Hospitality: Emerging Perspective and Paradigm ISBN 978-93-82484-96-7 © Reserved The work submitted to the Edited Book is solely represented by the author(s). The Editors and Publisher of “Travel, Tourism and Hospitality: Emerging Parspective & Paradigam” accept no responsibility or liability for the originality of the information and the materials contained in the submitted work. Published in 2014 in India by GLOBUS PRESS 448, Pocket 5, Mayur Vihar Phase I, Delhi-110091 Branch Offices: Chennai: 306, Sydenhams Road, Nehru Timber Market, Choolai, Chennai-600 112 Patna: Ist Floor, Maitri Shanti Bhawan, BM Das Road, Patna-800 004 Price : ` 1295.00 Type Setting by: Editorial India, Delhi-110091 Printed at : Deepak Enterprises, Delhi-110091
  4. 4. Contents Acknowledgements (ix) Notes on Contributors (x) Editors’ Introduction (xv) PART I: MARKETING OF TOURISM PRODUCTS AND SERVICES 1. Consumer Analysis of Adventure Tourism Product for better Market positioning; with a Special Focus on West Bengal —Mr. Subhajit Bhattacharya, Dr. Anindya Dutta and Prof. Dev Malya Dutta 2. Measuring Guest perception of Service Quality in Tourism product: A case study of Hotels in Jharkhand—Mr. Praveen Srivastava 3. Matching Product Initiatives with Customer Expectations: Analyzing Tourism through the 4-A Framework —Mr. Anupam Kumar 4. Celebrity Endorsements in Tourism: An Evaluation of Theory, Research and Practice—Dr. Mrinalini Pandey 5. Destination Branding: Towards a Conceptual Framework —Mr. Upendra Kumar Maurya and Mr. Mahendra Kumar Shukla
  5. 5. (vi) 6. Tourism Branding and Marketing in India—Mr. T. Milton 7. Outbound Mice Tourism in India—Dr. P. Saravanan PART II: ECONOMICS OF TOURISM 8. Financing Current Account Deficit and Development through Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism —Mr. Onkar Nath Mishra 9. Assessing Tourism Destinations Competitiveness of SAARC Countries with Special Reference to India —Prof. S. C. Singh and Mr. Saurabh Gupta 10. Tourism Sector in Assam: A Study on Institutional Measures and Challenges——Dr. Aparajeeta Borkakoty and Dr. Darshana Goswami Deka 11. International Tourism: Prospect to Hoist Foreign Exchange —Mr. Bishwajeet Bhattacharjee and Deepali Roy 12. Tourism Industry in India – A Statistical Analysis —Dr. Sudakshina Gupta 13. Eco-Tourism in Andaman and Nicobar Islands —Mr. P. Abdul Salam 14. Medical Tourism: Emerging Product to Boost the Economies —Dr. Rohit Garg 15. Report on Travel Documentation and Facilitation —Dr. P. Saravanan 16. Tourism - Women – Empowerment: Linking the Triad —Mr. Onkar Nath Mishra
  6. 6. (vii) PART III: HUMAN RESOURCES IN TOURISM 17. A Study of the Effectiveness of Retention Practices in the Indian Hotel Industry—Dr. Sherry Abraham 18. Employee Engagement in Hotel Industry: A Conceptual Model—Ms. Rachel Jessie. E 19. The Changing Contours of Human Resources in Tourism —Ms. Priyanka 20. Managing the Workforce in Tourism Sector: A Key to Sustainable Growth and Economic Development —Dr. Kalpana Maheshwari 21. Human Resource Issues in Tourism—Dr. Rajni Singh PART IV: STRATEGIC INTERVENTIONS IN TOURISM 22. Management Information System in Hospitality sector with reference to Tourism Industry for competitive Advantage —Dr. Chandrahauns R. Chavan 23. An Analysis of Critical Success Factors of Budget Hotels in India with reference to the Business Travelers —Dr. C. Rajesh Kumar 24. Tourism in India: Prospects and Problems —Mrs. Moumita Sarkar (Samanta) 25. Need of English for Specific Purpose for Tourism Professionals—Ms. Jaya Verma 26. Indian English Lexical Items to Improve Communication between Tourism Professionals and Tourists Visiting India —Ms. Ritika Srivastava
  7. 7. (viii) PART V: CASE STUDIES 27. Bundelkhand: A Treasure of Tourism—Mr. Saurabh Gupta 28. Heritage Tourism and Urbanisation - A Case of Jaipur City —Dr. Ambey Kumar Srivastava 29. A Case Study of Uttar Pradesh Tourism —Dr. Kavita Srivastava and Mr. Sumit Kumar Singh 30. The Prospects and Challenges of Indigenous Tourism Promotion in a Mystic Destination: The Case of Dunagiri —Dr. Anu Chandran R. C
