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Energy conservation in lighting and air-conditioning
               of Railway coaches

MAULANA AZAD NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
      TECHNOLOGY, BHOPAL



         DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
contents
• Introduction
• Classification of train services.
• Different supply systems and their
  comparison
• Different lighting systems and energy
  consumption patterns
• References
Introduction
• Electric loads in railway coaches

• Need and concept of train lighting

• Need of air conditioning

• History and present state of art
Difference between air conditioning in
    commercial and residential buildings and
                 railway coaches
•   Equipments should be highly reliable, light
    weight
•   Available power is to be utilized
•   Lesser space for air circulation
•   Rapidly changing ambient conditions
•   Excessive vibration
Contd…
•   Exposure to direct sun
•   Dusty atmosphere
•   Flying ballast may hit the equipment
•   Vandalism and abuse
•   Safety of passenger and trains
•   Restricted time available for maintenance
Systems of available air
  conditioning plants
            1. Roof mounted type
               plants -
               air conditioning plants
               on the roof
2. Under slung type plant

                   air
   conditioning plants at
   under frame of bogie.
Classification of train services
• A broad classification
1.Broad Gauge All air conditioned
  coaches(rajdhani/shatabdi/garib rath exp.)
2. Broad Gauge AC and non AC coaches
  (different mail and express trains)
3. Broad Gauge Non AC coaches (other
  trains)
4. Meter Gauge AC and non AC coaches
Depending upon berth capacity

•   I-AC
•   II-AC
•   III-AC
•   Sleeper
•   General
Depending upon power supply
              arrangement

•   End On Generation System (EOG)
•   Self Generating System (SGU)
•   Mid On Generation System (MOG)
•   Head On Generation System (HOG)
End On Generation System
• Power fed at 750 volts from two generator
  car attached at both ends having two DG
  sets of 336 KW rated capacity
• Supply to the coaches is through two
  independent feeders, each designed for a
  maximum 250 amperes.
• In the coaches 750V, 3 phase AC is stepped
  down to 415V through 415kVA delta/star
  transformer
•All AC plants and WRA work on 415V,
whereas pantry car equipment work on 230V.

.With present system of EOG, a max. of 6
coaches can be fed through one DG set under
peak load condition

.A 24V Emergency battery of 90 Ah capacity
has been provided on the under frame along
with a battery charger to supply emergency
lights in the coach in the case of power failure
Merits an Demerits of EOG system

• MERITS:---
• System is independent of mode of traction
• Elimination of bulky batteries and alternators
  reduce dead weight and maintenance
• System has high reliability due to cent percent
  standby system
• High capacity power cars are developed, each
  giving 2500kVA
• DEMERITS:---
• Cost of energy is almost double due to
  higher fuel cost
• Noise and smoke pollutions
• Voltage drop
• Commercial space reduced
• Requirement of more staff to operate and
  maintain
Self Generation System
• Power is derived from the alternator mounted on
  the bogie transform of the coach, driven by the
  axle through ‘V’ belt drive.
• The 3 phase output from the alternator are brought
  out by means of conduit to the box of rectifier cum
  regulator suspended from under frame to give
  output of 18KW at 130V DC.
Contd..
• Rectifier regulator may be transistor controlled or
  magnetic amplifier type,and the facility exists for
  controlling the DC o/p voltage, usually set at
  128V,the setting has to be chosen to suit a
  particular service by field trials
• One alternator set per AC plant is fitted in the
  SGU type AC coaches, each coach has two plants
Battery set
• The DC output from the two alternators are
  paralleled with the 110V battery set of 800A-hr
  capacity which consists of 56 lead acid cells
  connected in series, housed in two battery boxes
  mounted on under frame of AC coaches of BG
• On the MG AC sleeper the battery consists of 5
  cells/3cells mono block construction arranged in 3
  boxes in a row
• During stationary or when coach is running at
  speed less than MFO, the entire load is met by this
  battery set.
Contd..
s.no.   Type of AC coach     No. of sets and Relevant IS
                             capacity of     specificatio
                             battery         n
1       BG AC 2-tier sleeper 1 set of 800Ah IS:6848

2       BG AC chair car      1 set of 800Ah IS:6848

3       BG AC composite      1 set of 800Ah IS:6848

4       BG AC I class        1 set of 525Ah IS:6848

5       MG AC 2-tier         1 set of 450Ah IS:6848
        sleeper
Pre cooling through external supply

• Charging and pre cooling of coach is done by
  external supply, by means of battery charger of
  200A rating mounted on the coach under
  frame.two numbers of 415V, 3phase AC pre
  cooling sockets are provided diagonally on end
  walls of each bogie
• Battery charger consists of a transformer and
  simple diode bridge rectifier, secondary of
  transformer is provided with taps to give 104 to
  140V DC
Merits of SGU system

