rural electrification

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this is a presentation done to give awareness about power generation and generation using renewable energy sources to children s .In this presentation a new approach of using renewable is give that is "INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES"

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  • 3.8
  • rural electrification

    1. 1. Rural Electrification<br />Empowering rural INDIA<br />
    2. 2. <ul><li>At the rate of 48 per day
    3. 3. More than 1650 per year
    4. 4. At least 10,500 from 1996-2007</li></li></ul><li>Farmers who committed suicide<br />
    5. 5. Reasons <br />Climatic conditions <br />Politics <br />Lack of energy <br />
    6. 6. energy<br />
    7. 7.
    8. 8. Law of conservation of energy :<br /> “Energycan neither be creatednor destroyedbut it can be converted from one form to another form”<br />
    9. 9. Energy<br />Electrical Energy<br />
    10. 10. HISTORY OF ELECTRICITY<br />Many people think Benjamin Franklin discovered Electricity with his famous kite-flying experiments in1752 <br />But electricity was not discovered all at once <br />
    11. 11. THE BATTERY<br />In 1800, Alessandro Volta , an Italian scientist, made a great discovery. <br />He soaked paper in salt water, placed zinc and copper on opposite sides of the paper, and watched the chemical reaction produce an electric current.<br />
    12. 12. Volta had created the first electric cell.<br />By connecting many of these cells together, Volta was able to “string a current” and create a battery. <br />It is in honor of Volta that we measure battery power in volts. <br />
    13. 13. A CURRENT BEGAN<br />An English scientist, MichaelFaraday, was the first one to realize that an electric current could be produced by passing a magnet through a copper wire.<br />Almost all the Electricity we use today is made with magnets and coils of copper wire in giant power plants.<br />
    14. 14.
    15. 15.
    16. 16. Types of energy sources<br /><ul><li>Renewable
    17. 17. Non renewable</li></li></ul><li>Types of non renewable energy resources<br /><ul><li>Coal
    18. 18. Petrol
    19. 19. diesel
    20. 20. Natural gas</li></li></ul><li>
    21. 21. Disfavors!!!<br /><ul><li>extinction of resources
    22. 22. Increasing demand
    23. 23. pollution</li></li></ul><li>
    24. 24. RENEWABLE<br />TYPES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES<br /><ul><li>Solar energy
    25. 25. Wind energy
    26. 26. Tidal energy
    27. 27. Geo thermal energy
    28. 28. Bio mass</li></li></ul><li>here comes the SUN<br />Solar energy is the radiant light and heat from the sun<br />
    29. 29. The total solar energy available to earth is approximately 3850 ZETA joules per year<br />
    30. 30.
    31. 31. Electricity<br />Light<br />Solar Cell (PV)<br />Solar Cell(Photovoltaics) <br />
    32. 32. Polysilicon<br />Wafer<br />Solar Cell<br />Solar Module<br />Systems<br /> Chemical Process<br />(purification)<br />Casting<br />Cutting<br /> Surface Treatment<br />Installation<br />Operation<br />Assembly<br />The PV Value Chain (multi-crystalline)<br />
    33. 33.
    34. 34. Developments in solar cells<br /><ul><li>First generation – pure silicon,33%efficiency,</li></ul> more expensive<br /><ul><li>Second generation -- thin film solar cells low cost low efficiency, CdTe , selenium , amorphous silicon
    35. 35. Third generation– low cost high efficiency </li></ul> multi junction, tandem cells nano structured <br />
    36. 36. Applications …<br /><ul><li> domestic lighting
    37. 37. street lighting
    38. 38. village electrification
    39. 39. water pumping
    40. 40. Solar satellites
    41. 41. powering of remote telecommunication repeater stations and
    42. 42. railway signals.
    43. 43. Solar vehicles</li></li></ul><li>Latest advancements….<br /><ul><li>Nano powered (DSSC)
    44. 44. Solar concentrators
    45. 45. Paint solar cells
    46. 46. Spherical solar cells
    47. 47. Reflective dishes</li></li></ul><li> MNES<br />Street Light<br />Traffic Signal<br />Garden Lights<br />Blinker<br />
    48. 48. MNES<br />BiPV System<br />Traffic Signals<br />Road Studs<br />Garden Lights<br /> Power Pack<br />Blinkers<br />
    49. 49. 10 kW roof integrated photovoltaic&apos;s <br />at CSE canteen, Delhi<br />
    50. 50. Indian Oil Corporation Building, Delhi<br />(14 kW BiPV and 4000 lpd SWHS)<br />
    51. 51. Solar thermal collectors<br />
    52. 52.
    53. 53. Solar tower<br />heated air--&gt;rises up--&gt;gains momentum--&gt; <br />flows through chimney--&gt;rotates turbine....<br />
    54. 54. Solar Home Systems<br />Space<br />Water Pumping<br />Telecom<br />Main Application Areas – Off-grid<br />
    55. 55. Challenges……..<br /><ul><li>High capital
    56. 56. Land scarcity
    57. 57. Slow progress
    58. 58. Climatic conditions </li></li></ul><li>Wind energy<br />
    59. 59. Orientation<br />Turbines can be categorized into two overarching classes based on the orientation of the rotor<br />Vertical AxisHorizontal Axis<br />
    60. 60.
    61. 61.
    62. 62.
    63. 63. 44<br />Pros<br />Small project size<br />Short/flexible development time <br />Dispatch ability<br />Cons<br />Generally remote location <br />Grid connectivity -- lack of transmission capability <br />Intermittent output <br />Only When the wind blows (night? Day?)<br />Low capacity factor<br />Predicting the wind -- we’re getting better<br />
    64. 64. Integrated energy systems<br />
    65. 65. Cascaded solar energy systems<br />
    66. 66. A Scheme to Integrate Solar Radiation and Wind Energy as Potential Energy<br />
    67. 67. Integration of Solar Radiation and Wind Energy as Low-Grade Thermal Energy<br />
    68. 68. Integration of Solar Radiation and Wind Energy in Electrochemical Form<br />
    69. 69. Overall Schematics of an Integrated Renewable Energy System<br />
    70. 70. Solar PV <br />L.C.C per KW for 25 years-Rs.2062233<br />
    71. 71. Solar Thermal Plant<br />L.C.C per KW for 20 years-Rs.57990.055<br />
    72. 72. Micro Hydro Unit <br />L.C.C for 20 years –Rs.332919<br />
    73. 73. Biomass Plant <br />L.C.C cost for 20 years-Rs.358803.8 <br />
    74. 74. Wind Energy System<br />L.C.C per KW for 20 years –Rs.57269.8<br />
    75. 75. L.C.C – Life Cycle Cost<br /> L.C.C = Capital + R.P + M.P + Energy Cost – Salvage<br />Where,<br /> R.P=Replacement Cost.<br /> M.P=Maintenance Cost.<br />Cost per KWh=L.C.C/(N*E)<br />Where,<br />N=Life Period.<br /> E=Energy used.<br />
    76. 76. Comparison of Renewable and Non Renewable Energy Sources<br />

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