  8. 8. Acknowledgements It is our pleasure to acknowledge the enormous benefits provided by the learned authors who have undertaken pain staking effort in making valuable contributions towards this work. It enabled us to come up with this fabulous collection of writings. Their lucid writings connect elegantly to the emerging perspectives & Paradigms in the Travel, Tourism & Hospitality sector. We feel obliged to the distinguished panel of reviewers who devoted their precious time in helping us to choose deserving contributions and further guiding the contributors in making their writings clear, crisp and concise. Without their close cooperation it would have been impossible for us to select from the plethora of competing contributions. We are greatly indebted to Abishek Kumar Chintu, Rohit Tiwari and Avneesh Neekhra who assisted us with all aspects of the final ending process. Their meticulous attention to detail, interpersonal skills and good humour proved vital in pulling all the chapters together, and in fact their many suggestions have added considerably to the book. Finally, we would like to thank the entire staff of Globus Press, New Delhi who have infushed untiring efforts to live up to the standerds and complete the assignment in such a short time.
  9. 9. Notes on Contributors 1. Prof. Dev Malya Dutta is currently Head of Department at Centre for Management Studies (CMS), University of Burdwan, Burdwan, West Bengal. He was elected as Vice President of Indian Tourism Congress. E-mail: dmdutta@gmail.com 2. Dr. S. C. Singh is Professor of Operation Management in Faculty of Management Studies, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. E-mail: scsingh@fmsbhu.ac.in 3. Dr. Chandrahauns R. Chavan is Professor & Former Director of Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies University of Mumbai. He also served as Director of Alkesh Dinesh Modi Institute of Financial Management Studies, University of Mumbai, Maharashtra. E-mail: crchavan@jbims.edu 4. Dr. Sherry Abraham is currently Assistant Professor at Department of Tourism studies, Pondicherry University, Pudducherry. She also served as faculty member, Department of Tourism, Faculty of Business and Economics, university of Gondar (UNDP) Ethiopia. E-mail: sherryabrahamm@gmail.com
  10. 10. (xi) 5. Mr. Praveen Srivastava is Head of department at Department of Hotel Management and Catering Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi (Deemed University), Jharkhand. He is also a member of Editorial Board of one of the premier journal of Hospitality, Journal of Hospitality Education and Research (JOHAR). E-mail: praveenbit@gmail.com 6. Dr. C. Rajesh Kumar is currently Principal of Syna International Academy of Hotel & Tourism Management, Katni, Madhya Pradesh. He also served as vice principal of Munnar catering college, Munnar, Kerala. E-mail: rajleoni@gmail.com 7. Prof. Rohit Garg is currently Director of Hindu Institute of Management (A Part of Hindu Educational and Charitable Society), Haryana. E-mail: rohit.teacher@gmail.com 8. Mr. Saurabh Gupta is Junior Research Fellow at Faculty of Management Studies, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. E-mail: saurabhgupta@fmsbhu.ac.in 9. Dr. Kavita Srivastava is Assistant Professor of Marketing in the Department of Management Studies, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology Noida, Uttar Pradesh. She received her Ph.D from Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur. E-mail: srivastava.kavita@gmail.com 10. Mr. Subhajit Bhattacharya is Assistant Professor of Marketing Management at Xavier Institute of Social Service, Ranchi, Jharkhand. E-mail: tobesubho@gmail.com 11. Dr Sudakshina Gupta is Associate Professor of Economics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal. E-mail: sudakshinagupta@yahoo.co.in
  11. 11. (xii) 12. Dr. Mrinalini Pandey is Assistant Professor of Marketing Management at Department of Management Studies, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand. She has authored three books titled; “Wake up dear Consumer”, “Strategic HRD” and “Celebrity Endorsements: the Name Game”. E-mail: mrinal_nalini@yahoo.co.in 13. Mr. Onkar Nath Mishra is a Junior Research Fellow at Faculty of Management Studies, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. He also served as Statistician, Ministry of Statistics Govt. of India. E-mail: aavirmishra@gmail.com 14. Dr. P. Sarvanan is an Assistant Professor at Indian Institute of Tourism & Travel Management (An Organization of Ministry of Tourism, Govt. Of India), Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. E-mail: saravananiittm@gmail.com 15. Dr. Aparajeeta Borkakoty is Associate Professor at Department of Commerce, Gauhati University, Assam. E-mail: apara_jeeta@yahoo.co 16. Dr. Anindya Dutta is an Associate Professor at Bengal Institute of Business Studies, Kolkata, West Bengal. E-mail: emailanindya@gmail.com 17. Dr. Ambey Kumar Srivastava is an MIS Officer at Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur, Rajasthan. E-mail: ambeysrivastava1976@gmail.com 18. Mr. Anupam Kumar is Reader at School of Management Sciences, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. E-mail: anupamkr@gmail.com 19. Dr. Kalpana Maheshwari is Associate Professor at Institute for International Management and Technology, Gurgaon, Haryana. E-mail: kalpana8t@gmail.com
