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Recycling presentation


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recycling of packaging materials

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Recycling presentation

  1. 1. Name of student : Anwar Hussain Title of seminar : Recycling of Packaging Materials Regd. No. : J-12-D-167-A Division : Post Harvest Technology
  2. 2. Packaging Packaging is a coordinated system designed for the efficient delivery of high quality and safe food products throughout every phase of the supply chain, from raw material production to food manufacture, packing, retail, consumer use, disposal and recycling.
  3. 3. Basic functions of food packaging • Containment • Communication • Convenience • Protection
  4. 4. Decomposition of packaging materials Paper bag = 1 month Plastic bag = 10-20 years Tin can = 80 to 100 years Aluminum can = 500 years Glass bottle = 1,000 years Plastic bottle = a long time Source:
  5. 5. A world full of junk Increased environmental concerns have created a need for recycling of packaging materials.
  6. 6. Recycling of packaging materials • Recycling reduces the volume of packaging materials entering the waste stream and saves materials and energy • A concern for using recycled package materials for food contact uses (primary packages) is that contaminants could jeopardize the safety or quality of the food • Generally, recycled glass and metal containers are acceptable for food contact use, but recycled plastic and paper are not.
  7. 7. What is recycling? All common types of food packaging are technically capable of being recycled. However, whether are actually recycled in practice depends on • the local waste management infrastructure and • the availability of recycling/reprocessing capacity. Converting waste into reusable material Turning a product’s useful parts into another product (Butler, 2010)
  8. 8. Recycling Facts  Recycling one glass bottle saves enough energy to light a 100-watt bulb for 4 hours  Americans use 4 million plastic bottles every hour  Around 200 B.C. the Chinese used fishing nets to create the world’s very first piece of recycled paper  Glass never wears out, it can be recycled forever Source: Butler, 2010
  9. 9. Composition Of Daily Waste Source: Khan, 2009
  10. 10. Recycling Techniques  Reuse Recycling  Physical/Mechanical Recycling  Chemical Recycling
  11. 11. Reuse Recycling The reuse technique involves refilling rigid containers after washing. This approach is common for glass bottles and has been used for rigid plastic milk containers. However, safety concerns related to this type of recycling are due to the possible presence of wash-resistant contaminants. Physical/Mechanical Recycling Physical recycling is the remelting and reextrusion or molding of plastic packages into films or containers. Sources of recycled packages could include scraps from manufacturers or previously used packaging materials.
  12. 12. Chemical Recycling Waste materials are depolymerized back to monomers or very short molecules in chemical recycling. Fresh plastic is produced by purification of monomers followed by polymerization.
  13. 13. Key steps during recycling process Step 1 • Collection and Sorting Step 2 • Cleaning Step 3 • Size reduction Step 4 • Processing
  14. 14. Typical sorting procedure at an MRF Materials collected from households Hand sorting (papers) Cartons, boxes, paper bags Magnetic separation Steel cans Eddy current separation Aluminum cans Hand sorting (glass) Clear, amber and green glass bottles Hand sorting (plastics) Clear, amber and green PET bottles, HDPE containers, Miscellaneous
  15. 15. What can be recycled? Paper
  16. 16. Paper • After collection and sorting, water and chemicals are mixed with the paper to remove contaminants and turn the old paper into pulp • This is followed by removal of ink • The pulp is then placed between two wire meshes and left to dry where it becomes new paper • The dried paper is polished and rolled into reels
  17. 17. Draining Baling Shredding Detinning Steel Sorting Collection Melting
  18. 18. Aluminum o After collection and sorting, the cans are crushed and baled for shipment to a recycling plant o Ink and enamel coatings are burnt off in a decoating process o Shredded into small pieces o The hot shreds of aluminum then pass into melting furnaces where, depending on the intended use, alloying metals are added
  19. 19. Glass Glass is collected from curbsides or drop-off points It is transported to recycling plant where metal caps and plastic sleeves are removed The glass is then crushed into small pieces and transported to the glass factory It is melted in a large furnace  The hot glass is molded into new bottles
  20. 20. Plastic
  21. 21. “Why do we recycle?” The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) gives the following benefits of recycling: • Conserves resource for our children’s future • Prevents emissions of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants • Saves energy • Supplies valuable raw material to industry • Creates jobs • Reduces the need for new landfills and incinerators
  22. 22. Generation and recycling recovery (million tons) of MSW in USA 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 2007 2009 2010 2011 Generation Recovery for recycling Source: EPA, 2013
  23. 23. Percent of MSWgeneration recycled in USA 6.4 6.2 6.6 7.3 9.6 10.1 14.7 25.7 28.5 31.4 34.7 Percent recycling 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2011 Source: EPA, 2013
  24. 24. Generation and recovery (in millions of tons) and percent recovery of each product in USA Products Weight generated Weight recovered Recovery (%) of generation Steel 2.18 1.57 72.0 Aluminum 1.85 0.72 38.9 Glass 9.28 3.17 34.2 Paper and paperboard 38.02 28.66 75.4 Source: EPA, 2013
  25. 25. Earth is full of garbage!