•   Independent of mode of traction
•   Higher flexibility in rake formation
•   Each coach is self sufficient in generation
•   Depending upon usage ,can be designed for
    required capacity
Demerits of SGU system
• Poor efficiency-57%
• Higher weight affects the speed potential-not
  suited above 110 kmph
• Poor reliability-no standby for battery and
  alternator
• Maintenance and monitoring of batteries,
  alternator,axle–pulley, belts etc. needed-as
  subjected to vibrations continuously
• Fluctuations in illumination and air(of fans)-due to
  variation in voltage during generation and non
  generation periods
Mid on Generation Type
• Supply is obtained at 110V through one
  power car in the center having 230 kVA
  DG sets
• Used for trains having frequent stops
• These are being progressively replaced by
  MEMU and DMU
Merits of MOG system

• Most suitable for slow moving passenger
  trains on branch line
• Centralized control in all coaches
• Reduced maintenance as AC lights and fans
  are used, also because no bulky batteries
• Higher reliability due to cent percent
  standby
Demerits of MOG system


• Noise and smoke pollution
• Electrical staff required to operate and
  maintain the car
• Commercial space equivalent to one power
  car reduced
Head on Generation System
Under this head on generation scheme
power can be taken either directly from
OHE through a separated pantograph
mounted on power car or through hotel load
winding already provided in some of three
phase electric locomotive e.g. in M/s ABB
make
Present status of HOG

• In Europe HOG system is already in use for
  supplying hotel load
• In India Saptagiri Express (12 coaches-9 second
  class sitting, 1 AC chair car and 2 SLR) of SR
  operating 2 pairs of daily services between
  electrified Chennai and Tirupati since 1981is a
  train set where power supply for lighting load of
  35 KW to the rack is derived from AMO converter
  of electric locomotive
Merits of HOG system

• Centralized power distribution for hotel
  load
• Pollution free and cheaper power
• As compared to SG high reliability, reduced
  dead weight and maintenance
• Commercial space not wasted
• Improved haulage capacity of long
  trains,best suited for LHB type coaches
Demerits of HOG system


• Power interruption of short durations
• Require rake integrity like EOG
• Fitness of OHE for multiple raised
  pantograph, safe inter distance between
  pantograph need to be specified
Control panels
•   DC control panel
•   AC control panel
•   Temperature control panel
•   Wiring:--By means of multi stranded PVC
    insulated copper cables to specification
    ICF/Elect./857. Terminal boards are of fire
    retardant FRP material
Energy conservation


• One unit of energy saved at user
  end is more than two units
  produced
proposed areas of energy
           conservation
• Replacement of incandescent lamps by fluorescent
  tube lights/CFL and HPMV lamps by HPSV/metal
  halide lamps
• Natural light and ventilation should be used up to
  maximum extent
• Provision of electronic ballast and fan regulators
• Use of capacitors for power factor correction
• Automation of pumps to reduce pumping
  hours
• Provision of frictionless foot valves with
  pumps
• Checking and control leakage of
  compressed air and liquid
• Minimum number of joints bands in
  air/water pipe lines
• Maintenance of equipments to ensure high
  efficiency
• Use of energy efficient air-conditioning
  system
• Use of high capacity generator cars for
  reduction in HSD oil consumption
• Switching off generator cars at terminal
  stations
• Increase in use of non conventional sources
  of energy
• Use of electronic energy meter
• Train the users for energy conservation
• Train and award staff for energy
  conservation measures
• Energy audit through expert agencies
Use of flush type lamps


• Improved illumination-lumen level almost
  doubled.
• For the same illumination level one 20W
  tube is used instead of two 20W tubes.
• Saving in operational cost.
Saving in energy by using improved light fittings

Average light points in an AC coach            24
Wattage of double tube light fitting           40
Wattage of single tube light fitting           20
Saving in watt per point                       20
Saving per coach(24x20) in watts               480
Average days of working of coach per year      313
Average working hours of light / coach / day   24
Saving per coach per year in kWh units         3600
Energy saving by provision of fluorescent tube light
       fittings in place of incandescent lamps
Average light points in a non AC coach        21
Wattage of incandescent lamps                 40
Wattage of fluorescent tube light             20
Saving in watt per point                      20
Saving per coach(24x20) in watts              480
Average days of working of coach per year     313
Average working hours of light / coach / day 14
Saving per coach per year in kWh units        1840
Total saving per year for 3851coaches in     70,85,840
kWh units

