GROUP NAME:-F.W.TAYLOR Compiled by Anuj Pratap IBM(C.S.J.M.U.) Kanpur
Frederick Winslow Taylor (March 20, 1856 – March21, 1915) was an American mechanical engineer whosought to improve industrial efficiency. He is regardedas the father of scientific management and was one ofthe first management consultants.Taylor was one of theintellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and hisideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in theProgressive Era.
CLASSICAL APPROACH Classical theorists formulated principles for setting up and managing organizations. These views are labeled “classical” because they form the foundation for the field of management thought.
THE THREE MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS OF THE CLASSICAL APPROACH Administrative BureaucraticScientific Approach-: Approach-Management -:F. W. Taylor Henry Fayol :Max weber
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT / CONTRIBUTION OF TAYLOR The concept of scientific management was introduced by Fredrick Winslow Taylor in USA in the beginning of 20th century. According to Taylor, “ Scientific management is concerned with knowing exactly what you want men to do and then see in that they do it in the best and cheapest way.”
:-Develop a science for each element of an individual’swork.:-Scientifically select and then training teachingdevelopment of the works.:-Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure thatall work is done in accordance with the principal of thescience has been developed.:-Divide work and responsibility almost equally betweenmanagement and which it is better salted than theworkers.
ADMINISTRATIVEAPPROACH/CONTRIBUTION OF HENRY FAYOLHenry Fayol, a Frenchindustrialist, has been regarded asthe real father of modernmanagement. He reduced his ideasbased on practical experiences in hisbook, ‘Administration industrialle atGenerali, published in 1916 inFrench language.
Fayol divided the activities of anindustry into 6 groups-:-Technical:-Commercial:-Financial:-Security:-Accounting:-Managerial These activities are common allorganization, whether big or small.
Fayol’s principle of Management1. Division of work2. Authority and responsibility3. Discipline4. Unity of command5. Unity of direction6. Subordination of individual interest to general interest7. Remuneration of personnel8. Centralization9. Scalar chain10. Order11. Equity12. Stability of tenure13. Initiative14. Esprit de corps
Discussion Question Which of the following is the most important aspect of Fayol’s principles of management?A. Division of LaborB. Unity of CommandC. Remuneration of PersonnelD. Esprit de corps
Characteristics of bureaucracy -:Division of work -:Hierarchy of Position -:Rules and Regulations -:Impersonal Relationship -:Official records
MAX WABERThe great German sociologist and political economist was born on 21 April 1864.He worked in the field of economics sociology, history, law, politics and philosophy at the university of Berlin, Vienna and university of Munich.On 14 jun 1920 he left the word due to pneumonia.
Bureaucracy / Contribution of Max Weber Max weber’s main contribution to management is his theory of authority structure and his description of organi- zations based on the nature of autority relations within them.
There are three type of legitimate authoritywhich run as follows-1. Rational-Legal authority2. Traditional authority3. Charismatic authority
Neo classical ApproachIt is also called BEHAVIORALAPPROACH. The behavioralapproach to management beganwith the ‘Howthorne experiment’.
a) Classical approach did not achieve total efficiency and workplace harmony.b) Managers still encountered problem because workers didn’t always behave as they were supposed to. Two branches: 1) Human Relations Approach 2) Behavioral Sciences Approach
Human Relations Approach-:Focus on the social environment of a job-:Refers to the manner in which managers interact withsubordinates-:Managers must know why subordinates behave asthey do-:Importance of individuals in success or failure of anorganization-:Management should recognize employees’ need forrecognition and social acceptance-:Management should look on work group as a positiveforce.
Four phases Illumination experiment Relay room experiment Bank wiring observation Interview program
Employees are Employees’ performance motivated by social is more a result of peerneeds and association pressure than with others management’s incentives and rules Employees want to Managers need toparticipate in decisions involve subordinates that affect them in coordinating their work to improve efficiency
Snapshot “Teamwork is one of the most beautiful experiences in life. Teamwork is our core value and a primary way that the Container Store enriches the quality of employees’ work life.”Kip Tindell, President, The Container Store
TYPES OF MODERN SCHOOL 1.SYSTEMS APPROACH 2.CONTINGENCY APPROACH
SYSTEMS APPROACH External environmentInput (Resources) Output Transformation Human Product Capital Services Materials
CONCEPTSub SystemSynergyOpen & close SystemSystem BoundaryFlowFeed Back
CONTINGENCY APPROACH Approaches depend on the variables of the situations Draws on all past theories in attempting to analyze and solve problems Is integrative Summarized as an “it all depends” device Tells managers to look to their experiences and the past and to consider many options before choosing Encourages managers to stay flexible