  12. 12. (xiii) 20. Mrs. Moumita Sarkar (Samanta) is Assistant Professor of Commerce at Bangabasi Morning College, west Bengal. E-mail: moumita.sarkar2007@gmail.com 21. Mr. Upendra Kumar Maurya is Associate Faculty at School of entrepreneurship and Extension, ni-msme, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. E-mail: upendraximb@gmail.com 22. Dr. Rajni Singh is Assistant Professor of Human Resource at Hierank Business School, Noida, Uttar Pradesh. E-mail: rajni.singh2009@rediffmail.com 23. Mr. Mahendra Kumar Shukla is student of Fellow Programme in Management at Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar, Odisha. E-mail: u510002@stu.ximb.ac.in 24. Mr. P. Abdul Salam is Assistant Professor at Department of Tourism & Travel Management, JNRM (Govt .College), Port Blair. E-mail: abdulsalam.jnrm@gmail.com 25. Dr. Anu Chandran R.C. is Assistant Professor at Department of Tourism Studies, Pondicherry University, Pudducherry. E-mail: anoos_ind@yahoo.co.in 26. Priyanka is JRF Awardee and Final year MBA student at Marwari College Ranchi, Jharkhand. E-mail: Choubey.picku@gmail.com 27. Dr. Darshana Goswami Deka is Guest Lecturer at Department of Commerce, Gauhati University, Assam. E-mail: goswami_darshana@yahoo.com 28. Ms. Jaya Verma is Research Scholar at The English and Foreign Languages University, Lucknow Campus, Uttar Pradesh. E-mail: jayaverma007@gmail.com
  13. 13. (xiv) 29. Mr. Sumit Kumar Singh is currently Key Accounts Manager (Business Development and Recruitments) in Brunel Energy, Mumbai, Maharashtra. E-mail: sumit.rgipt1@gmail.com 30. Ms. Ritika Srivastava is Visiting Faculty and Research Scholar at The English and Foreign Languages University, Lucknow Campus, Uttar Pradesh. E-mail: ritikasrivastava84@gmail.com 31. Mr. Bishwajeet Bhattacharjee is Assistant Professor at Faculty of Management Studies, Shri Shankaracharya Technical University, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh. E-mail: bhbishwajeet@gmail.com 32. Mr. T. Milton is Head of Department, Department of Hotel Management at Asan Memorial College of Arts & Science, Pallikaranai, Chennai, Tamilnadu. E-mail: tmilton1971@gmail.com 33. Ms. Deepali Roy is Lecturer at PGBT College, Regional Institute of Education, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. 34. Ms. Rachel Jessie. E. is Ph.D. Scholar at Department of Tourism Studies, School of Management, Pondicherry University, Pudducherry. E-mail: rocky.jessy@gmail.com
  14. 14. Editors’ Introduction Human being is by nature creative, intelligent and inquisitive. He has devised many ways to fill the canvass of life with brilliant and soothing hues, and touring is one of them. He wants recreation to avoid the boredom and enjoy life and simultaneously is curious to know about the different cultures, places and traditions that exist on this blue planet. To satisfy this urge since time immemorial, people have been travelling to different parts of the world. With the passage of time, tourism transformed itself from a leisure activity to become a vibrant vehicle of economic development. There are ample evidences to show that tourism industry is doing well in respect of all other industries. Despite other industries in gloom, this industry has not only been least affected by the economic recession and meltdown but is burgeoning briskly. Travel & Tourism has continued to be a critical sector for economic development and for sustaining employment, in both advanced and emerging economies. A strong T&T sector contributes in many ways to development and the economy. It makes both direct contributions, by raising the national income and improving the balance of payments, and indirect contributions, via its multiplier effect and by providing the basis for connecting countries, through hard and soft infrastructure—attributes that are critical for a country’s more general economic competitiveness. Travel, tourism and hospitality industry have closed link with nation