  26. 26. Now it’s your turn….. Recycle!
  27. 27. Type of plastic now recycled Polyethylene terepthalate (PETE) High density polyethylene (HDFE) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Low density polyethylene (LDPE) Polypropylene (PP) Polystyrene (PS) Mixed and multilayer plastic (other) Plastic recycling
  28. 28. Terminology used in different types of plastics recycling and recovery. Definitions Equivalent ISO definitions Other equivalent terms Primary recycling Mechanical recycling Closed-loop recycling Secondary recycling Mechanical recycling Downgrading Tertiary recycling Chemical recycling Feedstock recycling Quaternary recycling Energy recovery Valorization Source: Hopewell et al. 2009
  29. 29. Plastic identification code Plastic Identification Code Type of plastic polymer Common Packaging Applications Polyethylene terephthalate (PET, PETE) Soft drink, water and salad dressing bottles; peanut butter and jam jars High-density polyethylene (HDPE) Milk, juice and water bottles; grocery bags. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) May be used for food packaging with the addition of the plasticisers needed to make natively rigid PVC flexible. Provide a uniform system for the identification of different polymer types and to help recycling companies. Consumers can identify the plastic types based on the codes
  30. 30. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) Frozen food bags; squeezable bottles, e.g. honey, mustard; cling films; flexible container lids. Polypropylene (PP) Reusable microwaveable ware; kitchenware; yogurt containers; margarine tubs; microwaveable disposable take-away containers; disposable cups; plates. Polystyrene (PS) Egg cartons; packing peanuts; disposable cups, plates, trays and cutlery; disposable take-away containers; Other (often polycarbonate ) Beverage bottles; baby milk bottles. Contd....
  31. 31. Plastic generation and recovery in USA 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.7 Milliontons Generation Recovery Source: EPA, 2013
  32. 32. Growth in collection of plastic bottles, by bring and kerbside schemes in the UK 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 tonne Year Kerbiside Bring Source: WRAP, 2008
  33. 33. Safety of Re-cycled Plastics for Food Packaging Three main approaches are envisaged for producing food packaging materials from post-consumer collected plastic packaging materials • Proper washing • Purification of monomers formed by depolymerisation and then repolymerized into pure materials as those made from conventional monomers. • Lamination of recycled plastics. The layer in contact with food should be made of a virgin polymer. (Franz et al., 1994). It is called as functional barrier.
  34. 34. Functional Barrier The functional barrier is any integral layer which under normal conditions of use reduces all possible material transfers to foodstuffs to a quantity which should not endanger human health or cause deterioration of the organoleptic characteristics. (Council of Europe document, 1993)
  35. 35. Scheme of the bilayer system with the re-cycled film (on the left) and the functional barrier (on the right) Functional barrier Recycled plastic Food
  36. 36. A CFTRI case study on recycled polyethylene films • Virgin polyethylene, extrusion waste of virgin (grade A), recycled milk pouches and B grade waste plastics were processed. • The recycled plastics were evaluated for physico-chemical properties like tensile strength, water vapour transmission rate and migration test. Source: Baldev, 2002
  37. 37. Results of the study  There was hardly any difference between grade A polythene film and virgin film in all the properties  Recycled film made from milk pouches and waste recycled films (grade B) had shown significant change in physico-chemical properties and migration tests which were not acceptable for packaging application.  Migration values were nearly twice in the film extruded from milk pouch than in virgin film. Contd.........