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HOTEL LOAD

  • 1. Energy conservation in lighting and air-conditioning of Railway coaches MAULANA AZAD NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, BHOPAL DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
  • 2. contents • Introduction • Classification of train services. • Different supply systems and their comparison • Different lighting systems and energy consumption patterns • References
  • 3. Introduction • Electric loads in railway coaches • Need and concept of train lighting • Need of air conditioning • History and present state of art
  • 4. Difference between air conditioning in commercial and residential buildings and railway coaches • Equipments should be highly reliable, light weight • Available power is to be utilized • Lesser space for air circulation • Rapidly changing ambient conditions • Excessive vibration
  • 5. Contd… • Exposure to direct sun • Dusty atmosphere • Flying ballast may hit the equipment • Vandalism and abuse • Safety of passenger and trains • Restricted time available for maintenance
  • 6. Systems of available air conditioning plants 1. Roof mounted type plants - air conditioning plants on the roof
  • 7. 2. Under slung type plant air conditioning plants at under frame of bogie.
  • 8. Classification of train services • A broad classification 1.Broad Gauge All air conditioned coaches(rajdhani/shatabdi/garib rath exp.) 2. Broad Gauge AC and non AC coaches (different mail and express trains) 3. Broad Gauge Non AC coaches (other trains) 4. Meter Gauge AC and non AC coaches
  • 9. Depending upon berth capacity • I-AC • II-AC • III-AC • Sleeper • General
  • 10. Depending upon power supply arrangement • End On Generation System (EOG) • Self Generating System (SGU) • Mid On Generation System (MOG) • Head On Generation System (HOG)
  • 11. End On Generation System • Power fed at 750 volts from two generator car attached at both ends having two DG sets of 336 KW rated capacity • Supply to the coaches is through two independent feeders, each designed for a maximum 250 amperes. • In the coaches 750V, 3 phase AC is stepped down to 415V through 415kVA delta/star transformer
  • 12. •All AC plants and WRA work on 415V, whereas pantry car equipment work on 230V. .With present system of EOG, a max. of 6 coaches can be fed through one DG set under peak load condition .A 24V Emergency battery of 90 Ah capacity has been provided on the under frame along with a battery charger to supply emergency lights in the coach in the case of power failure
  • 13. Merits an Demerits of EOG system • MERITS:--- • System is independent of mode of traction • Elimination of bulky batteries and alternators reduce dead weight and maintenance • System has high reliability due to cent percent standby system • High capacity power cars are developed, each giving 2500kVA
  • 14. • DEMERITS:--- • Cost of energy is almost double due to higher fuel cost • Noise and smoke pollutions • Voltage drop • Commercial space reduced • Requirement of more staff to operate and maintain
  • 15. Self Generation System • Power is derived from the alternator mounted on the bogie transform of the coach, driven by the axle through ‘V’ belt drive. • The 3 phase output from the alternator are brought out by means of conduit to the box of rectifier cum regulator suspended from under frame to give output of 18KW at 130V DC.
  • 16. Contd.. • Rectifier regulator may be transistor controlled or magnetic amplifier type,and the facility exists for controlling the DC o/p voltage, usually set at 128V,the setting has to be chosen to suit a particular service by field trials • One alternator set per AC plant is fitted in the SGU type AC coaches, each coach has two plants
  • 17.
  • 18. Battery set • The DC output from the two alternators are paralleled with the 110V battery set of 800A-hr capacity which consists of 56 lead acid cells connected in series, housed in two battery boxes mounted on under frame of AC coaches of BG • On the MG AC sleeper the battery consists of 5 cells/3cells mono block construction arranged in 3 boxes in a row • During stationary or when coach is running at speed less than MFO, the entire load is met by this battery set.
  • 19. Contd.. s.no. Type of AC coach No. of sets and Relevant IS capacity of specificatio battery n 1 BG AC 2-tier sleeper 1 set of 800Ah IS:6848 2 BG AC chair car 1 set of 800Ah IS:6848 3 BG AC composite 1 set of 800Ah IS:6848 4 BG AC I class 1 set of 525Ah IS:6848 5 MG AC 2-tier 1 set of 450Ah IS:6848 sleeper
  • 20. Pre cooling through external supply • Charging and pre cooling of coach is done by external supply, by means of battery charger of 200A rating mounted on the coach under frame.two numbers of 415V, 3phase AC pre cooling sockets are provided diagonally on end walls of each bogie • Battery charger consists of a transformer and simple diode bridge rectifier, secondary of transformer is provided with taps to give 104 to 140V DC