  15. 15. (xvi) culture and traditions, so this industry play a role of catalyst that transform and exchange of culture and traditions one nation to others. The aim of this book is to provide a detailed analysis of different facets of tourism- marketing of tourism products and services, economics of tourism, Human Resources in Tourism, Tourism in Strategic Perspective. The discussions in this volume regarding the emerging perspective and paradigm in tourism range from changing tourist behavior to creating the infrastructure for tourism development. The result is a concrete understanding of changing perspective and paradigm in the travel, tourism and hospitality sector. This introduction seeks to sketch out, in a necessarily provisional manner, the theoretical backdrop and a brief description for the contributions contained in this book. We begin by a brief commentary on the changing concept of tourism product and services and marketing thereof. We then turn to look at the economics of tourism which has been greatly influenced by the changes in the micro as well as macro environment. The next section dwells on the people dimensions of tourism. Tourism is predominantly a service industry and therefore the prominence of people aspect can be well imagined. Next to it, some strategic issues pertaining to tourism sector have been touched upon. In the final section, the gist of three case studies related to the analysis of tourism in three geo graphical regions of India has been presented. Marketing of Tourism Product and Services The concept of marketing has undergone a sea change and the marketing of tourism products and services too has witnessed significant changes in terms of how destinations are presented and sold to the tourists. Tourism is in fact a bundle of product and services that has to change in tune with time. In order to capture the changing nature of how tourism is being sold to tourists some selected studies have been presented. Prof. Subhajit Bhattacharya, Dr. Anindya Dutta and Dr. Dev Malya Dutta in their paper titled ‘Consumer Analysis of Adventure Tourism Product for better Market positioning; with a Special Focus on West Bengal’ analyse one of the rapidly growing segment of tourism
  16. 16. (xvii) namely adventure tourism. They assert that adventure tourism as a new sector is facing the challenges of target group identification. They analyse the association between various socio economic variables and tourism preference. They applied the Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) technique to analyses the perception of the adventure tourists. Praveen Srivastava in his study titled ‘Measuring Guest Perception of Service Quality in Tourism Product: A Case Study of Hotels in Jharkhand’ apply the concept of SERVQUAL model to the hotel industry in Jharkhand and to identify the gaps in services. The study concludes that today’s customers are looking for customer delight and not merely customer satisfaction. In the study ‘Matching Product Initiatives with Customer Expectations: Analyzing Tourism through the 4-A Framework’ Anupam Kumar argues that the time has come to have a relook at the basic tourism products that one has to offer. The author has tried to highlight some of the options which became blatant in light of the 4-A framework This study puts forth the view that as a viable tourism product, one must look at both the accessibility and affordability aspects in tandem. In recent times in India there has been a tremendous increase in the number of celebrity endorsements in tourism sector. In this context, the study ‘Celebrity Endorsements in Tourism: An Evaluation of Theory, Research and Practice’ by Dr. Mrinalini Pandey is an enquiry undertaken to establish the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement as an effective promotional tool and investigates the implementation potential of celebrity endorsement to market destinations. Now a days tourism destinations have acquired brand value and thus branding has become a major issue. Upendra Kumar Maurya and Mahendra Kumar Shukla in their paper titled ‘Destination Branding: Towards a Conceptual Framework’ try to present an integrated approach to destination branding. Cutting edge research with clearly defined objectives by academicians and tourism experts should be bestowed to the tourism industry by addressing Tourism branding and marketing concept in