  38. 38. Migration studies  Recycled paperboard packaging materials (P1 and P2)  Temperatures were 70°C and 100°C  Food sample-Semolina Sample Type Recycled (%) Grammage (g/m2) Thickness (μm) P1 Fluting 30 107 208 P2 Kitchen towel 100 46.7 188 Triantafyllou et al, 2007
  39. 39. Results  The migration from P2 samples was generally higher than that from P1 samples.  Migration from P2 samples further increased when temperature was increased.  To keep migration in acceptable limits a low storage temperature should be applied in combination with a suitable barrier layer for indirect contact. Contd.........
  40. 40. Plastic recycling in India • Municipal solid waste in India contain 1-4 per cent by weight of plastic waste. • India’s rate of recycling of plastic waste is the highest (60%) in the world as compared to other countries (China 10%, Europe 7%, Japan 12%, South Africa 16%, USA 10%). • Plastic waste is recycled in India in an “unorganized” way. Source: Sikka, P 1999
  41. 41. Waste Dimension in India Quantity (KTA) Total MSW 30000 Total plastic waste 908 Recycling (of total plastic waste) 580 Unused / landfill (of total plastic waste) 83 Source: Sikka, P 1999
  42. 42. Plastics in India (2nd September 1999)- Salient features • Ban on the use of carry bags and containers of recycled plastics by vendors for storing, carrying and packaging foodstuffs . • Carry bags and containers used for packaging of foodstuff be made of virgin plastics and of natural shade or white i.e. no colourants used • Carry bags and Containers made from recycled plastics for use of purposes other than foodstuffs packing be manufactured using pigments and colourants as per IS:- 9833 / 1981 • Minimum thickness of carry bags made of virgin or recycled plastics be not less than 20 microns
  43. 43. Salient features of the amendments in 2003 No person shall manufacture, distribute or sell carry bags made of virgin or recycled plastics below 8 x 12 inches {20 x 30 cms} in size No vendor shall use carry bags made of virgin or recycled plastic below the recommended size No vendor shall use carry bags and containers made of recycled plastics for storing, carrying, dis- pensing or packaging of foodstuffs
  44. 44. Continued…. • . Every manufacturer shall apply in the particular form to the State Pollution Control Board/Pollution Control Committee for the grant of Registration and renewal of Registration The State Pollution Control Board/Pollution Control Committee shall issue and renew the Registration after ascertaining that the unit meets the norms prescribed under these rules
  45. 45. State specific initiatives Few states in India have also instituted state laws to minimize plastic waste. Himachal Pradesh was the first to formulate a state rule to protect the state from plastic waste menace which is followed by Goa, Jammu & Kashmir, Maharashtra etc.
  46. 46. Ecological case for recycling o If recycled plastics are used to produce goods this will directly reduce oil usage and emissions of greenhouse gases. o Greater positive environmental benefits for recycling over landfill and incineration with energy recovery o Energy recovery from waste plastics (transformation to fuel) can be used to reduce landfill volumes
  47. 47. Current advances in recycling • Reliable detectors and sophisticated recognition and decision softwares collectively increase the accuracy and productivity of automatic sorting. • Higher value applications for recycled polymers in closed- loop processes, which can directly replace virgin polymer • Recycling of the non-bottle packaging has become possible because of improvements in sorting and washing technologies and emerging markets for the recyclates
  48. 48. Public support for recycling • There is significant people who value environmental values in their purchasing patterns. • Wide participation among the general population in recycling schemes has been noted. • Some governments use policy to encourage post consumer recycling
  49. 49. Economic issues relating to recycling • Two key economic drivers influence the viability of recycling. These are the price of the recycled polymer compared with virgin polymer and the cost of recycling compared with alternative forms of acceptable disposal. • Lack of information about the availability of recycled plastics, its quality and suitability for specific applications, can also act as a disincentive to use recycled material. • Collection of used plastics from households i.e. Kerbside scheme is more economical in suburbs • In rural areas ‘bring schemes’ are considered more cost- effective than kerbside collection
  50. 50. Conclusion • In summary, recycling is one strategy for end-of-life waste management of packaging materials. • It is more economical as well as environmentally better as compared to other waste reducing systems such as incineration, landfill, decomposition, etc.