Anemia by anukannan

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Anemia by anukannan

  1. 1. ANEMIA ANU.R.V 1ST YEAR Msc.NURSING
  2. 2. DEFINITION • Anemia refers to a deficiency in the number of circulating red blood cells available for oxygen transport. • Anemia is defined as a reduction in the total number of red blood cells, amount of hemoglobin in the circulation, or circulating red blood cell mass
  3. 3. Decreased erythrocyte production • Decreased Hb synthesis • Defective DNA synthesis • Decreased number of erythrocyte precursors
  4. 4. SYMPTOMS, AND SIGNS OF ANEMIA
  5. 5. CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF ANEMIA • IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA »ANGULAR CHEILITIS »GLOSSITIS
  7. 7. KOILONYCHIA
  8. 8. DIAGNOSIS Hb MCV MCH RETICULOCYTES SERUM IRON TIBC PLATELETS STOOL GUAIAC TEST ENDOSCOPY COLONOSCOPY
  9. 9. THALASSEMIA • Common inherited autosomal recessive genetic disorder • insufficient production of normal hb. • Problem in Globin protien
  10. 10. ETIOLOGY • TALASSEMIA MINOR/THALASSEMIC TRAIT (HETEROZYGOUS) • THALASSEMIA MAJOR(HOMOZYGOUS)
  11. 11. CLINICAL MANIFSTATIONS • MILD ANEMIA(T.TRAIT/MINOR) • MILD-MODERATE.(T.INTERMEDIA) » SLOWED GROWTH AND DELAYED PUBERTY » BONE PROBLEMS » ENLARGED SPLEEN • SEVERE ANEMIA.(T.MAJOR/COOLEY’S ANEMIA)
  12. 12. SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIA • Sideroblasts are atypical, abnormal nucleated erythroblasts (precursors to mature red blood cells) with granules of iron accumulated in perinuclear mitochondria
  13. 13. CAUSES • CONGENITAL S.A • ACQUIRED S.A • ACQUIRED CLONAL S.A
  14. 14. DEFECTIVE DNA SNTHESIS • COBALAMIN DEFICIENCY
  15. 15. DEFINITION • Aplastic anemia is a disease in which the bone marrow, and the blood stem cells that reside there, are damaged. This causes a deficiency of all three blood cell types,RBC,WBC and Platelets (pancytopenia.) • Aplastic refers to inability of the stem cells to generate the mature blood cells.
  16. 16. ANEMIA CAUSED BY BLOOD LOSS • ACUTE. • CHRONIC
  17. 17. INCREASED ERYTHROCYTE DESTRUCTION • HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA premature destruction of erythrocyte occurring at such a rate thaN the bone marrow is unable to compensate for the loss of cells.
  18. 18. ETIOLOGY • ACQUIRED » IMMUNE SSTEM MEDIATED HEMOLYSIS » TRAUMATIC HEMOLYSIS » INFECTIOUS » TOXIC » PHYSICAL » HYPOPHOSPHATEMIC • HERIDITARY » STRUCTURAL DEFECTS » ENZYME DEFICIENCY

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