  17. 17. (xviii) India and it is the need of the hour. This is the gist of the study by T. Milton in his study ‘Tourism Branding and Marketing in India’ Dr. P. Sarvanan in his paper titled ‘Outbound MICE Tourism in India’ laments that although India has a huge potential to be a MICE destination at fails to compete with other again countries because of lack of proper Infrastructure. Economics of Tourism The economics of tourism encompasses a broad range of issues ranging from destination competitiveness and management to exploiting the potential of tourism for advancing the agenda of inclusive growth. The changes in the micro as well macro environment such as globalization, information and communication revolution, economic reforms, financing of infrastructure projects, greater sensitiveness to gender issues etc. have a significant impact on the growth and development of tourism sector. The papers related to this domain have touched upon some of the contemporary issues. Mr. O. N Mishra very strongly proposes the view that tourism can emerge as a key foreign exchange earner for the country. His study ‘Financing Current Account Deficit and Development through Foreign Exchange Earnings from Tourism’ is relevant in the light of worsening balance of payment situation the country. Using the time series data since 1991 this study analysed the behaviour of the foreign tourist receipts (FTRs) using the OLS estimation technique. The study ‘Assessing Tourism Destinations Competitiveness of SAARC Countries with Special Reference to India’ by Prof. S. C. Singh and Saurabh Gupta presents a comparative analysis of the competitiveness of India as a tourism destination vis a vis other SAARC nations. The study revealed that India has a long way to go on certain key indicators. Dr Aparajeeta Borkakoty and Dr Darshana Goswami Deka in their study ‘Tourism Sector in Assam: A Study on Institutional Measures and Challenges’ dwell upon the institutional measures that have been taken to develop tourism in Assam. They list down some priority areas for the government to look into.
  18. 18. (xix) ‘International Tourism: Prospect to Hoist Foreign Exchange’ a study by Bishwajeet Bhattacharjee and Deepali Roy models foreign exchange earnings from tourism and The regression analysis shows the positive correlation between international tourism and foreign exchange for the sample period. In her study ‘Tourism Industry in India – A Statistical Analysis’ Dr. Sudakshina Gupta delves into the the viability of the Indian tourism industry and its prospects. By using secondary data and simple statistical tools of regression it is found that the number of tourists arriving from a particular country is positively and significantly related to the per capita GDP of that country in most cases. Sustainable tourism has attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. In this respect the study ‘Eco-Tourism in Andaman and Nicobar Islands’ by P. Abdul Salam explores the different facets of eco tourism in the Andaman and Nicobar islands. A well planned ecotourism can benefit both protected areas and residents of surrounding communities by linking long-term biodiversity conservation with local, social and economic development. If sustainable eco tourism is developed in the Islands that will certainly act as a major pull factor for both domestic as well foreign tourists. Dr. Rohit Garg in this research article ‘Medical Tourism: Emerging Product to Boost the Economies’ asserts that the rise of medical tourism emphasizes the privatization of health care, the growing dependence on technology, uneven access to health resources and the accelerated globalization of both health care and tourism. ‘Report on Travel Documentation and Facilitation’ is a article by Dr. P. Sarvanan which nicely documents the processes involved in the travel documentation. It presents a SWOT analysis of the travel documentation system in India. Gender issues have garnered a lot attention in the tourism sector. It is increasingly being felt that tourism is not only a means of economic development but has some responsibilities as well. In the light of this fact the study by O. N Mishra titled ‘Tourism - Women – Empowerment: Linking the Triad’ makes an serious attempt to
