Location of a plant

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Location of a plant

  1. 1. Need for Locating a Plant • It arises when: – The business in newly started Locating a Plant – The expansion to the existing plant is not possible – A firm wants to establish new branches Presented By: – The landlord does not renew the existing lease Anupam Kumar – Economic or social reasons like: Reader SMS Varanasi • Inadequate power supply E mail: anupamkr@gmail.com • Government regulations, etc. © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 1 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 2 Importance of the Right Location Importance of the Right Location • Location Decision is a long term decision • The location of plant fixes the cost structure. • Location Decision is difficult to revise or – It affects the fixed and variable costs. reverse – At times transportation costs are almost 25% of the price of product. • The location of plant fixes the production • Location of a facility affects the company’s technology. ability to serve its customers quickly and – Options between labour intensive or capital / conveniently. machine intensive production technologies. • Location determines the nature and size of the business © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 3 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 4 Factors Affecting Location Decisions Factors Affecting Plant Location • Market Proximity • Availability of Services • Controllable Factors • Uncontrollable Factors • Integration with other • Suitability of Land and – Market – Government Policy parts of the organization Climate – Supply of Raw Material – Climatic Conditions • Availability of Labour and • Regional Regulations – Transport – Supporting Industries Skills • Room for Expansion – Infrastructure – Community • Site Cost • Safety Requirements Availability – Social Network • Availability of Amenities • Political Cultural and – Labour and Wages • Availability of Transport Economic Situations Facilities • Regional Taxes, Special • Availability of Inputs Grants and Import / Export Barriers. © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 5 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 6© Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 1
  2. 2. Need for Locating a Plant Location Evaluation Methods • The need for locating a plant can broadly be divided • There are various methods for evaluating the into 2 types. ideal Location for a Plant. – Location Choice for Existing Organization • Plants Manufacturing Distinct Products • Some of them are: • Plants Supplying to a Specific Market Area – Factor Rating Method • Plants Based on the Process or Stage of Manufacturing – Point Rating Method • Plant Emphasizing Flexibility (Increase in Operations) – Location Choice for New Organizations – Locational Break-Even Analysis • Identification of Region – Center of Gravity Method • Choice of Site with a region – Transportation Model • Selecting a Site © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 7 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 8 Factor Rating Method Factor Rating – Selection Criteria • Labor costs; including • State and local government • Most widely used location technique – wages, fiscal policies; including – unionization, – incentives, • Useful for service & industrial locations – productivity – taxes, • Rates locations using factors • Labor availability; including – unemployment compensation – attitudes, • Utilities; including – Intangible (qualitative) factors – age, – fuel, • Example: Education quality, labor skills – distribution and – electricity, – skills – Water costs – Tangible (quantitative) factors • Proximity to raw materials • Site costs; including and suppliers – land, • Example: Short-run & long-run costs – expansion, • Proximity to markets – parking, – drainage © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 9 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 10 Factor Rating – Selection Criteria Factor Rating Method • Quality-of-life issues; • Transportation availability; • List relevant factors including including – all levels of education, – rail, • Assign importance weight to each factor (0 - 5) – cost of living, – air, – health care, – water and • Develop scale for each factor (1 - 10) – sports, – interstate roads – cultural activities, • Quality of government; • Score each location using factor scale – transportation, including • Multiply scores by weights for each factor & – housing, – stability, – entertainment, – honesty, total – religious facilities – attitudes toward new business - whether overseas • Select location with maximum total score • Foreign exchange; including or local – rates and stability © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 11 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 12© Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 2
  3. 3. Factor Rating Method - Illustration Point Rating Method Factor Factor Location Location • While selecting a location, companies have several Rating A B objectives, Tax Advantage 4 8 6 – But not all are of equal importance Suitability of labour Skill 3 2 3 • To overcome this issue, in Factor Rating Method, Proximity to customers 3 6 5 – each objective is given a Factor Rating depending upon – the mutual importance of the various objectives. Adequacy of Water 1 3 3 • The Point Rating Method takes into consideration a Receptivity of community 5 4 3 hypothetical ideal location and tries to fix the Quality of Education System 4 1 6 maximum points for each of the objectives. Access to rail and Air transport 3 10 8 • Now all the available locations are given points after considering the maximum possible points as per the Suitability of climate 2 7 9 ideal site. Availability of Power 2 6 4 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 139 14013 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 14 Point Rating Method - Illustration Point Rating Method Factor Rated Maximum Location Location Possible Points X Y • The drawback of this method is that Future Availability of Fuel 300 200 290 – high score in any factor can overcome a low score Transportation, Flexibility & 250 200 95 in other factor. Growth • To overcome such extreme deviations, Adequacy of Water Supply 150 100 140 – any site which does not have at least a specified Labour Availability 250 210 200 number of points for those essential factors are Pollution Regulations 300 250 280 – excluded from further consideration. Site Topography 50 40 30 Living Conditions 150 100 135 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 1100 1130 15 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 16 Point Rating Method - Illustration Point Rating Method Factor Rated Maximum Location Location • Point Rating Method helps in comparing the Possible Points X Y tangible factors with the intangible factors. Future Availability of Fuel 300 200 290 Transportation, Flexibility & 250 200 95 • Points are assigned only to the intangible Growth factors. Adequacy of Water Supply 150 100 140 • Evaluation is made to determine whether Labour Availability 250 210 200 – the difference between the intangible scores is Pollution Regulations 300 250 280 worth Site Topography 50 40 30 – the difference between the tangible costs (if any) Living Conditions 150 100 135 of the competing locations. © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 1100 1130 17 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 18© Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 3
