• Island in east asia - comprising stratovolcanic archipelago.
• Exists in southeast of Russian far east separated by the sea of
• Slightly east of Korea separated by the Sea of Japan
• East-northeast of China and Taiwan, separated by the East China
• Ranked 7th
in the World in total population.
• Tokyo is the capital city.
Few other facts
• Four principal islands: Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku,
• 72% of Japan is mountainous - Japan's
highest mountain is Mount Fuji.
•Located on ring of Fire- volcanic zone along the Pacific
•Excellent fishing water, key resources.
• Lacks many natural resources.
Geographical set backs:
• 1896 – Sanriku earthquake – Tohoku and Hawaii.
• 1923-The Great Kanto Earthquake-Tokyo and Yokohama.
• 2011- An offshore earthquake and tsunami
• Nuclear threat -power plant is severely damaged.
• The country has gone through many years of
natural disasters, affecting its economy,
development, and social life.
HISTORY- the timeline
• Emergence of centralized government in Tokuhawa
• Spread of Buddhism.
• Emergence of (Feudalism) Military dictators known
as Samurai (Shoguns).
• Cultural and Commercial exchange with the West
• Under Emperor Meiji, Japan becomes wealthy,
modernised and powerful.
• Japan becomes an ally of Germany, Italy in World War II.
• On December 7, 1941, Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, the U.S. naval base in
• The U.S. drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; Japan surrenders.
• China overtakes Japan as the world’s second largest economy
• Modern Era
• 1854- Convention of Kanagawa Japan–US Treaty of Peace and
• Centralized state under the Emperor- Akihito.
• Early 19th Century Expansion and militarianism- dominance of
• In 1947, adopted a new constitution.
• Buddhism- came in 6th
century; belief in Buddha teachings
• Shinto – belief in action-centred religion focused on ritual practices to be
carried out diligently.
• Confucianism: Strong emphasis placed on filial piety ( loyalty to parents )
and loyalty to ruler.
• Many Japanese practice both Shinto and Buddhism.
• Christianity- initiated due to Jesuit missions starting in 1549.
• Islam, Hinduism and Jainism- result of immigrations
Multi-party parliamentary representative
Constitutional monarchy- system of civic
• Emperor- head of the Imperial family
leads the state.
• Prime Minister- head of the govt. + head
of the cabinet
• DIET – (legislative power) incl. House of
representatives+ house of councilors.
• Supreme court – (Judicial power).
• Constitution – enables sovereignty
*47th general election took place on 14 Dec 2014.
*LDP in power since 1955 except for 11 month period in 1993 and
1994 and 2009-2012.
* Japan has had 25 Prime Ministers since 1947.
* Political Confusion in Japan.
* People want a change (Political Parties like AAP emerging at state
* Territorial disputes with Russia over the Kuril
* With South Korea over Liancourt Rocks
* With China and Taiwan over the Senkaku
* South Asian nations receive heavy aids
* The United States : Japan's closest ally
and Japan relies on the U.S. for its national
security to a high degree.
• Currency – Japanese yen (JPY)
largest eco. – nominal GDP.
largest- purchasing power parity.
largest- developed economy.
• Leading industrial clusters and manufacturing centres.
• World's largest creditor nation.
• Japan is a member of multiple international trade organizations such as APEC,
WTO, OECD, the G-8 and the G-20.
• Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) rather than Free Trade Agreements
Electronic Integrated Circuits
Computers, Printers & Storage Units
Non Crude Oil
Vehicles excluding trains and streetcars
Optical, technical and medical apparatus
Iron and steel
Japan imports raw materials and pays for them by processing the raw materials, thus adding value to
them before exporting the output.
Hybrid culture with the influence from Asia, North
America and Europe.
The primary and the official language – Japanese.
‘Gaijin’ – outsiders or immigrants
Greet by bowing before each other.
Socially use the family name to call (like Mr. Mishra).
Like more of singing than dancing
Good listener than speaker..speak when they are
Not known for being big smilers..
• Japan does not exhibit the deep ethnic, religious, and class divisions that
characterize many countries.
• The gaps between rich and poor are not as glaring in Japan as they are in
• Collectivism rather than individualism, dominates many aspects of Japanese
• Parent–child relationships characterise the hierarchical nature of inter-
organizational and interpersonal links,
such as government–industry,
large firm–small firm,
Tokugawa era (Edo era): first centralized govt. (1603 – 1868)
• Guns – battle of Nagashino – between Tokugawa and rivalries.
• Imaging technology – inspired from Paris Ukiyo-e. – multi colored
• Socio technological infrastructures (Roads, ports and schools)- to
• Science and technology – mathematics, medicine, surgeons, tourism,
taxation, Bill notes (No barter).
• Recycling technology- due to depression (use of paper, waste as
fertilizers, habitual to low cost hobbies)
Meiji era… (the shoguns) ( 1868 – 1912)
• Japanese scientist started gaining fame.
• Therapy for tetanus, chemical composition of ‘ajinomoto’, atomic based system of
Saturn ring, Vita B1 for Beriberi… etc.
• Nobel nominations initiated- Yukawa got nobel..
• Japanese westernization began completely
• Industrial Revolution 1st
appeared in textiles – cotton and silk (competed with
• Capitalism implemented into technology and applied to military
• Western based education system implemented
• Private enterprises flourished
• Leading nation in scientific research, particularly technology,
machinery and biomedical research
• 700,000 researchers share a US$130 billion research and
development budget, the third largest in the world.
• 16 Nobel prize winners from physics, chemistry and medicine
Pollution along with Meiji period industrialization
Ashio copper mine(1878):Watarase river basin flood
Cadmium poisoning in Toyama Prefecture
Methyl mercury poisoning in Minamata
Waste management: Lack of landfill space
Nuclear power threat
• Photochemical smog
• Nature conservation
• Chemical management
• Japan’s geographical constraint does not hinders it overall growth.
• The history of Japan is the basis for its technological advancement
• Political confusion and coalition leads to delays in decision making.
• Japan has a well-developed industrial and service sectors, but at the same time budget deficit and poor
government finances pose a threat to the development
• The country is strong in terms of human development index and social welfare, but an ageing population
and declining labour force is an area of concern
• Japan has a strong technological base and significant R&D expenditure, but high wage costs are a concern
• The Japanese legal system is similar to that of US and Germany, but rigid and slow legal procedures could
turn away the prospective investors
• The country has strong environmental policies; but air pollution is a challenge the country will have to meet.