  19. 19. (xx) analyse the nexus between the women empowerment and tourism. The study starts by asserting that there is dearth of literature on this issue and then proceeds to enunciate that gender issue should be accorded a priority in the agendas of governments, international and national organisations working in tourism businesses. Some of the critical areas where some concrete actions are urgently needed are: providing access to resources, seeking active involvement of women, providing legal protection and providing skill and professional training. HR Issues in Tourism Tourism being a labour intensive industry creates vast potential for the employment generation in developed as well as emerging economies. Leveraging the tourism potential is a daunting task and one of the key issues is the adequate availability of competent and skilled workforce. Also tourism is a service industry and hence an efficient utilisation of human resources and availability of well trained workforce becomes important an importance issue. The inextricable link between the calibre and performance of staff and service delivery is a key issue for human resources management in the tourism sector. This sections opens with the study titled ‘A Study of the Effectiveness of Retention Practices in the Indian Hotel Industry’ authored by Dr. Sherry Abraham. The main finding of the study is that the hotel industry has immense potential for growth and is a large employment generator as well. It is also found that customer satisfaction levels measured against all the six SERQUAL dimensions were significantly higher for the five star hotels vis-à-vis the mid-tier hotels. ‘Employee Engagement in Hotel Industry: A Conceptual Model’ a study by Rachel Jessie. E focuses on the identification of the relevant factors which determine employee’s engagement and to develop a model based on the factors identified. In her research article ‘The Changing Contours of Human Resources in Tourism’ Priyanka underscores the need for due importance to human resources. There is clear finding I the study that Indian tourism sector ranks poorly on human resource pillar in the
  20. 20. (xxi) Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index. The study further identifies some key issues that must be resolved in order to develop a competitive tourism sector. Dr. Rajni Singh concludes in her study titled ‘Human Resource Issues in Tourism’ that tourism industry can attract talented and young people by solving these HR issues like-unattractive salaries, lack of career and growth opportunities, poor training and learning facilities, lack of quality of work life etc; which are discouraging the competent and talented people to make their career in this industry. The closing study to this section has been authored by Dr. Kalpana Maheshwari and is titled ‘Managing the Workforce in Tourism Sector: A Key to sustainable growth and economic development’. This paper focuses on how efficient workforce management in tourism can lead to success of the business as well as an inclusive growth leading to economic development. Strategic Interventions in Tourism The development of Tourism is not an easy task. It requires a long term vision. This essential lands us into the realm of strategic management approach to tourism. The policy and plans pertaining to the tourism sector present the framework that will be used to develop the tourism sector. The concept of strategy is important for it sets out the path for action. In this section some aspects of strategic issues in tourism have been covered. Dr. Chandrahauns R. Chavan in his study titled ‘Management Information System in Hospitality sector with reference to Tourism Industry for competitive Advantage’ proposes the idea that integration of technology and technology base information system is the necessary for to meet the global reach and high customer demand to remain competitive in the industry. Dr. C. Rajesh Kumar in his empirical research paper ‘An Analysis of Critical Success Factors of Budget Hotels in India with reference to the Business Travellers’ focuses on critical success factors of budget hotels in tier 2 and tier 3 towns of India with particular emphasis
  21. 21. (xxii) on the business travelers. It is inferred from the study that while the potential for budget hotels in Tier 2 towns of India is immense, their ability to tap into this potential largely depends on their ability to attract business travelers. The research article authored by Moumita Sarkar (Samanta) ‘Tourism in India: Prospects and Problems’ dwells on the future of tourism industry in India. It advocates that since tourism requires continuous trimming, moderation and updating in this competitive international environment proper cooperation and coordination between the public and the private sector is a must for the future growth of tourism in the country. Further, there is a need for greater coordination among the adjoining states having tourist places of international