  4. 4. Point Rating Method Locational Break-Even Analysis • If two alternative locations are found to be • Method of cost-volume analysis used for equally attractive by comparing costs based industrial locations on tangible factors then • Steps • These two alternative potential locations may – Determine fixed & variable costs for each location further be evaluated, based on the intangible – Plot total cost for each location factors using the Point Rating Method. – Select location with lowest total cost for expected production volume • Must be above break-even © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 19 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 20 Locational Break-Even Analysis - Locational Break-Even Analysis Illustration • You’re an analyst for ACC Cement. Sr. Place Fixed Cost Variable Total Cost Variable Cost No. (in INR) Cost (at 0 Unit ( at 2 Lac unit • You’re considering a new manufacturing plant in Aurangabad, ‘000s (in INR) production) production) Bhubaneswar, or Coimbatore. Fixed costs per year are Rs. ‘000s ‘000 s 11Cr., Rs. 6Cr., & Rs.3Cr. respectively. 1. Aurangabad 110000 250 110000 50000 2. Bhubaneswar 60000 450 60000 90000 • Variable costs per case are Rs. 250, Rs.450, & Rs.750 3. Coimbatore 30000 750 30000 150000 respectively. • The price per bag is Rs. 1200. Sr. Place Fixed Cost Variable Variable Cost Variable Cost No. (in INR) Cost (at 1 Lac Unit ( at 5 Lac unit • What is the best location for an expected volume of 200,000 ‘000s (in INR) production) production) bags per year? Back to Question ‘000s ‘000 s • Would your decision change if the expected volume is more 4. Aurangabad 110000 250 25000 125000 than 5 Lakh bags or less than 1 Lakh bags? 5. Bhubaneswar 60000 450 45000 225000 6. Coimbatore 30000 750 75000 375000 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 21 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 22 Locational Break-Even Analysis – Locational Break-Even Analysis Illustration Chart • Godavari Electricals Ltd. Wanted to set up its new plant for manufacturing 2000 of heaters. The management of Godavari identified three potential areas whose fixed and variable costs are as below. 1500 Annual Cost • The product is expected to be sold at Rs. 1050 per unit and the existing (in ‘00) demand in the market is likely to be 600 units per year. 1000 • Calculate the most profitable location for Godavari under the current conditions. 500 C lowest B lowest A • What is the minimum quantity that Godavari should target to break even cost cost lowest its costs in Hyderabad? cost 0 Location Fixed Cost / Year Variable Cost / Unit 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Kakinada Rs. 2,00,000.00 325 Volume Vijayawada Rs. 2,50,000.00 285 (in ‘00) Hyderabad Rs. 3,00,000.00 265 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 23 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 24© Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 4
  5. 5. Center of Gravity Method Center of Gravity Method Steps • Finds location of single distribution center • Place existing locations on a coordinate grid serving several destinations – Grid has arbitrary origin & scale – Maintains relative distances • Used primarily for services • Considers • Calculate X & Y coordinates for ‘center of gravity’ – Location of existing destinations – Gives location of distribution center • Example: Markets, retailers etc. – Minimizes transportation cost – Volume to be shipped – Shipping distance (or cost) • Shipping cost/unit/mile is constant © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 25 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 26 Center of Gravity Method Transportation Model • Finds amount to be shipped from several sources to several destinations • Used primarily for industrial locations • Type of linear programming model – Objective: Minimize total production & shipping costs – Constraints • Production capacity at source (factory) • Demand requirement at destination © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 27 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 28 Bibliography • Buffa, E.S. and Sarin, R.K., “Modern Production/Operations Management,” Eighth Edition. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia). 1994. • Martinich, J.S., “Production and Operations Management: An Applied Approach”, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia), 2003. • Monks, J.G., “Theory and Problems of Operations Management”, Second Edition, New Delhi: Tata McGraw For further details … • Hill, 2004. Chary, S.N., “Productions and Operations Management,” Third Edition, New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill, 2004 • Kumar, S.A., and Suresh, N., “Production and Operations Management”, Second Edition, New Delhi: New Age, 2008. • Goel, B.S., “Production Operations Management”, Twenty Second Edition, Meerut, U.P.: Pragati Prakashan, Contact 2010. Anupam Kumar • Kachru, U. “Production and Operations Management: Text and Cases,” New Delhi: Excel Books, 2007. • Rama Murthy, P., “Production and Operations Management,” New Delhi: New Age International, 2012. Reader • Chunawalla, S.A., and Patel, D.R., “Production and Operations Management,” Mumbai: Himalaya School of Management Sciences, Varanasi. Publishing House, 2006. Email: anupamkr@gmail.com • Jauhari, V. and Dutta, K., “Services: Marketing Operations and Management,” New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2010. • Verma, H.V., “Services Marketing: Text and Cases,” New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley, Pearson Education, 2009 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 29 © Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 30© Copyright 2013 Anupam Kumar 5

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