  • 21. Merits of SGU system • Independent of mode of traction • Higher flexibility in rake formation • Each coach is self sufficient in generation • Depending upon usage ,can be designed for required capacity
  • 22. Demerits of SGU system • Poor efficiency-57% • Higher weight affects the speed potential-not suited above 110 kmph • Poor reliability-no standby for battery and alternator • Maintenance and monitoring of batteries, alternator,axle–pulley, belts etc. needed-as subjected to vibrations continuously • Fluctuations in illumination and air(of fans)-due to variation in voltage during generation and non generation periods
  • 23. Mid on Generation Type • Supply is obtained at 110V through one power car in the center having 230 kVA DG sets • Used for trains having frequent stops • These are being progressively replaced by MEMU and DMU
  • 24. Merits of MOG system • Most suitable for slow moving passenger trains on branch line • Centralized control in all coaches • Reduced maintenance as AC lights and fans are used, also because no bulky batteries • Higher reliability due to cent percent standby
  • 25. Demerits of MOG system • Noise and smoke pollution • Electrical staff required to operate and maintain the car • Commercial space equivalent to one power car reduced
  • 26. Head on Generation System Under this head on generation scheme power can be taken either directly from OHE through a separated pantograph mounted on power car or through hotel load winding already provided in some of three phase electric locomotive e.g. in M/s ABB make
  • 27. Present status of HOG • In Europe HOG system is already in use for supplying hotel load • In India Saptagiri Express (12 coaches-9 second class sitting, 1 AC chair car and 2 SLR) of SR operating 2 pairs of daily services between electrified Chennai and Tirupati since 1981is a train set where power supply for lighting load of 35 KW to the rack is derived from AMO converter of electric locomotive
  • 28. Merits of HOG system • Centralized power distribution for hotel load • Pollution free and cheaper power • As compared to SG high reliability, reduced dead weight and maintenance • Commercial space not wasted • Improved haulage capacity of long trains,best suited for LHB type coaches
  • 29. Demerits of HOG system • Power interruption of short durations • Require rake integrity like EOG • Fitness of OHE for multiple raised pantograph, safe inter distance between pantograph need to be specified
  • 30. Control panels • DC control panel • AC control panel • Temperature control panel • Wiring:--By means of multi stranded PVC insulated copper cables to specification ICF/Elect./857. Terminal boards are of fire retardant FRP material
  • 31.
  • 32. Energy conservation • One unit of energy saved at user end is more than two units produced
  • 33. proposed areas of energy conservation • Replacement of incandescent lamps by fluorescent tube lights/CFL and HPMV lamps by HPSV/metal halide lamps • Natural light and ventilation should be used up to maximum extent • Provision of electronic ballast and fan regulators • Use of capacitors for power factor correction
  • 34. • Automation of pumps to reduce pumping hours • Provision of frictionless foot valves with pumps • Checking and control leakage of compressed air and liquid • Minimum number of joints bands in air/water pipe lines
  • 35. • Maintenance of equipments to ensure high efficiency • Use of energy efficient air-conditioning system • Use of high capacity generator cars for reduction in HSD oil consumption • Switching off generator cars at terminal stations
  • 36. • Increase in use of non conventional sources of energy • Use of electronic energy meter • Train the users for energy conservation • Train and award staff for energy conservation measures • Energy audit through expert agencies
  • 37. Use of flush type lamps • Improved illumination-lumen level almost doubled. • For the same illumination level one 20W tube is used instead of two 20W tubes. • Saving in operational cost.
  • 38. Saving in energy by using improved light fittings Average light points in an AC coach 24 Wattage of double tube light fitting 40 Wattage of single tube light fitting 20 Saving in watt per point 20 Saving per coach(24x20) in watts 480 Average days of working of coach per year 313 Average working hours of light / coach / day 24 Saving per coach per year in kWh units 3600
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41. Energy saving by provision of fluorescent tube light fittings in place of incandescent lamps Average light points in a non AC coach 21 Wattage of incandescent lamps 40 Wattage of fluorescent tube light 20 Saving in watt per point 20 Saving per coach(24x20) in watts 480 Average days of working of coach per year 313 Average working hours of light / coach / day 14 Saving per coach per year in kWh units 1840 Total saving per year for 3851coaches in 70,85,840 kWh units