Algae1

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Algae1

  1. 1. Algae: Future fuel and value added products By Anupama Yadav Dr. A. M. Lall Department of Biochemistry and Biochemical Engineering Jacob School of Biotechnology and Biochemical Engineering Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture Technology and Sciences Allahabad © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  2. 2. Energy: Our basic requirement © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  3. 3. Understanding Energy and its socioeconomic significance • Fuel + Energy+ chemicals for fertilizers = 70% Economy of the planet • Funding of this largest economy is 1/30th of medical research and for algae its 1/100th of that of agriculture • Requirement of Energy, rate so high that we would burn petroleum accumulated over 300 million years in less than 200 years or in less than Eight Generations of Human beings. © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  4. 4. Biofuels 60% of Fossil Fuels used Energy crisis © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  5. 5. First Generation •from sugar, starch, vegetable oil or animal fats •used conventional technology •criticized for diverting food from the human food chain •Leads to food shortage and price rise © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  6. 6. Comparison of some sources of Biodiesel S. No Crop Oil Yield (L/ha/yr) Land area needed M ha 1 Corn 172 1540 2 Soybean 446 594 3 Canola 1190 223 4 Jatropha 1892 140 5 Coconut 2689 99 6 Oil Palm 5950 45 7 Microalgae 136,900 2 © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  7. 7. Second Generation • from non-food crops. • Does not divert food away from the animal or human food chain. • needs agricultural land for cultivation • Low yield per hectare cultivation © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  8. 8. Third Generation • Algae are low-input, high-yield feedstock to produce biofuel. • Fastest growing photosynthesizers • Very efficient biological system for harvesting solar energy • 100 tonnes of algal biomass fixes approx. 183 tonnes of CO2 • Store energy in form of Lipids and oils © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  9. 9. Oil content of some algae S. No. Microalgae Oil Content (% dry weight) 1 Botrycoccus Braunii 25-75 2 Chlorella sp. 28-32 3 Crypthecodinium cohnii 20 4 Cylindrotheca sp. 16-37 5 Dunaleilla primolecta 23 6 Isochrysis sp. 25-33 7 Monallanthus salina >20 8 Nannochloris sp. 20-25 9 Nannochloropsis sp. 31-68 10 Neochloris oleoabundans 35-54 11 Nitzschia sp. 45-47 12 Phaeodactylum tricornutum 20-30 13 Schizochytrium sp. 50-77 14 Tetraselmis sueica © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014] 15-23
  10. 10. Advantage of algal biodiesel • • • • Degrades four times faster than diesel Higher flash point for safety Can be used in existing diesel engines Sulphur free, less CO, HC, particulate matter and aromatic compounds emissions • Biodiesel is carbon neutral © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  11. 11. Algal oil percentage and physico-chemical properties Samples Oil Percentage (w/w) pH Density g/cm Viscosity at 40ᵒC (Mm2/sec) Nonsaponifiable fat (%) Tolypothrix 12.78 7 0.857 4.1 0.137 Pithophora 10.37 7 0.873 4.2 0.181 Spirogyra 14.82 7 0.884 4.4 0.232 Hydrodictiyon 13.58 6 0.868 3.9 0.231 Rhizoclonium 11.64 7 0.889 4.3 0.237 Cladophora 11.76 6 0.892 3.8 0.244 © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  12. 12. Current approach for Biodiesel extraction © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  13. 13. Requirement for value added products bottleneck in extracting value added products from algae is to separate the different fractions without damaging one or more of product fractions Till now the focus was on obtaining only one product Focus in obtaining the products should be on cell disruption to release the products or to make them available for extraction © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  14. 14. Proposed approach for biodiesel extraction © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  15. 15. Value added products • Current scenario: – Nutraceuticals including carotenoids like beta carotenes and asaxanthine commercially sold at value $8 billion worldwide – Kelp and other sea weeds prominently used in different cultures for food and cosmetic purposes – Benefits from Spirulina are widely known © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  16. 16. Future Prospects Industrial fine chemicals and bulk products e.g. fats polyunsaturated fatty acids, oils natural dyes, sugars pigments, antioxidants, high value bioactive compounds and biomass Ranging from simple dried Fucus for home baths to high value spa & cosmetics ranges Phlorotannins(weight management, anti-inflammatory), fucoidan(immunomodulatory, antimicrobial) , fucoxanthin(weight management) © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  17. 17. References • • • • • • • Vanthoor-Koopmans M., Wijffels R. H., Barbosa M.J and Eppink M.H.M., Biorefinery of microalgae for food and fuel, Bioresour. Technol. (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2012.10.135 Bajhaiya A.K., Mandotra S.K., Suseela M.R., Toppo K., and Ranade S., Algal Biodiesel: the next generation biofuel for India, Asian J. Exp. Biol.Sci. Vol I (4) 2010:728-739 Kumar P., Suseela M.R. and Toppo K., Physico-Chemical Characterization of Algal oil: a Potential Biofuel, Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci. Vol 2(3) 2011: 493-497 Mata T. M., Martins A.A. and Caetano N.S., microalgae for Biodiesel Production and other applications: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14(2010) 217232 Mayfield S., The Green Revolution 2.0: the potential of algae for the production of biofuels and bioproducts, Genome 56: 551-555(2013) Chishti Y., Biodiesel from microalgae, Biotechnology Advances 25(2007) 294-306 Naikwade P.V., Bansode R.P., and Sankpal S.T., Biofuels: Potential, Current Issues and Future Trends, Journal of Today’s Biological Sciences : Research & Review Vol.1,(1) (2012) 186-198 © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]
  18. 18. Thank You Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Photo credit: Beth Rasala, UC San Diego © [Anupama.Yadav] [2014]

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