significance. Jaya Verma in her study titled ‘Need of English for Specific Purpose for Tourism Professionals’ advocates that One of the skills needed for this profession is effective English; an international language. English for specific purpose develops certain competencies in professionals to handle the profession deftly. ‘Indian English Lexical Items to Improve Communication between Tourism Professionals and Tourists Visiting India’ is an article by Ritika Srivastava in which she explores the role of communication (English language) in the tourism sector. It is in communication with each other, in every instance of contact, that hosts and tourists negotiate the nature of their experience, the meanings of cultures and places, as well as their own relationships and identities. Therefore, to meet the demands of English speaking tourists it is essential for Indians to learn to communicate in English. Efforts are required by the English speaking tourists coming to India to have knowledge of certain Indian expressions as well. Case Studies The last section contains three case studies. The First Case study authored by Saurabh Gupta and titled ‘Bundelkhand: A Treasure of Tourism (A Case Study)’ explores the potential of Bundelkhand as a tourism destination. It presents a detailed overview of various
  22. 22. (xxiii) attractions in Bundelkhand and lists down the obstacles that must be removed for tourism to prosper. ‘Heritage Tourism and Urbanisation - A Case of Jaipur City’ is a well written case. It very beautifully and lucidly elaborates the view that urban culture not only houses the newly built infrastructure but also our rich cultural heritage, in tangible and intangible form by taking the example of Jaipur, the capital city of Rajasthan. The third case study is titled ‘A Case Study of Uttar Pradesh Tourism’ and has been authored by Dr. Kavita Srivastava and Sumit Kumar Singh. It is a descriptive study focusing on the tourism destinations of Uttar Pradesh. The case study titled ‘The Prospects and Challenges of Indigenous Tourism Promotion in a Mystic Destination: The Case of Dunagiri’ by Anu Chandran R. C. is an attempt to explore the exciting and emerging world of special interest tourism. It is related to indigenous tourism development in Dunagiri in the state of Uttrakhand. Travel, Tourism & Hospitality: Perspective & paradigm aims to convey the complexity, dynamism and contemporary issues in the world of tourism. This book brings together a rich collection of quality writings from different arena of tourism. As the contributions to this book make clear, it is also a public and political concern. As the landscape of tourism is constantly evolving due to a plethora of factors, so does the discussions and debate regarding the role of tourism in socio economic upliftment of the communities and nations. References 1. Gupta, S. and Singh, S. C., (2013), “A Study of Inter linkages of Tourism Sector: Empirical Evidences from SAARC & ASEAN Countries”, Journal of Hospitality Application & Research Vol. 7 No. 1 2. Gupta S., (2013), “Gender Dimensions Of Tourism: empowerment and gender equality perspective”. In Ohol, P., Mishra, O. N., Pandey, J. K., Chintu, A. K., & Bhardwaj, N. (Eds.), Women entrepreneurship: The way ahead. New Delhi, India: New Global. 3. Mishra, O. N., (2013). “An Econometric Modelling of Tourism, Globalisation and Growth: Evidences from India”. In Ajay Kr. Rajan
  23. 23. (xxiv) and Suman Pahal., Reinventing Issues in Business and Research. New Delhi, India: Bharati Publications. 4. World Economic Forum, (2011). The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report, WEF, Geneva, Switzerland 5. World Economic Forum, (2013). The Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report, WEF, Geneva, Switzerland 6. World Tourism Organization (2009), Tourism 2020 Vision, UNWTO, Madrid. 7. World Tourism Organization (2009), Tourism Highlights 2009 Edition, UNWTO, Madrid. 8. World Tourism Organization (2009), World Tourism Barometer, June, Volume 7 (2), UNWTO, Madrid. 9. World Tourism Organization (2010), UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2010 Edition, UNWTO, Madrid. 10. World Tourism Organization (2010), World Tourism Barometer, Vol. 8 (1), World Tourism Organization, Madrid. 11. World Tourism Organization (2011), Tourism Highlights 2009 Edition, UNWTO, Madrid. 12. World Tourism Organization (2011), World Tourism Barometer, June, Volume 7 (2), UNWTO, Madrid.

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